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How To Brew: Everything You Need to Know to Brew Great Beer Every Time

This second edition of the classic volume includes detailed charts and tables, the latest techniques and equipment information, new recipes, and more, including: Added details on the art and science of brewing beer Up-to-date malt and fermentation charts Websites and resources Everything you need to know about hops and how to use them Expanded information on yeast and microbiological enhancements that can make your beer even better A list of beer styles with references 55 beer recipes and 10 mead recipes—plus dozens of new recipes How to make gluten-free beer An expanded glossary of beer characters and a beer evaluation section Expert insight and recommendations on beer and food pairings and cooking with beer.

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Her Master and Commander. Just ask Reeves! Dying without legitimate issue, the late Earl of Rochester sent his butler extraordinaire, It also gives you information on what to expect regarding flavor and aroma. Water is arguably the most critical and least understood of the foundation elements in brewing beer.

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Daniels pages. Phil Markowski pages. Sparrow pages. To Order, please call Careful, don't aerate th. Bottling is easy and enjoyable with a homebrew. Clean hottle caps are gently secured with the aid of a bottle capper. From this point it is only 7 to 14 da 's before you 'Il he enjoying your new efforts. It's always time to enjoy your past efforts.

Place the sanitized caps atop the bottles and cap with your bottle capper. After all, you will be brewing more beer. Store the bottles upright and out of sight in a quiet, clark corner of your home at room temperatures above 65 degrees F Age for 10 days. Now comes the hard part: waiting. Within 5 or 6 days, your beer will show signs of clearing.

The yeast that is in suspension will slowly drop to the bottom of the bottle and form sediment. At the same time, the yeasts will carbonate the beer over a period of 7 to 14 days, after which your beer vvill be ready to drink. Now you can store the beer at cooler temperatures if you wish.

You'll only need one. Drink the Beer! So be careful that you don't disturb it by doing something like turning the bottle upside down to see if it was made in China. All you have to do is uncap a lightly chilled bottle of brew and pour all but the last Y2 inch l cm -about an ounce 30 ml -of beer continuously into a glass pitcher forget the plastic Now serve in your favorite glass please-no paper or plastic cups.

To drink, slightly part lips as they touch the glass. And be sure to smile when you drink your beer. All of them have a justified place when taken in proper perspective. Ale yeast and fermentation at temperatures above 65 degrees F 18 C wjl1 result in a beer that will be ready to bottle within 2 weeks. Only with the use of very high guality lager yeast and fermentation temperatures below 45 degrees F 7 C is there any justification or advantage for lagering and aging beer It is certainly true that excessive aging after bottling will not be advantageous unless temperatures are below 40 degrees F 4 C -and often as low as 33 degrees F l C -and a guality lager yeast is used.

Ultimately, the determining factor is Drink it when you like it, as you like it and when you feel it's the right time. Using this method, the brewer or homebrewer observes the initial fermentation closely during the first few days. The sediment of spent yeast cells is left behind in the first fermenter.

The purpose of a two-stage fermentation should be to isolate the beer from prolonged contact with an inordinate aLllount of inactive yeast cells. But remember: There is really no advantage in keeping your beer sitting around for over 3 weeks unless you are brewing at cold temperatures and with quality lager yeast. But you don't have to wait if you oon't want to, because the beer will be freshest and taste its best within 3 or 4 weeks from starting. Quite honestly, for one reason or another,! So it is important for me to use closed fermentation and a second fermenter. I am quite pleased with my results.

When considering that the number one concern in mak. Open fermentation can be followed by secondary fermentation in a closed container locked away from the air with a fermentation lock for a brief period of 1 or 2 weeks maximum. This risk is minimized with sanitation. One advantage of open fermentation is its apparent simplicity for the beginner; also, the equipment plastic fermenters may be more accessible.

There should be no problem in brewing this way as long as sanitation is emphasized. Care should be taken to sanitize the container and everything that comes in contact with the beer. Do not use scratched or stained plastic containers. This type of surface is extremely difficult to sanitize because contaminating microorganisms can hide and resist even household bJeach. Brew only room temperature ales and "lagers"that will be ready to bottle within 2 or 3 weeks. Remember Don't be intimidated. Brewing good beer is EASY. Now that you've brewed and tasted your first batch of beer, you know what I've been trying to tell you all along.

Relax, don't worry and have a homebrew. Certainly you have that great feeling of accomplishment and satisfaction. Word is out on the streets. Your friends are knocking on your door. But your first batch of beer is only the beginning. An indeterminable amount of experience awaits you-beyond what you have accomplished and beyond the pages of this book. This section will further develop your appreciation and awareness of the process of brewing beer, introducing you to the unlimited versatility of brewing with malt extracts.

You will learn how to combine malt extracts with 'traditional ingredients such as grains, hops, water and yeast, as well as with unusual ingredients such as honey, fruit and various herbs and spices. But for many the intrigue of forrrlulating and using recipes beckons. You will be giving yourself more choice. This section will introduce you to additional procedures, concepts and the language of the brewer a complete glossary precedes' the appendices. No one can tell you exactly how your beer is going to taste; only you can determine that. Following recipes will not necessarily improve upon what you do and what you are able to accomplish, but understanding the process and what it is you are dealing with will.

For those larger batches you may need a larger pot. When you do decide to enhance your brewing horizons you will need the following, in addition to the equipment listed in the Beginner's Section: small kitchen strainer, approximately 6 inches 15 cm across large strainer, at least 10 inches 25 cm across extra refrigerator only if you decide to brew cold-fermented lager beers bottle washer: This piece of equipment is listed in the Beginner's Section as "optional. Available at most home brew supply shops, it is a simple device that not only conserves hot water but also is a convenience and a time-saver.

Once you have one, you will never figure out why you were ever without it. Thermometers You will want a thermometer that reads temperatures from freezing to boiling. This range is expressed as 32 degrees F 0 C freezing to degrees F l00 C Boiling is degrees F at sea level and about dcgl'ees F A good thermometer will cost between 8 and 15 dollars and is well worth the investment, particularly if you plan on trying your hand at some advanced brewing techniques. References to temperature in this book are expressed in degrees Fahrenheit with degrees Celsius in parentheses.

Hydrometers Your hydrometer is a useful tool in determining the status of fermentation activity. It can also indicate the amount o[ ingredients and alcohol percentage in your brew. As previously explained, hydrometers are simple devices that measure the density of liquids. You immerse it in liquid, allowing it to float. Note how deeply it sinks into the liquid. These hydrometers are called "triple-scale hydrometers. All of these scales coincide and are used to determine different types of information from the density of your brew.

A density that measures one degree Plato means that I percent of the weight of the measured liquid is dissolveu sugar. In other words, a density of 10 degrees Plato indicales that there would be 10 pounds of dissolved sugars in enough water to make pounds of solution.

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In order to determine the alcohol content of your beer, simply record the initial reading that you get from this scale before you add your yeast. From this number subtract the reading that you take at bottling time. Mu ltiplying the difference between initial balling and fina'l balling by the number. For example, if your initial balling was IS and your nnal balling was 7, the difference would be 8, and 8 x. For example 1. Because alcohol is lighter than water, a measured volume of water is not equal by weight to an equal volume of alcohol.

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To convert percent alcohol by weight to percent alcohol by volume' multiply by 1. Likewise, to convert percent alcohol by volume to alcohol by weight multiply by 0. Instead of a pot of gold imagine there is a pot of hot wort at one end of the rainbow anu a frothy mug of brew al the other. From the very pale straw colors of American light lagers to the midnight mysteriousness of Irish stouts, there are hues of gold, orange, amber, brown, red, copper and yellow that enhance our enjoyment of each style of beer.

But something is better than nothing in this case; so brewing scientists have developed standards that measure the intensity of light and dark on a scale that ranges roughly from pale straw to black. Until recently a measuring system called the Lovibond scale was usee! Beer was compared to a denned set of colored samples of liquid.

A vial of beer would be compared to vials of the color samples and assigned a degree Lovibond. It's worth noting that beer samples cannot be compared to printed colors. Because the intensity of beer color will vary depending on the size and shape of the glass it is in. A test tube of your favorite stout may look brown because light doesn't have very far to go passing through a test tube of beer, while it appears opaque in your favorite pint mug.

To make things even more fascinating, European brewers have their own color scale reference called EBC European Brewers Convention units. Let's keep it that simple, because generally it works for most Jight- and amber-colored beers. Certainly sophisticated equipment and worried concern about exacting color are beyond the interest of most homebrewers. However, we can use the SRM system to approximate references to color intensity to learn more about beer and brew different styles more accurately.

Here are a few standards that can serve as a guideline to help you interpret the SRM system. Ingredients for 5 galJons : lbs. Plus Ibs.

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From the above ingredients, you wiU prepare a wort pronounced wert. The term wort is universally used by all brewers to describe the "concoction" of unfermented beer. Three gallons The hops and grains are then removed from the concentrated wort by passing the wort through a sanitized strainer and into the cold water in the fermenter, bringing the total volume to 5 gal10ns 19 I.

Once the wort has cooled to below 78 degrees F 26 C , a hydrometer reading is taken and the yeast pitched pitching is the term used to describe the inoculation of the wort with yeast. From this point a homebrewer with any amount of experience could skip the following sections aboLlt ingredients and head straight for the recipes. You'll be able to make some pretty-good-tasting beer. This book is about learning and being able to understand your beer. It is about feeling your beer and letting your beer feel you. This is where the reward of homebrewing comes from. The following sections describe the ingredients that are available for use by the home brewer.

The information is presented here for you to understand the fundamentals of brewing ingredients and for future reference. From it is derived the fermentable sugars that contribute to the condition carbonation , alcohol content and fermented flavor of beer. Essentially, barley is germinated to a certain degree, at which point it is then dried. This delicate process of germination and drying develops sugars, soluble starch and starch-to-sugar-converting enzymes called diastase , all of which are valuable to the subsequent brewing process.

The malting process begins by choosing the appropriate variety of barley. Some varieties of barley are more suitable for the production of malt yvhiskey or food sweeteners. Others are more appropriate for making beer. When the choice of barley has been made, the kernels are tested for moisture, nitrogen protein content and viability ability to germinate. After barley is accepted for malting, it is taken from storage and cleaned, sorted and conveyed to steep water tanks. The procedure from the steep tank to the finished malt varies depending on the type of malt desired.

Here it is allowed to germinate at temperatures carefully stabilized at about 60 degrees F 16 C. In addition, the grain is occasionally turned to prevent the rootlets from forming a tangle. After five days, the wet malt becomes what is referred to as "green malt.

From here the malted barley is ready for the brewer. Malting barley is a natural process that has been utilized by man. Remember, barley is a seed and is designed by nature to germinate and provide food for itself during its initial growth. The starch in barley is stored food. Upon natural germination a sprouting plant develops enzymes. These enzymes convert the stored food starch to usable plant food plant sugars for growth. A germination and kilning mom is shawn here. To this sweet liquid are added ingredients such as hops to complete the process of making wort. The first step in mashing involves the milling or grinding of the malt to remove the husks and break the kernels into granular-siz.

A measured amount of water is mixed with the ground malt to dissolve sugars, starches and enz. As the temperature of the mash is raised to degrees F Cl, the diastatic enzymes that are present in the malt become most active and convert soluble starches to sugars. The liquid mash becomes sweet. At this stage, the "spent" grains arc separated from the sweet liquid. The sweet liquid is called "malt extract. The malt extract that homebrewers use comes in the form of syrup or dried powder.

Using sophisticated equipment, malt extract manufacturers condense the malt extract by carefully evaporating much of the water. The evaporation of water from malt extract takes place in a vacuum. This procedure is more economical as well as less harmful to the flavor of the malt extract. The temperatures at which malt extract will evaporate are usually about degrees F C. If the final product is syrup, the water content is usually about 20 percent, the other 80 percent being sugar and unfermentable solids that are important to beermakers.

If the final product is a dried powder, the malt extract has undergone a complete evaporation process by means of "spray-drying," thus removing almost aU of the water. Many beer kits in the form of canned syrups have undergone an additional step. Before condensing by evaporation, hops may have been added to the malt extract. Thus, these kits are promoted as "no-boil" beer kits.

Homebrewer's Companion Second Edition: The Complete Joy of Homebrewing, Master's Edition

They vary quite a bit. All of the variables of making malted barley and malt extract manifest themselves in the final product.


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Those variables are things such as variety of barley, kilning time and temperature of the kiln during the malting process. Likewise, their amber, dark, pale af1d so on will all vary. As a homebrewer, you can begin to realize the tremendous variety that awaits you. Color, sweetness, body and aroma are a few of the characteristics that can be controlled and emphasized.

Some styles of beers such as stout and bock cannot be made without specialty malts being an ingredient at some stage of the process. Sometimes beer kit manufacturers will use specialty malts to create a particular style of beer. Specialty grains are prepared by crushing them. Go for greatn. The fact is that when any whole grain is boiled in wort, the wort will absorb certain flavors that are extracted from the husks of the grain, such as a certain amount of tannin and other substances: The flavor of tannin can be described as astringent or noticcably dry or grainy.

But a far Betterbrew can be made if you avoid boiling grains by using a simple preboiling procedure. If grains are used, add them to your brewpot along with 11j2 gallons 5. Then bring the water to a boil. This procedure also decreases the sharp and potential astringency that grains can contribute if boiled along with the malt extract. Aging time wiJl be Significantly reduced. After you have removed the grains, add the malt extract and carry on.

Relax and have a homebrew. Its use in brewing is chiefly for coloring the beer. Black malt will color the foam on beer but to a lesser degree than roasted barley see Roasted Barley. In excess, black malt will contribute a dry burnt flavor to the beer that may be perceived as a bitterness different from that derived from hops.

This mayor may not be desirable depending on the desired flavor character. Roasted barley, blade patent and chocolate malts add color and distinctive ch. It is not roasted quite as long as black malt; consequently, it is lighter in color and retains some of the aromatics and flavor of malt's sweetness. It will impart a nutty, cocoalike toasted flavor to tne beer. There are no enzymes in chocolate malt.

It is first gently dried for a short time; then during a period of about minutes the malt is "mashed" in the grain as temperatures rise to degrees F l00 C. Most of tne starch is quickly converted to sugar and while warm remains in a liquid state Upon cooling, the sugars set to a hard crystal.

Because of the "mashing" process that the crystal malt has undergone, some of the soluble starches and sweet character will not ferment. Adding crystal malt will also increase the body of the beer as well as aid in head retention. Because of its darker color, it will enrich the color, lending a gold or even reddish glow to the beer. Crystal malts come in light, medium and dark color varieties. There are no ellZymes in crystal malt. It is made by roasting unmalted barley at high temperatures. During the process, the temperature is gradually increased in excess of degrees F C. The barley is carefully and frequently sampled in order to avoid charring.

Roasted barley is not black in appearance, but a rich dark brown. Tasted as a grain, it has an assertive, roasted flavor, similar to roasted coffee beans. Its flavor is very distinct from black malt. There are no enzymes in roas,ted barley. They can be used with malt extract but need to uncJergo a mashing process. There are no enzymes in dextrine malt. It must be mashed in the presence of enzymes supplied by other malts. Its use will lend a fuller body to the beer and aid in head retention. Mild malt is very lightly toasted malt in the British style that contains enzymes.

It will contribute an amber color to beer. Vienna malt is lightly toasted malt in the German style that contains enzymes. It will contribute an amber color and some degree of what is called fuJI body to beer. It contributes an amber color to the beer and a malty sweetness. Check it out at your local homebrew supply shop. The selection will inspire beer dreams. Hops Hops are the conelike flowers of the hop vine. The use of hops also aids in flavor stability and head retention.

History Brewers first used hops in making beer over a thousand years ago, but only since the early part of the s have they been used with any regularity Hops gained favor with brewers and beer drinkers because of their antiseptic and preserving qualities-no small concern before the age of refrigeration. Spoiled, sour batches of beer occurred all too frequently. Other plants and herbs were used to preserve beer.

Hops became the most popular preserving agent because of its tenacity, ease of cultivation and flavor. Hops are now a major industry. As the demand increases, new varieties are forcing out older breeds in order to find a hop that is less susceptible to disease, retains freshness, has a desirable flavor or aroma character, has a high bitterness value per weight and is capable of being processed for shipment throughout the world. Australia, Tasmania and Washington State U.. Hops that homebrewers obtain come from the same crops that supply major breweries and are available to the homebrewer in four forms: compressed whole hops, pelletized hops and, less commonly, hop extract and hop oiL Hops and the Homehrewer The most important thing to remember about hops is that they are flowers.

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Hops can be infused into the brewing process at various stages in much the same way as various teas are made. Results will also vary with the ingredient, depending on the year-to-year crop and growing season. Each variety has its own spectrum of characteristics. Varieties of hops are chosen for the properties of bittemess, Aavor and aroma that they will lend to the beer. Different varieties will possess varying degrees of these characteristics. By choosing to use different varieties of hops, the brewer can decide what character his or her beer will have.

Some varieties are more perishable than others. Then they are physically processed and packaged in a manner that will isolate them from excessive heat and oxygen. Heat and oxygen are the deteriorating factors that will eventuaUy spoil hops. The bittering, flavoring and aroma-enhancing power of hops come from oils and resins in the hop flowers. The tiny capsules of resin are caHed lupu1in and can easily be seen at the base of the flower petals; they look like yellow powder.

These resinous glands protect the essential oils but only for a given amount of time. As time, heat and oxygen work their effect on these oils they become rancid, just as any vegetable oil will. Cold or even freezing temperatures and the removal of oxygen inhibit oxidation. Regional styles of beer are influenced to a significant degree by the hops that are used. It is not peculiar for breweries that are situated in hop-growing countries to be more highly hopped than in areas where hops must be "imported. The point is that hops offer quite a bit of variety.

Some disdain the aroma of hops while others will cckhratc the euphoric and aromatic attributes of hops. Brewers who like a lot of hops are often called "hopheads. There is no one right hop for everyone, As a homebrewer. You 'vvill have more opportunity for choice and experimenting. Enjoy this opportunity. What Makes Hops Bitter? The biochemistry or hops and its interaction with the beermaking process can become quite involved. Yet in all of its wonderful complexity, the basics can be easily understood and effectively utilized as a foundation for the homebrewing of aJl beers. As mentioned previously, hops produce Jupulin glands containing resins and oils that are the major contribution to beermaking, They appear as bright yellow-gold, powdely balls located at the base of the flower petals bracteoles , In reality, these yellow balls are not powdery at all hut are tiny natural packages of oils and resins.

IF these lupulin glands are orange, do not feel sticky or smell aromatic, they have been oxidized and are not suitable for brewing most kinds of beer. There are many other components of hops, but homebrewers are most concerned with the aromatic hop oils and two types of resins. The hop oils contribute to the hop Havor and aroma in the finished beer. Their presence is expressed in terms of alpha acid or beta acid and is measured by their weight rdative to the weight of the hop flower.

In other words, 6 percent alpha acids would indicale that 6 percent of the weight of the hop flower is alpha acid resins. In order to give you some idea as to the amount of hops used in bittering beers, the following table is presented as a guideline. Heavier beers can stand to be more highly hopped. This boiling is done in your brewpot for 30 to 90 minutes. Don't fool yourself. But really, how bitter is bitter and how is it measured? Brewing scientists have developed a method by which they measure what they call International Bitterness Units IBUs for short.

One 18U is equal to 1 milligram of iso merized alpha acid in 1 liter of wort or beer. More IBUs in a given beer mean more bitterness perceived. The lesson here is that u given amount of lBUs i. More information about International Bitterness Units is included later in this book in the Advanced Homebrewing and Hops section on page You may use some simple mathematics to predict 18 U levels in any beer you brew see Advanced Section on page If overdone, it can blow you away.

Hop flavor and aroma is not for every beer drinker, but done with consideration it can provide quite an exciting variety to the character of beer. These hop oils are not the same as the bittering resins. They are soluble in water and very volatile-that is, their essence will quickly "boil" away with the steam vapors. Remember, hops are Rowers. If you desire to impart flavor and aroma to your beer, the addition and preparation are similar to brewing a pot of well-made tea.

Gently boiling or steeping the freshest hops during the final 1 to 15 minutes in the brewpot wiJl impart varyjng degrees of flavor and aroma while not contributing much bitterness to the brew. Dry hopping is a method that some brewers use to impart aroma and some perception of bitterness but not Bittering Units to the finished beer. It is a simple procedure involving the addition of clean, dry hops to the secondary fermenter for 3 to 7 days prior to bottling. One-quarter of an ounce 7 g for 5 gaJlons 19 I will assert its character in beer.

The dry hops must be removed before bottling. There is some risk involved in that the hops you are using may be contaminated with beer-spoiling microorganisms. But aenerally, if hops are packaged well and look clean, the presence of significant amounts of bacteria is minimal. For convenience and minimum of worry and fuss, hop pellets are excellent for -dry hopping.

The alcohol content and the natural acidity of fermented beer will inhibit bacterial growth. Unfermented wort is the perfect place for bacteria to grow. I'm a hoph ad. I don't like to overpower my beers with hop flavor and aroma, but I do like some recoi4nizable degree of hop character. It works, and it works well, without the mess of removing hops from the fermenter. What Are Hop Oils? By definition, hop oils are the volatile oIls in the hop cone. They arc a very complex comhination of chemical compounds.

Not usually carried by homehrew supply stores, they can be ordered by special reqw;:st. Hop pellets are nothing more than whole hops mechanically processed by what is called a hammer-mill. This machine pulverizes the entire hop. Their own oils and resins hold the pellets together naturally. The disadvantage of pelletizing hops is debatable. Whole hops are milled, then compmssed into pellets. They are convenient space savers and resist spoilage.

The most significant disadvantage of hop pellets is that they are not easily removed from the wort. Hop pellets arc perishable over a perio What Are Hop Extracts? Hop extract is the liquid bittering essence of hops and is used for convenience in the brewing industry. Some liquid hop extracts are processed with a wide variety of chemical solvents that dissolve the hop resins into solution and chemically "isomerize" these resins so that they are soluble' in beer wort.

New methods of extraction involving liquid supercold carbon dioxide have been cleve loped to extract both the bittering resins and volatile oils. These hop extracts and oils are available to the homebrewer, but may be difficult to find. Non-C0 2 Hop extracts have no flavor or aromatic value. Their use by home brewers is minimal. If you choose to use hop extract, do so with care and knowledge of how powerfully bitter it is. Also, be sure to always boil the hop extract in the wort or at least a small amount of water unless specifically told that it is unnecessary.

Hopped Malt Extract and Hopped Beer Kits If you purchase malt extract that is hop flavored and yOll are wondering about the character of the hop flavor in the malt, reading the label will begin to give you some indication of what to expecr. Hop-flavored malt extracts are hopped with vvhole hops, pellets or hop extract.

If you desire hop flavor or aroma, you will have to add it yourself. Some beer kits and malt extracts are hoppecl with whole or pelletizecl hops. If in doubt ask your homebrew supply shop owner, who can nnd out the details for you. You are not doing yourself any favors or saving any money by buying old hops. It isn't too difncult to recogni7c the difference between good and bad hops. Look, feel, smell-listen to all your senses. Whole hops and pellets should be green in appearance.

Lupulin will turn orange when oxidized. The packaging of whole hops and hop pellets is extremely important. The chart beginning on page 66 is a compilation of varieties of hops with brief descriptions regarding alpha acid content bitterness , stability perishability , origin and miscellaneous comments.

Often the name of a hop indicates both the region where it is grown and the variety. For example Czech Saa7. For the homebrewer these differences do not drastically effect the overall quality of small-batch brewing because there are so many other variables in home brewing systems that also effect the final bitterness contributed. Their average alpha acid content as delineated in this chart is a generalization and will vary from year to year, crop to crop ancl with handling. Cascade 4.

American happy ales. Not common. Vcry good all-purpose hop for Lnglish Ales. Fuoulcs rn 3. Gbcicr 5. Good all around hop. UK: East Kent grown considered premium pale ale hop-earthy and very desirable contribution to light ale character. Styrian: Actually a Fuggle grown in Slovenia. USA: Earthy overtones are largely -, absent, but a good mellow all-around hop.

Progress Good UK Less commonly available. Robust hop aroma with moderate bittering. Traditional for English aIes. Wye Northdown Acceptable flavor hop. Hallertauer Germany: wonderful earthy tones. Wonderful, classic f]m;orlaroma hop. Earthy and sweet-floral. Hallertauer hybrid. Distinctive good flavor and aroma hop. Very gooD flavor and aroma hop for lagers. Less herbal than German Hallertauer.

Similar to German Tett. Great for lagers. Similar to Saaz and Tettnanger. Good aU-around hop similar to U. Very favorable character for Pilseners.