Context, data and queries. Part I. Springer- Verlag , Berlin, Heidelberg, Bhat , R. Bridging the digital divide: Understanding information access practices in an Indian village. San Jose, April Dynal , P. Improving photo searching interfaces for small-screen mobile computers. Navigation by Music: an Initial Prototype and Evaluation. Turner, N. Warren, N. Navigation via continuously adapted music. Buchanan G.
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Spatial Hypertext on the Small Screen. Cunningham, S. Springer- Verlag , Berlin. Supporting Information Structuring in a Digital Library. Please turn "on" your mobile: first impressions of text messaging in lectures. Lecture Notes in Computer Science Volume , , pp Patel, D. An evaluation of image browsing schemes for small screen devices. Springer LNCS. Integrating information seeking and structuring: exploring the role of spatial hypertext in a digital library.
Chu, Y-C, Bainbridge, D. H Realistic books: a bizarre homage to an obsolete medium?. Apperley , M. Proceedings Interact , Zurich, Switzerland.
CHI Workshop on Search. Florida, April User Interface Design as Systems Design. In Faulkner, X. Dunlop, H. Steel, A. Spatial hypertext as a Reader Tool in Digital Libraries. Empowering Consumers with Usability Certificates. In Turner S. Theng , Y. Designing a Children's Digital Library with and for Children. Search Interfaces for Handheld Web Browsers. LNCS , pp In May, J. Thimbleby , H. Preparing for the New Era of Ubiquitous Computing. Curzon, P. Information Technology Institute, Singapore. Proceedings of EuroSpeech'93, Berlin, Vol. Other Periodicals. Lucero, A. Mobile collocated interactions: taking an offline break together.
Pico projectors: firefly or bright future?. Journeying toward extravagant, expressive, place-based computing. Interactions Magazine 18 1 : Stepping In: An outsider's guide to crossing the digital divide. What Shall We Watch Tonight? User Experience Magazine: Volume 6, Issue 3, The music is the message. Voices across the Digital Divide. A method and system for indicating the location of an. UK patent application number: Global Challenges Initiative Master class. Cambridge University, March Interact Keynote, Sept Hay Festival May Touching the Future.
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BBC, Cardiff, 26 th March, Working with Communities with Failure as a Purpose. Inspiring Mobile User Experience. Research methods in Mobile HCI : trends and opportunities. Panel discussant. Sept Helsinki, 19 th September Presentation to Parliamentary Group on characterising spaces. House of Commons, July 27 th , We need to talk: Rediscovering Audio for Universal Access. University Salzburg, Austria.
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Towards Richer Access with Impoverished Platforms. Context: The Human Story. Mobile Life Center , Stockholm, Sweden. Strathclyde University. Feb 12 th , Imagination, Ritual and Belonging — towards place-based evocative user experiences. University of Lisbon, July Thursday, 2 nd April Invited 'theme talk'. Nokia Innovation Center, Tampere, Feb 19 th , The future of the Mobile Internet. Beyond the Desktop workshop.
British Embassy, Tokyo, Nov , Mobile futures. Open University, Nov 13 th Unfamiliar territory. Tampere University of Technology, September 17 th , The future of the mobile internet. Amsterdam, Sept. Point to Geoblog. Manchester University, UK, May 21 st Narrowcast yourself — designing for community storytelling in rural India. Narrowcast yourself — designing for community storytelling in rural India, Microsoft Research, Bangalore, India, November NTU, Singapore, 13 th September, Mobiles and Speech — A personal story.
Seeking Alternatives. Nokia Research Centre, Helsinki May 22 nd , User Experience Workshop, Helsinki May 21 st Google, California May 4 th , Making Sense. Growing Up. Bridging the Global Digital Divide. Royal Institution talk, Belfast, July 5 th , Navigation via Music: an Initial Prototype and Evaluation. QM University of London, May 22 nd For example, a series of studies on mental rotation have shown that people perform congruent actions when solving complex mental rotation tasks, implying that spatial skills are scaffolded or enhanced by activation of the motor system Chandrasekharan et al.
Similarly, perception of objects and spaces has been shown to be related to the state of the body. Finally, the body has been shown to play a role in the construction of mental representations of navigable spaces. Hegarty et al. Overall, regardless of whether one prefers an ideomotor-based or ecological-based account of these findings, it is clear that the body and action history of the individual has been shown to influence the perception of space and the application of spatial skills. Given the relationships between the body, action, and space, it makes sense to design digital media-based interventions that engage spatial skills through physical movement.
Digital technology has made it possible to create environments that engage spatial skills in novel ways. Because TEIs couple physical movements with the flexibility of digital technology, they are particularly well-suited for systems that engage and develop spatial skills. Early TEIs used physical objects to represent digital data. To listen to the voicemail, a person places the marble in a particular spot on the machine.
The machine recognizes the marble and plays the message. Systems like the Marble Answering Machine make it possible for people to use the same skills they use in the physical world to engage with digital content. Extending this line of thinking has led to a wide variety of novel tangible interfaces and ways to think about them.
Recently, researchers have become interested in the cognitive aspects of using the body to engage with digital content. Antle and Wang showed that a tangible puzzle interface leads to an increase in the use of epistemic actions. People using the tangible interface took less time to solve the puzzle, were more likely to sort the pieces, and made more movements—like rotating the pieces or testing placements.
People use similar strategies when using tangible interfaces as when using traditional physical tools. Of the three, SCE most directly relates to systems that specifically target spatial cognition. SCE refers to the ways that movement and perception inform each other and lead to behavior and cognition. However, there is little research from the field of TEI or from the cognitive sciences that addresses how SCE plays out in embodied digital systems:.
Our research addresses this question directly by drawing design inspiration from known relationships between the body and spatial cognition and evaluating systems designed from this perspective using cognitive science methods. This research approach has led to the definition of the design space presented below and has informed our own design work, which has broadened our understanding of the relationships between body, action, and space from both design and cognitive science perspectives.
Based on our analysis of existing TEIs, spatial cognition research, and our own experiences designing relevant systems, we identified three important elements of interactive systems that engage spatial cognition: the embodied aspect of the system i. With these elements in mind, the design space shown in Fig. The design space defines embodied interfaces that engage spatial cognition in terms of the way that they engage the body Embodiment , the aspect of spatial cognition they engage, and the spatial task that they ask a user to perform Intervention.
The following sections describe embodiment, aspects of spatial cognition, and intervention and the different categories they contain. The list shown in Fig. Any time a designer creates a new way for people to use their bodies to interact with technology, a new item could be added to the list. This particular set of ways that TEIs engage the body is drawn from our own analysis, which focused on TEIs that leverage embodiment as a way to engage spatial cognition. Each method for engaging the body is classified based on a parameter-termed scale—figural, vista, or environmental—as defined by Montello Figural scale embodied interactions involve grasping and moving physical objects or controlling virtual objects as if they were real objects that could be manipulated using the hands.
Vista scale embodied interactions create ways to engage with large content that is visible at a distance or alter the visible qualities of a vista scale space. Establishing embodiment at an environmental scale requires users to navigate a physical or virtual environment. The categories—abilities, perception, and navigation—broadly group different aspects of spatial cognition. The abilities category contains spatial skills that relate to the performance of mental operations on images or objects. Spatial abilities typically relate to operations that could be performed on figural scale objects, such as rotation or assembly.
For example, mental rotation is the ability to mentally represent an object and operate on that object. Mental rotation has been shown to be linked to the body with tests showing the effect of performing congruent and non-congruent actions when attempting to solve complicated mental rotation problems Chandrasekharan et al.
These findings lead to the idea that the motor system is leveraged in the use of mental rotation skills. The perception category lists the elements of an environment and the objects it contains that are perceived differently depending on the state of the body.
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Such findings support the notion that the action potential of the body influences the perception of environmental characteristics. Finally, the navigation category highlights the aspects of an environment or the qualities of a mental representation of that environment that are influenced by physical movement through that environment. For example, Hegarty, et al. This finding indicates that experience involving both perception and action in an environment enhances navigation of that space to a greater degree than experience involving perception alone.
Intervention is a descriptive column that is filled in with the content of the systems that will be plotted in the diagram. Interventions include the tasks that the system presents and the ways the system responds to input in the service of accomplishing that task. Interventions create the link between the embodied aspects of the system and spatial cognition by creating relationships between body movement embodied interactions and the spatial aspects of the content.
Descriptions of the interventions are drawn from our analysis of existing TEIs and are an attempt at a high-level description of what the user does with the system. As with the descriptions of embodiment, the column cannot include an exhaustive list since new systems will constantly create new things for users to do. Intervention and embodiment are tightly coupled. Whether designers start with an intervention or with a method for establishing embodiment in mind, each must be designed in a way that supports the other.
For example, an intervention that requires a person to walk around a room would not work well with a system that establishes embodiment by grasping and moving objects. The system would need to be updated with either a method for tracking walking or an intervention that uses grasping. Although this conclusion seems obvious, the strong link between scale of embodiment and intervention has implications for the aspect of spatial cognition that can be engaged by any given system.
The three elements this diagram brings together—embodiment, intervention, and spatial cognition—describe the aspects of TEI design that work together to create tangible and embodied interactive systems that engage spatial cognition. By defining these elements and the categories they contain and illustrating their relationships on a diagram, we outline a design space for TEIs that fit within the focus of our research.
This diagram provides a starting point for designers interested in working in this space and researchers interested in using TEIs for spatial cognition research. The systems described in the following sections were selected as good examples of systems that leverage embodiment to engage spatial cognition. Our analysis led to the understanding that embodiment and spatial cognition are linked through intervention. Plotting these relationships on the diagram presented above leads to observable trends and opportunities for research in this space.
To better understand the relationships between embodiment, intervention, and spatial cognition as they relate to the design of interactive systems, we analyzed several classic interactive systems that engage the body and spatial cognition. The systems presented here were selected to be representative of the range of ways in which TEI systems have engaged spatial cognition from an interaction perspective and does not constitute a comprehensive set of TEI systems that relate to spatial abilities.
These systems engage the body at a particular scale embodiment and ask the user to perform some task intervention. The combination of embodiment and intervention may engage a particular aspect of spatial cognition related to representation, perception, or navigation. We define each system using the language of the design space and then plot the systems on the design space diagram to highlight trends and opportunities for research in the fields of cognitive science and HCI. The systems described in this section engage the body at a figural scale, by asking people to manipulate physical or virtual objects to accomplish some task.
FoldIt was developed by Cooper et al. The conformation, or shape, of a protein molecule determines how it is used in a biological system. However, the specific shape of a protein cannot be directly inferred from its chemical structure and computers on their own are not particularly good at determining these shapes. FoldIt presents a virtual, three-dimensional 3D image of a protein molecule which is not yet in its correct shape and enables a user to alter the shape of the molecule using a mouse. It was released to the public as downloadable software and has, at this point, engaged more than 57, players and shown that humans perform better on protein-folding tasks than computers Cooper et al.
FoldIt turns a microscopic protein molecule into a figural scale object, which makes it possible for users to apply small-scale spatial abilities to alter its shape and develop an understanding of the kinds of relationships in the molecule that determine its form.
The system enables users to apply mental rotation and scaling skills to solve the problem of finding the correct shape for the molecule. URP is a tabletop-based urban planning simulation tool that urban planners can use to understand the relationships between building location, time of day, shadows, and wind. The system tracks the position and orientation of physical objects on the surface of the table and displays the results of a simulation based on the placement of the objects.
The objects in URP include models of buildings and a clock for changing the time of day. A user grasps and moves the building objects to set their positions and turns the hands of the clock to change the time. The system responds by displaying wind vectors and shadows on the surface, allowing users to develop an understanding of how the placement of the buildings alters the properties of the environment. URP establishes embodiment by providing physical objects that a user grabs and moves.
The intervention asks users to move the buildings and responds by graphically displaying the results of the simulation it runs. Because the objects are small-scale models of the buildings and the graphical display is a scaled representation of the environment, URP engages scaling ability along with providing a tool for students to develop mental rotation skills as they related to building and environmental scale objects.
Topobo, developed by Raffle, Parkes, and Ishii , is a construction kit that can record and play back physical movements. Topobo consists of a set of passive and active blocks.
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The passive blocks snap together to build small animal-like models. The active blocks contain a motor and snap together with the passive blocks. When a user rotates blocks connected to an active block, the system remembers the direction, speed, and magnitude of the rotation. The rotations can then be played back by the system. Creating a successful walk requires considering aspects of the model like balance and direction of forces Raffle et al. Topobo establishes embodiment by providing physical blocks that are assembled into a larger object.
This object itself can be grasped and manipulated. The intervention asks users to create an animated object and plays back that animation in the physical object. Building the object engages skills related to assembly. Animating the object engages skills related to force and motion or mechanical reasoning. Projection mapping techniques align digital projections with boundaries and surfaces of physical objects, from building facades, to furniture and walls.
By changing the coloration and creating the appearance of movement along these physical features, projection mapping can cause objects to appear to have spatial properties that are physically impossible. For example, rooms can be made to look larger than they actually are and building facades can appear to rotate or grow and shrink. By constructing a cabin with walls that are perpendicular to a hillside, instead of vertical with respect to gravity, the Mystery Spot creates illusions where balls appear to roll up hill and short people appear taller than tall people.
The way the Mystery Spot is constructed breaks the link between visual perception and the proprioceptive and vestibular systems causing objects and environments to appear to have spatial properties that do not make sense in the physical world. While the Mystery Spot is not a digital, interactive system, it highlights ways that the body and perception of space are linked and illustrates techniques that designers of interactive systems might employ to create new ways to interact with vista scale spaces. By combining projection mapping techniques with embodied interactions, designers could create vista scale environments with spatial properties that change based on the bodies and movements that engage with them.
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The Ping Pong Plus system uses projections to modify a standard game of ping pong. In one game, holes appear in the ping pong table wherever the ball bounces. Players lose the point if the ball hits an empty space Ishii et al. These systems would establish embodiment through the visual and vestibular systems and through walking around the rooms and interacting with objects and spaces in the room.
Interventions could ask users to alter spatial properties to accomplish some task and would engage aspects of spatial cognition related to the perception of angles, distances, and directions that are constructed based on the state of the body. SMSlingshot is an interface intended to create a sense of agency in public spaces by enabling people to write short messages and display them on the side of a building using an interface based on a slingshot.
SMSlingShot is a physical slingshot augmented with a cell phone keypad. Users enter a message using the keypad then aim and shoot the slingshot at a distant wall. A projector then shines the message on the wall where the user aimed it. SMSlingShot does not necessarily alter the perceived spatial qualities of an environment, but it does illustrate an embodied interaction that enables people to interact with digital content in vista scale spaces Fischer et al.
In SMSlingShot, typing the message and then aiming and drawing of the strings of the physical slingshot to send the message establishes embodiment. The intervention asks people to alter the visual qualities of a distant object. Depending on the content of the projections, a system like this could engage aspects of spatial cognition related to perception of distance and size. Slower Speed of Light is a video game played from a first person point of view in a navigable virtual environment.
In Slower Speed of Light, players use a keyboard to move around a small environment collecting tokens. Each time a player collects a token, the speed of light in the virtual world slows down. The game engine changes the visible qualities of the environment to show the effects of relativity, especially of moving nearly light speed. Slower Speed of Light establishes embodiment using navigation of a virtual environment controlled by a keyboard. The intervention asks people to move through the environment and collect tokens and responds by altering the properties of the environment that relate to the theory of relativity.
This system engages aspects of spatial cognition related to distance and heading estimation, construction of route and survey knowledge, and the relationship between distance and time. The feelSpace belt was developed by Saskia K. When a person wears the belt and walks around, the vibration motor oriented towards the north constantly vibrates; when the person rotates, the motor that was oriented to the north and was vibrating turns off and the neighboring motor that is now oriented north starts to vibrate.
Designers of the system asked users to wear the belt for several weeks and observed that, over time, people stopped noticing the vibration but were able to incorporate it into their sense of direction. Wearing the belt was shown to improve this particular spatial skill called homing.
The intervention simply asks users to wear the belt as they go about their day-to-day lives. The system engages aspects of spatial cognition related to homing, heading recall, and the construction of survey and route knowledge. Defining this design space and using it to describe existing TEIs leads to a more thorough understanding of how the body, action, and spatial cognition are related in different systems. Plotting these systems on the design space diagram provides a clear picture of the design trends and the design and research opportunities for embodied interfaces that engage spatial cognition.
The name of each of the systems described above is plotted on the diagram in relation to the way it engages the body and the aspect of spatial cognition its intervention appears to engage. Because none of these systems have been evaluated explicitly for their relationships to spatial cognition, the shades of blue highlight the aspects of spatial cognition a system is most likely to engage and how directly. Plotting existing TEI systems on the design space diagram shows that different combinations of embodiment and intervention engage different aspects of spatial cognition.
The intervention column is filled in with descriptions of the task that the system asks the user to perform. As a descriptive column, it serves as a reminder of what the names of the systems mean, but it is the systems, in their entireties, that support the relationship between the body and spatial cognition. This relationship is fully encompassed by the name of the system. The descriptions of the interventions are primarily a reminder of how the systems support that relationship.
Each system plotted in Fig. Illustrating these relationships leads to insights about both design trends within the TEI community and opportunities for research in both TEI design and cognitive science. The trends and opportunities, which are described in detail in the following section, provide starting points for the design of new systems which can be evaluated from a spatial cognition perspective. Skip to content Skip to search. Jain, Laurent Mignonneau eds. Series Studies in computational intelligence, X ; Studies in computational intelligence X ; Subjects Human-computer interaction.
User interfaces Computer systems Art and technology. Contents Machine derived contents note: Preface Ch. Notes Formerly CIP. Includes bibliographical references and index.
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