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Sign In. Understanding the Human Body: An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology, 2nd Edition Discover this essential guide to understanding the remarkable anatomy and physiology of the human body, presented by a trusted surgeon and professor of medicine. Taught by Professor Anthony A. Goodman, M. Reviews Watch First Lecture. This introductory lecture examines the anatomy of the fist-sized muscle that pumps blood through the body.

We review the distinction between arteries and veins and discuss the location of the heart, its coverings, layers, and subdivisions. Cardiovascular System—Anatomy of the Heart.

Understanding The Human Body: Designing For People of All Shapes and Sizes | ArchDaily

Cardiovascular System—Physiology of the Heart. Cardiovascular System—Anatomy of the Great Vessels.

Cardiovascular System—Physiology of the Great Vessels. Respiratory System—Anatomy of the Lungs.

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Respiratory System—Physiology of the Lungs. Nervous System—Anatomy of the Brain.

Nervous System—Physiology of the Brain. Nervous System—The Eyes. Herman Miller is a great example of this understanding. Founded in by Dirk Jan De Pree, the American company produces equipment and furnishings for offices and housing, including a high level of research to understand the human body and the way we inhabit our daily spaces. These investigations, supported by usability testing and multidisciplinary work, results in a large number of furniture pieces and spatial designs that are now used by people around the world.

Understanding the Human Body: An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology I The Great Courses

We had the opportunity to visit their headquarters in Zeeland, Michigan to understand how these studies have been carried out for several decades. Herman Miller produces a chair every 20 seconds. How does the company manage to deliver effective answers to each of its thousands of different users? This fast manufacturing process only seems to be the efficient endpoint of a long road of deep studies and explorations with a human-centered approach. From its first years, the institute promoted the objective of exploring reality in a global way, expanding the look to "find problems outside of the furniture industry, and to conceive solutions for them.

However, these quantitative general studies are then refined through usability tests with varied users and the input from experts in different areas that complement them with more qualitative data. For example, some tests measure the comfort level a person feels when sitting, while others measure even metabolic variables —such as the Heart Rate HR , the Respiratory Rate RR , and the CO2 Output, among others, comparing the performance between different chairs in relation to the user's health.

The result of all these processes allows them to define the design brief and to improve the qualities of the products.

They study its structure, bones, muscles, and how the body should move to feel comfortable. We also work with Colorists and material experts, who give us a fashion sense and allow us to respond to different and changing tastes. Nowadays, humans spend a lot of time sitting.

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Whether in our work or rest moments, times of physical inactivity predominate our lives, and Herman Miller has understood this as an opportunity, rather than a problem. So, this is not just a comfort problem. There are plenty of beautiful and comfortable chairs to choose from, but they don't consider the effects they will have on a person who spends several hours a day sitting on it. However, there are some parameters that change almost not at all, such as the nature of the human body,' add Smith.

Anthropometry is one of the essential studies promoted and developed by the company, with special emphasis on the diversity of physical sizes that exist around the world.

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Over the years, the accuracy of these studies has increased, for example, using three-dimensional scans. People of all sizes and shapes adjust to the generalities of everyday objects. The height of countertops, the legroom in cars, the width of airplane seats, the depth of stairs or heights of handrails—all too often these are designed to the average size of the population. Through these studies, designers can identify certain percentages that group the population according to their dimensions and size requirements.

Understanding The Human Body: Designing For People of All Shapes and Sizes

In this way, they will effectively respond to the highest possible percentage of potential users meeting 95 percent in some cases, from a 5th percentile female to a 95th percentile male , based on high adaptability and flexibility, and allowing intuitive user control. These three factors are essential to consider, even when the design is effective for a high percentage of the population. What for one person feels good, may not be comfortable for another.