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Otherwise the current itself will cause more heating than the cold end can compensate for. Hello, I am new, but trying to be bold. I thought that "thermal" made a lot more sense than "heat" in the first sentence of the article since heat is not a quantity in the static sense, only as a flow.

J. J. Thomson (1856-1940)

The old Caloric theory would say otherwise but it has of course been superceded. I think that the passage both makes more technical sense this way and the high school science educated reader can still understand it. Feel free to revert and discuss, I won't be offended!

I made some big changes in the intro, and the biggest one is that Joule heating is no longer identified as being a TE effect. I know it's related, and if you want to parse "thermoelectric" it seems like JH would be part of it this is a semantic error that formerly plagued the thermoelectricity article , but in common scientific parlance, Joule heating is not usually considered a TE effect. As the article notes, reversibility is a key difference here. Tarchon , 30 October UTC. Kind regards, Sebastian Morkisch -- S.

Morkisch talk , 10 April UTC. I think the image "Thermoelectric Cooler Diagram. Charges should be moving out from the negative and into the positive terminal.

Thermal Power Generation From Graphene

Who is the admin of this page? Nextreme has come out with an evaluation power generation kit based on the Seebeck effect. I considered posting this to the main page in a "Related Links" section, but thought I should put it here for discussion for 2 reasons:. The article states the carnot efficiency is very low, between 0. Isn't this actually ranging from 'OK' to 'good' if you compare it to car engines or power stations? I've removed the very low comment. The Kelvin Probe is probing the Work-function.

Though there are a few books and articles that interpret the Seebecke-effect as the temperature dependence of the work function - this is just not correct. The Seebecke-effect is a bulk effect, while the work function depends on surface properties like adsorbed gas as well. So it's probably better not to mention the Kelvin Probe int this articel. If power is applied to a peltier, upon disconnection there should be a potential difference between the terminals, but which polarity? Does it work like a battery, where positive voltage is applied to the positive terminal when charging?

Or does current flow in the same direction after a power supply is exchanged for a load. The second coloured diagram in the article has no polarity marked. The term Seebeck coefficient is used in the Seebeck effect section but never defined. I think I can infer what it means from the context, but I would be a lot more certain of my understanding if it was clearly defined in the section.

The article is lacking a discussion of unwanted thermelectric effects, for example in precision voltage measurements. How to overcome it, maybe by using materials or material combinations that have a small thermoelectric effect? I defy anyone to find the Thomson Kelvin Relations in Thomson's writings. They may be based upon equations in "On The Dynamical Theory Of Heat," but look throughout his complete works and you will not find the Relations.

I have been unable to find any discussions of them in late 19th and early 20th Century writings on thermoelectrics, either. They do not seem to emerge until around the time that Lars Onsager introduced his work on reciprocal relations in the 's. The Relations appear to grow out of 20th Century work in thermodynamics and discussion of the Thomson Relations takes off from there.

Solid state theory shows us that the Peltier coefficient is actually dependent upon two materials: 1 the junction-to-junction material establishing the energy level for transport at the conduction or valence band in TE materials , and 2 the conductor at each junction usually plated copper which conducts electrons in proximity to its Fermi level. It is the transition between these levels which determines the amount of heat absorbed or released. Because the Peltier coefficient actually reflects the properties of two materials, it cannot possibly be derived from the Seebeck coefficient of the junction-to-junction conductor which has a value independent of any other materials and the absolute temperature.

The Relation is invalid. By the way, even though there are no junction conductors present along the length of the junction-to-junction conductor, the Fermi level remains relevant in understanding how the quantity of heat at any point, relates to the activity at the junctions. The temperature dependency of the Fermi level creates a virtual base line and the Peltier coefficient remains important in the mathematics of absorption, transport, and release throughout the length of a TE element.

This and a lengthy proof showing that Thomson Effect was not adequately demonstrated based on flaws in Thomson's proof, an alternate thesis not explored, and his failure to sufficiently examine the other effects , will be in my upcoming book, Rethinking Thermoelectric Fundamentals Within A Temperature Dependent Context Michael Spry , intended for release in Observing thermocouple data, for example in Wikipedia's "Thermocouple", Seebeck voltage is nearly proportional to the temperature difference between the junctions for a large range of temperatures.

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That is, Seebeck coefficient is nearly temperature independent. Then according to Thomson Relations, see Article, Thomson coefficient is nearly zero for such ranges. On the other hand the heat content of charge carriers is temperature dependent, in many cases nearly proportional to the temperature.

Therefore, when a charge carrier flows along a temperature gradient, it must deliver heat to its vicinity or absorb heat from it, that is, Thomson coefficient cannot be zero even for ranges where Seebeck coefficient is temperature independent. This observation seems to support the paragraph above, that Kelvin did not invent Thomson Kelvin relations.

Urila talk , 2 February UTC. See " Practical color photography " by Wall, E. Chapter XV [1] Where he attributes to J. Seebeck the discovery that the action of light on silver chloride under the influence of the spectral rays assumed the colors incident on it, which has been attributed to Alexandre-Edmond Becquerel in work he published more than 30 years later. Is Wall correct, does the document sent to Goethe exist to prove this beyond question?

The article could benefit from noting other common applications.


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In absorption spectroscopy, a laser emitting diode is cooled using the Peltier effect, with the current going to the TEC proportional to the amount of cooling, if any, needed to maintain a constant LED temperature. A feedback thermocouple is used to determine the current needed to drive the TEC to maintain constant LED temperature with great accuracy. Laser emitting diodes rely upon temperature and current to determine their output frequency, and very tightly-controlled temperature of the LED means high accuracy in spectroscopic measurements. Spy satellite optical and IR imagery also use TE Cooling devices to keep their detector junction arrays cold since nuclear power is long-lived and cheap on satellites whereas cryogenic fluids must be replaced on spacecraft which gets expensive and takes the craft off line during the process.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Energy portal. July 21, File:Seebeck effect. Edward John Practical color photography. Getty Research Institute. Boston, Mass. Categories : C-Class physics articles C-Class physics articles of Mid-importance Mid-importance physics articles C-Class energy articles Low-importance energy articles Articles copy edited by the Guild of Copy Editors Wikipedia pages referenced by the press Former good article nominees.

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USB2 - Method and structure for thermoelectric unicouple assembly - Google Patents

This article has been rated as Low-importance on the project's importance scale. The sticks can also be fused to a dense body in a mer cury-vapor arc. According to another method of manufacture, the thermo-electric element com posed of boron, or of boron associated with another material, suitable for use in a thermo couple, can be made by reducing an ex cess of boric anh drid with magnesium. The resulting prod uct consists of magnesium borid and boron suboxid, and can be made to yield fused, substantially pure boron by pressing it into a stick, preheating it in a vacuum furnace to drive out some of the impurities and make it partially conductive, and then heating the stick as an electrode for a high potential alternating current are operating in hydrogen at a pressure of about five inches of mercury, or by heating'it in a mercury-vapor are.

This treatment will drive out most of the magnesium or oxygen, and if carried to a suflicient temperature will sinter the boron into a dense body. If carbon, or other element is desired in the ultimate product, it can be added to the powdered magnesium borid or suboxid in the proportions desired in the final product. The other element of the thermo-electric couple consists of iron, nickel, or of other materials well known for this purpose.

These other elements can be connected with the boron conductor by casting the same about one end of the boron rod, bar or sheet. A junction is maintained in a heated condition, and the free ends are cooled, as by the circulation of cold air or water, or by means and methods well known in the art.

Such a couple is useful not only as a source of current, because of its strong thermo-electric properties, but also because of the rectifying action which it exerts when connected as a part of the circuit carrying current at low voltages. The thermo-electromotive force assists in impressing electromotive force in one direction and opposes it in the other direction, so that unsymmetrical current results.

This characteristic makes the couple valuable for use as an asymmetric conductor insystems of Wireless telcgraphy. A thermo-electric couple, one element of which is composed of boron associated 10 with carbon. A thermo-electric couple, one member of which is constructed of a fused body, consisting largely of boron. Specification of Letters Patent. Patented Nov. This latter process is fully de scribed by me in my co-pending application, Serial No.

A thermo-electric couple, one element of which consists essentially of boron. Patent Otfice. It is hereby certified that in Letters Patent No. USA en. Thermoelectric unit and process of using to interconvert heat and electrical energy. Barrett et al. Epstein et al.

Wold et al. Fogle et al. Kawakubo et al. CNC en.