Press, English -n't in haven't or aren't is a clitic by some criteria but has been claimed as an affix by others.
So too is the boundary between clitics and full words: e. Oxford University Press, Mostly, clitics are prosodically deficient in that they fail to meet prosodic minimality conditions. For instance, unlike prosodic words, clitics need not consist of a full vowel. Moreover, clitics often exhibit different phonological behaviour from other categories In recent analyses, it has been proposed to accommodate clitics in one of the categories 'word' or 'affix.
As for pronominal clitics, one of the main problems is whether they are arguments as proposed by Kayne and many others, or whether they are functional heads as proposed by, e. Birgit Gerlach and Janet Grijzenhout, Introduction. This book indeed is an inclusive introduction into clitics.
Definition and Examples of Clitics in English Grammar
It takes clitics from syntactic, phonological, morphological, etc. What holds as valid tests in Spanish, English, Tagalog, Russian, etc, would not count in Turkish or Bantu, and vice versa. Clitic doubling is an observable phenomenon in Spanish, but French does not licence its occurences. In the light of this, the linguist, as the authors points out to, should be aware of the language under study first.
Clitics An Introduction 2012
Clitics are syntactic atoms, phrasal in another sense, but affixes are morphological elements. Clitics also can be stranded of their hosts, whereas affixes cannot. They always follows their stems during movement. Fincally, clitics have selectional and categorial properties, unlike affixes. I believe these three criteria are universal to a great extent , but stilll exceptions exist.
Evidence from Tsakonian
Nov 09, Christopher rated it really liked it. Andrew Spencer and Ana R. Luis here give us a detailed introduction to clitics, that class of words which need another word to "lean" on and cannot stand on their own, and come with complex phonological and syntactic rules different from other words in a language. Like most entries in the Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics series, it assumes a rigorous background in general linguistics, as well as a readiness to read difficult theoretical work, but assuming those prerequisites are met, it is pre Andrew Spencer and Ana R.
Like most entries in the Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics series, it assumes a rigorous background in general linguistics, as well as a readiness to read difficult theoretical work, but assuming those prerequisites are met, it is pretty accessible and enjoyable. In their survey of clitics as a general phenomenon, the authors mainly refer to Balkan Slavic, Albanian, Greek or Romance languages, as these are both heavily studied and more familiar to Western readers, but they also present examples from languages further afield.
The curious thing about this textbook is that its subject is gradually shown not to exist! The authors start off with earlier accounts of clitics as a distinct class basing themselves on e. Pullum's classic article , but as they go on they note how "clitics" and "affixes" can overlap, and ultimately cannot be separated. The second half of the textbook is the most theoretical, as the authors show how approaches like Optimality Theory deal with these issues.
I must admit that my interest waned in the second half of the book -- I'm more interested in individual languages and diachronic issues than overarching theoretical debates. But it's a good thing that the author's structured this in such a way that everyone can enjoy the first half of the book regardless of their interests.
Abdunasir Sideeg rated it it was amazing Aug 05, Hana Ramadan rated it it was amazing Dec 03, Josh Westbury marked it as to-read Oct 25, Dawuda Gunu marked it as to-read Mar 29, This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Table of Contents
Aoun, J. Google Scholar. Benmamoun, and D. Baker, M. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Benmamoun, E.
ISBN 13: 9780521864282
Borer, H. Dordrecht: Foris. Borer, ed. New York: Academic Press. Browning, M. A: , Null Operator Constructions.
- Read Clitics An Introduction .
- Glossary of Grammatical and Rhetorical Terms!
- Clitics An Introduction?
- Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics: Clitics: An Introduction.
- 1. Introduction.
Chomsky, N. Cambridge, Mass. New York: Praeger. Friedin, ed.