Although this program has shown initial signs of effectiveness in helping to boost reading instruction, it came under scrutiny in September when a scathing report PDF by the Office of Inspector General of the U.
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Department of Education revealed that several members of the panel who award Reading First grants may have had conflicts of interest because they had ties to publishing companies which promoted specific reading materials with a specifc philosophy. However, NLCB requires that priority in providing school choice be given to low-achieving children from low-income families. School districts may not use lack of space as a reason to deny a transfer, but they have some flexibility in meeting this requirement.
School districts may restrict which schools are available for transfer and when transfers may occur.
No Child Left Behind (NCLB): What You Need to Know
They may sign contracts with neighboring districts to accept students from failing schools, contract with online schools, create schools within schools, offer supplemental services a year early, hire more teachers, add portables or build new classrooms at more successful schools. If a school continues to fail to meet AYP, these sanctions take effect:. Those services can include tutoring, remedial classes, after-school services and summer school programs.
The federal government has allowed some districts to switch the order of sanctions. Students would be eligible for free tutoring if these schools fail to meet their goals for two years in a row and would then get the option to transfer if the school misses its goals a third time. After four consecutive years of failing to meet annual goals, the district must take action to improve the school, such as replacing certain staff or implementing a new curriculum.
After five years, the school is identified for restructuring and arrangements must be made to run it differently.
These can include a state takeover, the hiring of a private management contractor, conversion to a charter school or significant staff restructuring. There are rewards for schools that close achievement gaps between groups of students or exceed academic achievement goals. All schools and districts are required to make annual report cards available to the public. The report cards must include details on:. Department of Education also requires states to participate in National Assessment of Educational Progress NAEP reading and math assessments of fourth- and eighth-grade students every two years.
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These tests allow parents to compare how students are performing in different states. The NAEP results must also be included on school and district report cards. The No Child Left Behind law was designed to hold schools more accountable and empower parents. Here are some steps you can take to make the law work for your child:. The organization, which advocates for public schools, surveyed education officials in 50 states and gave the law a mixed report card in The center concluded that as a result of the law:.
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Federal education officials dispute these conclusions. Only about 1. But others have accused school districts of failing to notify parents of their option to transfer. School choice advocates took legal action on these complaints and sued the Los Angeles and Compton, California, school districts in School districts and for-profit tutoring companies are sparring over the reasons why. Some tutoring companies say districts have failed to inform families in a clear and timely way that students are eligible for tutoring.
Some school officials have pointed to the lack of oversight of tutoring companies and say the quality of services has been wildly uneven. In an attempt to increase the number of students getting tutoring, the federal government changed the rules in for 23 school districts in Alaska, Delaware, Indiana, North Carolina and Virginia. The single biggest criticism is that the federal government has not fully funded the law, a charge the Bush administration counters by saying that the law is a partnership between the U.
Others argue that the law imposes a rigid solution to problems historically better solved at the state and local levels.
Parent Resources / No Child Left Behind
Utah decided in to forfeit federal money rather than follow the law. Other districts and states have filed legal challenges or are contemplating them. In response to the criticisms, the federal government has loosened some of the rules for some states. But critics, on the left and right, say the law creates a number of other problems:.
NCLB: Holding Schools Accountable
Meet 5 of the 1, College Success Award-winning high schools helping low-income students thrive. Choosing the wrong college can be bad for mental health. How students can benefit from randomly assigned college roommates. Where we disagree most with the authors is about how best to estimate the indirect costs of NCLB—the costs associated with meeting targets for adequate yearly progress. The authors reject two widely used approaches to making such estimates despite the acceptance of these strategies by state legislatures and courts.
While they prefer to focus on academic growth rather than on absolute levels of achievement, they choose to consider only the aggregate improvement in test scores. Aggregate improvement is one useful piece of evidence in the absence of full value-added information, but it is subject to error when used in isolation.
Given that every approach has limitations, it makes sense to us to gather information based on as many approaches as data will support and use the results to ensure that school districts have adequate resources. Denver, Colorado. The editors regret the omission. My own and other studies show that children from low-income families enter kindergarten a year to a year and a half, on average, behind middle-class children in their language and many other cognitive skills. This is a gigantic lag considering that they are only five to six years old.
Anything short of a serious effort to give disadvantaged children a better chance of succeeding in school is irresponsible. As Haskins points out, the early childhood education community has resisted a focus on academic skills in Head Start, concerned that attention to academic skills will dilute efforts to promote positive social and emotional development and that the comprehensive health services that Head Start currently provides will be abandoned.
The community is also concerned that the teaching strategies that will be implemented to improve academic skills will not be appropriate for young children. These are legitimate concerns. Closing the achievement gap will require more than teaching young children basic pre-reading and math skills. Physical health and well-being also affect learning, and have value in their own right.
Now to the issue of how. Middle-class children do not achieve their academic advantage by writing the letters of the alphabet and counting to ten over and over. Children learn best, and enjoy learning most,when they are actively involved in authentic activities—being read to, telling and discussing stories, identifying and sounding out the letters in their names, counting and grouping objects, measuring ingredients, and so on.
They are born ready to learn, and most are quite eager learners. We can, however, easily squash that eagerness. I hope the Bush administration will provide the resources needed to prepare teachers to implement effective teaching practices and develop an accountability approach that will promote effective teaching rather than teaching that will turn children off from learning before they even start school.
Like many previous critics of social studies, Mr. Though there are a number of scholars in the field of social studies education who focus on global studies or global education, they are an intellectually diverse lot and are far from unified on questions of curriculum content and ideology. Burack seems to suggest that we should deemphasize criticism of western hegemony in global affairs.
He forgets the powerful role that western and U.
Historically, our schools have imparted what amounts to a white studies curriculum via the glorification of western leaders, institutions, and traditions. If Burack has his way, schools will regress to a 19th-century focus on traditional history and the concomitant aversion to asking deep questions.
Figlio and Maurice E.