We have a dedicated site for Germany. This new study reconciles cognitive metaphor theory with Critical Discourse Analysis to offer a fresh approach to the study of metaphor. In applying this framework to a substantial corpus of texts from business magazines, the author shows how metaphors of war, sports and evolutionary struggle are used to construct business as a masculinized social domain.
In view of the subtle but pervasive socio-cognitive impact of these metaphors, the study raises the question of possible alternatives and the scope for change in business media discourse. Her research focuses on cognitive semantics and critical discourse analysis, especially corporate discourse. Her current work addresses the cognitive structure of corporate brands as well as their communication and reception in discourse.
Yet, one corollary of the discourse approach is that masculinity and femininity are linguistic resources that speakers of any sex can, albeit within different limits, use to project gender identities that they deem appropriate in the context, or to capitalize on positive cultural associations of particular genders. For example, the works of Baxter , , Holmes and Mullany have shown how, depending on context and institutional norms, female professionals use language in stereotypically masculine ways, e. This evidence sits alongside that of stereotypical and hybrid language behaviour.
In section 4, examples of gendered speech behaviour in relation to metaphor use will be provided, which further call into question any deterministic link between sex and gender. After this brief outline of language and gender research, the next sub-section will turn to metaphor. For Aristotle, then, metaphor was less the interplay between different domains but rather constituted what was later called the source domain, in terms of which something else is defined.
Aristotle thus prefigured the modern view of metaphor as ubiquitous, but differed in that he regarded it as a purely linguistic, rather than a cognitive, phenomenon. In modern times, I. Importantly, Richards prefigured the theory of conceptual blending Fauconnier and Turner , Grady et al. Moving on to the latter half of the 20th century, Max Black , not only took up the idea, developed in antiquity by Cicero 55BC , that metaphor helps to fill lexical gaps and express the otherwise inexpressible see Ortony Because metaphor creates rather than reflects similarity, it is based on knowledge but also produces new knowledge, an idea which anticipates conceptual metaphor theory and blending theory.
Thus, metaphor is primarily a cognitive phenomenon which is realised in language and other semiotic modes, e. As such, it is ubiquitous and a universal feature of human cognition. Metaphor is formed, according to this theory, by mapping semantic features from a source to a target domain, thereby conceptualizing one in terms of the other.
Source and target domain are each a structured set of elements, their properties and relations, thus forming an idealised cognitive model Lakoff According to conceptual metaphor theory, selective mappings can be accounted for by the invariance hypothesis Lakoff , which holds that the conceptual structure of the target overrides that of the source domain, i.
To elaborate the previous example, expressions of war may be used to talk about business in order to focus on the aspect of competition rather than cooperation. Mappings can be more or less exhaustive, with single- feature-mappings at one extreme and systematic mappings at the other.
Systematicity works both at the level of language and that of cognition; thus, metaphoric expressions are related if they express the same underlying metaphor, e. At the same time, conceptual metaphors themselves are related if they elaborate on a higher-level metaphor. This latter kind of systematicity shows that conceptual metaphor operates at different levels of complexity. Especially more recent versions of conceptual metaphor theory Lakoff and Johnson posit that cognition in general, and metaphor in particular, is grounded not only in socio-cultural but also in physical experience.
Primary metaphors based on physical experience are embodied, e. The theory part of this article will now close by linking gender and metaphor to the notion of discourse. In this context, we can, again elaborating on Fairclough a , distinguish between discourse as a mass noun, which can be further characterized by adjectival pre-modification to indicate the social area in which the discourse is produced, distributed and received, e. On the other hand, discourse as a count noun is defined as different ways of representing aspects of the world.
Obviously, there are close links between producer and stance. Discourse is instantiated in texts that originate in a social domain where it functions as a means to negotiate identities and relations. Related to that, a discourse is the totality of texts that are defined by a topic etc. From a language and gender point of view, a discourse can deal explicitly with gender issues as its topic, e.
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Beyond that, however, we can also identify gendered discourses in which an originally neutral topic is implicitly linked to gender, e. Gendered discourses are by the same token gendering Sunderland , i. The above example, for instance, not only assumes childcare to be of higher relevance to women, but defines womanhood itself in terms of childcare responsibilities and, ultimately, motherhood. Obviously, gendered and gendering discourses have an ideological function in that they impact on power relationships between different social groups.
The similarity thus established between the source domain of fighting and the target domain of managing is that both are conceptualized as a chaotic, violent environment. In gender terms, the example is an instance of how hegemonic metaphors are often taken up by non-dominant groups, here a female executive using a culturally masculine WAR metaphor see sub-section 4.
After this outline of the main theories on gender, discourse and metaphor, and a discussion of the links between them, the next section will present some methods that have been fruitfully employed to analyze metaphor and gender in discourse. Research methods: qualitative and quantitative, manual and automated This section will first follow on from the previous points made on discourse by introducing a model for its analysis. After that, it will look at questions guiding the qualitative, manual analysis of metaphor in discourse and present methods that have been suggested to identify both metaphoric expressions and conceptual metaphors in language use.
This will be followed by an outline of how corpus linguistic parameters, in particular keywords, concordances and collocations, can support qualitative manual analysis. The issue of gender is backgrounded throughout this section, but will be taken up again in section 4.
Given this broad remit, it is essential that texts, as instantiations of discourse, be analyzed in the context of interaction as well as in the wider social context. Indeed, text, interaction and social context can be seen as embedded within, and mutually constitutive of, each other. At each level, cognitive aspects are at work, as demonstrated in Figure 1. The actual methods to analyse texts in contexts will be chosen to fit the research questions and data, but in general terms, a critical analysis of discourse would be structured roughly as follows: The textual analysis is descriptive and can address questions relating to both content and form.
Thus, the researcher will seek to address what actors, entities and events are represented in the text, looking e. This stage of the analysis will entail a detailed description of linguistic and other parameters to see how text producers represent themselves and position the recipient and any third parties that are referred to in the text. A semiotic analysis points out the links between different linguistic prameters, and between linguistic and other parameters, such as visuals.
The Social Nature of Embodied Cognition: A View from the World of Metaphor - Persée
Moving from text to context, we need to distinguish between discourse practice, a mid-range level context that encompasses the production, distribution, reception and possible adaptation of texts, on the one hand, and the social context on the other. Relevant questions about discourse practice are related to the notion of genre and address the relationship between text producer and recipient, audience design and communicative purpose.
Another issue is access to means of production and distribution, as it ensures the impact a text has. Cognitive aspects at the meso-level include SCRs of various text types — e. Further, there are procedural scripts, or structured knowledge about the conditions and temporal sequences of discourse practices, e. At the macro-level, discourse analysis addresses the wider social context, looking at the values, attitudes and ideologies as well as any institutional contexts that impact on discourse practice and, ultimately, on texts. In short, while textual analysis investigates, in its content part, what actors etc.
As such, context analysis explains the results of textual analysis with recourse to social and discourse practice contexts, and their cognitive underpinnings. It therefore represents the interpretive stage of analysis, and the one where cognitive aspects are most important. The next section will focus on how to analyze a particular form that the cognitive underpinnings of discourse can take, i.
However, for the analysis of metaphor in discourse it is necessary to work backwards, first ascertaining metaphoric expressions in language and inferring from them what conceptual metaphors may have given rise to them. A recent but already very influential method for identifying metaphoric expressions in discourse has been advanced by the Pragglejaz Group Taking text, i.
Read the entire text to establish a general understanding of the meaning. Determine the lexical units in the text words and phrasal verbs. For each lexical unit in the text, establish its meaning in context, that is, how it applies to an entity, relation, or attribute in the situation evoked by the text. Take into account what comes before and after the lexical unit. Basic meanings tend to be more concrete or historically older. If the lexical unit has a more basic contemporary meaning in another context, decide whether the contextual meaning contrasts with the basic meaning but can be understood in comparison with it.
If yes, mark the lexical unit as metaphorical. Check difficult cases against at least two recent corpus-based dictionaries. After that, the analysis proceeds word- by-word. While the Pragglejaz approach is an important step towards validating metaphor identifiaction at the linguistic level, it is not intended to deal with conceptual metaphor.
In order to start tackling the issue of conceptual metaphor identification, 4 Steen has developed a five-step method that involves identifying, in this order, metaphorical focus, metaphorical idea, metaphorical comparison, metaphorical analogy and metaphorical mapping. It should be noted that the last step to identifying metaphoric expressions according to the Pragglejaz method is the beginning of identifying conceptual metaphors, namely comparing the basic and contextual meanings of a metaphorically used word.
These minimal units are then identified as metaphoric or literal by drawing an analogy between their meaning in the text and any more concrete meaning. If there are two meanings that can be located in different conceptual domains, the unit counts as metaphoric. The final step of the procedure is then to make explicit the mapping that has taken place.
A final caveat concerns the labelling of conceptual metaphors: The researcher needs to be aware that the way they the name conceptual metaphors that they identify in early stretches of a text, and the level of generality at which they identify them, can bias subsequent analysis. However, qualitative methods, while offering valid ways to identify metaphor, cannot deal with large numbers of texts.
The next section will outline how corpus linguistics can help with that.
As such, it has to be distinguished from computational linguistics, which is a branch of Artificial Intelligence that investigates the computational aspects of the human language faculty, including automated natural language processing e. Despite ongoing attempts Barnden , Birke and Sakar , Berber Sardinha , Fass , Mason , some of them rather promising, it is not yet possible to reliably identify metaphor in natural language in a fully automated way.
We therefore have to rely on corpus-based research, which helps identify metaphor candidates and facilitates both quantitative and qualitative analysis. As far as metaphor analysis is concerned, corpus work is semi-automated in that data may require manual annotation and automatically generated results are in need of manual editing. These usually come with inbuilt analysis software.
Alternatively, corpora can be purpose-built to help answer particular research questions on pitfalls and good practice in corpus-building, see Baker Such corpora will then be analyzed with external software packages such as Wordsmith Tools or AntConc. Among the typical parameters to be analyzed in corpus linguistics are keywords, i. It should be noted that keywords are not usually metaphoric 5 Note that at the conceptual level, metaphors are unlikely to be structured in parts of speech.
It seems more plausible that conceptualizations are either image schematic or embodied personal communication with Elena Semino, 29 April Further, concordances establish the frequencies of certain words, and the lexical and grammatical patterns around them, while collocations show which words co-occur with statistically significant frequency with a particular search word. Taken together, concordances and collocations can demonstrate how metaphors structure texts.
Other studies have started at the other end, identifying target domain vocabulary and ascertaining if and how words are embedded in metaphoric expressions Stefanowitsch Yet other research has opted for a combined approach, looking for sentences containing lexical items from both source and target domain e. Martin The last two methodologies, however, are ailed by the fact that source and target domain vocabulary rarely co-occur in language use. To circumvent this problem, Cameron and Deignan have searched for markers of metaphor in corpora, e. From the above, it is clear that while corpus-based analysis provides a broad view of large amounts of data, qualitative analysis of sample texts helps gain an in-depth view of selected texts.
Ideally, the two should therefore be combined. For the analysis of gendered metaphor in discourse, this can be done in essentially two different ways: On the one hand, corpus analysis software can be used to identify possible sample texts with high density of relevant metaphoric expressions.
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Those sample texts can then be analyzed qualitatively for other parameters that reinforce metaphoric concepts. Alternatively, metaphors can be manually identified in a small sample of a larger corpus and then extended to the whole corpus with the help of corpus analysis software see sub-section 4. In both cases, results will need manual checking. According to the discourse analysis model presented in sub-section 3. Since there are no intrinsically gendered language features — at least not according to the social constructivist approach, which is followed here —, any claims about how metaphor contributes to discursively constructing gender identities arise from the interpretative analysis of discourse practice and social context.
The next section will present three case studies highlighting the links between metaphor, gender and discourse. Case studies In sub-section 2. Gendered discourses, it was suggested, are simultaneously gendering. It should also be noted that text producers not only have the option to draw links between an originally neutral topic and notions of gender, a process which can be uncovered through content analysis. In addition, they can utilize language and conversation features to perform certain gendered styles in order to fulfill or defy expectations.
With regard to metaphor, this leaves us with three ways in which it can be related to gender in discourse: Firstly, we can investigate if and how speakers and writers use metaphor in different ways according to their gender, and why they may do so. Secondly, we can look at examples of discourse on gender and see how metaphors are used to talk about men and women. And finally, we can abstract from the gender of speakers and those who they talk about and analyze how metaphor is employed to construct discourses and the social domains in which they originate as culturally feminine or masculine.
The three case studies below will address these different links between metaphor and gender. The assumption undergirding the research is that speakers can use gendered metaphor to be perceived as masculine or feminine and to benefit from the respective cultural associations. However, it is not assumed that the metaphors used by speakers of different genders can necessarily be explained as an effect of their gender, i. Rather, it seems plausible that mmetaphor use can vary according to a range of factors, including context, topic and individual preferences.
Given the fact that politics and its discourse is a historically male and culturally masculine domain, it is interesting to look at how male and female speakers position themselves in it. The two politicians under investigation have at different times and since , respectively held the same office, i. Further differences are that the former chancellor comes from a working class background and first trained as a salesman before completing a law degree and being admitted to the bar. Ten years his junior, Angela Merkel grew up in the former German Democratic Republic, completed a PhD in physics and worked as a scientist until the Wende.
Her public image is that of a well-organized, diplomatic and cool person. Married for the second time, she largely refuses to discuss her private life and accordingly, her husband keeps a very low public profile. The data for the study comprise of , words in total, divided into two sub-corpora of just under 60, words for each politician. All speeches were delivered in institutional context, e. Interviews are more diverse in their subject matter, which for Angela Merkel also includes journalists asking about private matters such as her marriage.
Finally, the interview data cover a range of media outlets such as newspapers tabloids, broadsheets and financial papers , news magazines, public radio stations as well as public and private TV channels. The sub-corpora were first analyzed for keywords with the help of Wordsmith Tools, in order to obtain an overview of speech styles, as manifested in lexical contrasts.
The results of this initial show that references to political issues and entities are very much dictated by the politics of the day. Moving on to metaphor, metaphoric expressions were manually analyzed in a core section of the corpus containing approximately 30, words, equally divided between the two sub- corpora.
Following the Pragglejaz method , this resulted in a list of metaphoric expressions used by each politician. The analysis then returned to corpus methods by employing the Wordlist facility in Wordsmith Tools to broaden the analysis to the whole of the data. This generated lists for all the different words in each sub-corpus, which were scanned to identify further metaphor candidates. These two display interesting contrasts across the two sub-corpora, and the related words from the word list were concordanced to find all instances of the expressions relating to these source domains, and to identify all metaphoric uses of those expressions in the corpus.
Other factors are current politics, e. In sum, performance of gendered identities should not be ignored when considering variation in metaphor use in individuals, but such variation can only be properly explained by taking into account a range of factors, of which the performance of masculinity and femininity is one.
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As such, it looks at how metaphor can be employed to position people in gender roles, reinforce or challenge stereotypes, and negotiate power relations between groups. To this end, the study not only discusses metaphoric expressions and conceptual metaphors, but also coherent metaphor complexes Lakoff and Johnson The quantitative analysis identified the absolute number of relevant metaphoric expressions for each corpus, the number of different conceptual metaphors in each case and the respective percentage of the WAR metaphor. The last aspect was included not only because the WAR metaphor is so prevalent in business discourse as to be a defining feature of it Koller a , but also because it draws on a historically male and culturally masculine source domain.
The subsequent qualitative analysis in turn ascertained conceptual relations and oppositions between metaphors, and divided the conceptual metaphors into higher-level metaphor complexes. Results show an absolute number of relevant metaphoric expressions of for businesswomen Corpus A compared to for businessmen Corpus B.
While these numbers are very similar, there is a wider range of metaphors for businessmen, namely 33 compared to the 23 used to describe busiensswomen.
This suggests that the masculine domain of business is based on more socio-cognitive representations for masculinity, making it the more differentiated model. Interestingly, the proportional relation of metaphoric expressions of war to all metaphoric expressions is higher in the businesswomen corpus; This means that businesswomen are relatively more often described in terms of the WAR metaphor than are businessmen.
This rather surprising finding may be most plausibly explained with the WAR metaphor here serving to co-opt women into the ideal of corporate masculinity, which positions globalized male managers as representatives of hegemonic masculinity and ersatz soldiers Connell Table 2 shows the distribution of these metaphor complexes across the two corpora.
Corpus A Corpus B aggression and competition In addition, the complexes comprise many gender-specific metaphors, e. In sum, we find a hybrid metaphoric description of businesswomen, which indicates their changing and unstable image in a masculine social domain. The last case study will briefly outline how at an abstract level, particular metaphors serve to define social domains in gendered terms. This final case study illustrates how text producers further draw on the gendered nature of particular metaphor to construct social domains.
The data used for this are selected advertisements from British, US and Austrian business magazines, published between and see Koller The examples were collected to see how particular metaphors are realized, so only advertisements featuring the metaphors in question were included in the sample. Because advertisements form a multimodal genre, the analysis will not only identify and categorize verbal metaphoric expressions, but also draw on several frameworks for visual analysis Barthes , Forceville , Kress and van Leeuwen to address how linguistic and visual elements interact to express metaphors.
This is motivated by shifts in marketing theory and practice, i. The two paradigms are summarized in Table 3. This is not least reflected in advertisements as one form of marketing communications. The first finding of the analysis is that the WAR metaphor is absent in advertising. For instance, an advertisement for oneworld airlines shows a picture of two penguins bending their heads to a baby penguin that faces the viewer and is positioned between the larger penguins. Because oneworld revolves around you. The text here anchors the image Barthes , which would otherwise seem out of place in a business magazine.
The metaphoric expression is verbo-pictorial Forceville , with the copy referring to the target domain of service and the image representing the source domain of family, here transferred to animals. Although certainly not intended, it it is worth noting that the FAMILY metaphor is double- edged, positioning as it does the customer as protected but powerless. The ROMANCE metaphor is frequently realized in the selected advertisements, typically through images of couples, as in the advertisement for hotel chain Accor that is shown in Figure 3. Accor is known for its innovation in the hotel industry.
Accor is equally innovative in services to corporate clients and public institutions designed to the well-being and productivity of their employees. The text spells out the target domain and also repaetedly verbalizes the smiles depicted in the visuals, thus anchoring the image. The image itself combines both source and target domain in that the people in it may be read as customers or as expressing the metaphorical relationship between marketer and customer. In the latter interpretation, the woman can be interpreted as the wooed customer; the focus is clearly on her as her face is shown twice and her back is reflected in a mirror, while the man is looking at her.
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The advertisement is also typical in showing a heterosexual couple; indeed, romance is represented as exclusively heterosexual and monogamous, very likely because other forms are not entrenched enough as socio-cognitive representations to function as source domain material. Incidentally, the Accor advertisement also depicts fairly stereotypical gender roles, with a woman in evening dress snuggling up to a man in business attire. Gender stereotyping is even more pronounced in the final example of the ROMANCE metaphor, an advertisement for online software shop Tendi that is reproduced in Figure 4.
Software Service Shopping for the undecided. Many mothers have pretty daughters.