However, a cellular device that has been used at high altitudes can be easily detected by multiple base-stations simultaneously. This makes smartphones not suitable as a real-time communications solution for high altitudes. On the other hand, for low altitude applications or when it is known that the payload will fall in a cellular covered area, smartphones might be considered as a suitable communication solution.
Denote that in many countries e. We have investigated many drones remote control RC two-way communication solutions, and we found that while they can provide long-range communications their high-energy consumption and cost make them less appealing for day-to-day HAB missions. Meaning, they are robust, programmable, with a very low-energy consumption and affordable. This means that with COTS hardware in a direct line of sight communications, its expected range is limited to hundreds of meters.
Free-Space Optical FSO also known as laser communications are a less common high-bandwidth communication solution which can be achieved by the use of a robotic telescope which tracks in real-time the HAB. This kind of high-bandwidth communications is still extremely complicated and requires technical skills and efforts which are not common in most research groups. Yet it allows full control, two-way communication. Interestingly, we have found that the use of short message service SMS in cellular communications was relatively efficient and we were able to send and receive text messages from about m height when the expected height is about m.
The balloon launches included the following setting: A regular latex , g balloon. Smartphone-based payload—— g. Android phones with the needed apps for time-lapse camera such as OpenCamera and a cloud-based uploader app such as Dropbox or Google drive. The phone was equipped with a sim card which can be used for uploading the data—using a prepaid data plan. Thermal Box: the most common is polystyrene ice-cream box —which is needed to maintain a controlled temperature for the phone electronics and batteries.
Three payloads ready to be launched—each with a smartphone and software for uploading the gathered data. As part of the navigation graduated course in Ariel University Israel. None of the payloads could actually transmit good and clear images from high altitude. All payloads eventually fall in Suraya. An image of the sky that was made by an android smartphone Xiaomi Redmi 4A. It might be due to ice on the camera lens. The images were successfully uploaded after the payload has made it to the ground. Although the suggested concept failed the overall solution of using a software-only solution based on affordable smartphones seems to be a feasible cost-effective solution to many near-space applications.
High-bandwidth data applications such as multi-spectral imagery or high-resolution measurements have a great value for exploring various electrical phenomena such as lightening discharges, sprites or blue-jets in the atmosphere and other aspects of this environment. Wi-Fi networks can easily provide high-bandwidth communications but with COTS hardware they have a very limited range.
Right: the robotic telescope: a A view-finder webcam. So the telescope can be controlled globally. Keep it simple: launching two simple payloads: Raspberry-Pi upper and an android smartphone taking this image. Some of the IEEE The smartphone payload shot from an upper payload based on a Raspberry-Pi camera equipped with a long-range Wi-Fi transmitter. The picture was taken at about 9. Even though that our research on this approach is at early stages we have been able already to capture P video from a HAB at 9. We found that flat directional antennas perform quite well as long as the angle between the balloon and the GS was not too wide.
This system is based on a fixed low-bandwidth protocol—mostly at the Yet, in many cases the UKHAS system is not suitable due to geo-location, bandwidth or even security reasons. This kind of pricing makes it applicable mainly for strictly low bit rate application. The expected range for LoRa communications is over km, while in a few places around the world, LoRa gateways are started to be deployed so that the expected route can be covered. But in general even with a single LoRa gateway it is expected to cover the balloon route 50— km —using a standard UHF Yagi antenna in the expected range.
We conclude that the LoRa solution can be an affordable complementary communication solution. We present a near-space drone, which is affordable, robust and may weight below the FAA regulations g. Four different models of RTH micro drones. Each of them was tested for autonomous flight launched from a balloon. The smart release mechanism is established from two main elements: mechanical mechanism and autonomous smart release software.
The mechanical mechanism has two construction sets: Servo or Fuse wire. The servo is operated with PWM signal, and the fuse wire burns from relay. One of the most important things is the way the balloon attached the release mechanism to the UAV without affecting the UAV fly ability and minimal change of the aerodynamic, because of that the release mechanism mounted on the balloon payload.
The autonomous smart release software is an algorithm that gets a several sensor parameters and decides if to release the UAV. The algorithm has the next prioritization: balloon burst, RC signal, altitude, battery, and geo fence. This mode has few parameters for controlling on smart decline. Currently, we are constructing a micro wing-shape UAV with solar panels for energy harvesting; this will allow us to perform a much longer time and range experiment using super-pressure balloons.
Launching a HAB requires authorization and following local regulations. Any individual payload must weight less than 4 pounds and have a weight-to-size ratio of less than 3. Total payload of two or more packages carried by one balloon must be less than 12 pounds total. The balloon cannot use a rope or other device for suspension of the payload that requires an impact force of more than 50 pounds to separate the suspended payload from the balloon.
No person may operate any balloon in a manner that creates a hazard to other persons, or their property. No person operating any balloon may allow an object to be dropped therefrom, if such action creates a hazard to other persons or their property. The registration number must be marked on each HAB flight. Here are the main rules of thumb we have used in our HAB launches on top of the local aviation regulations : It is highly recommended to update the related FAA authorities and get a permission in advance.
Validate in real-time the conformation for the launch, a few minutes prior to the lunch. The maximal declining speed of the falling payload below m should not exceed some velocity say e. The usage of a parachute cannot guarantee declining speed or velocity. As in this method the overall max weight per square cm should be below some value, we strongly recommend a weight-to-size ratio of no more than 2.
If there are still some safety issues with the HAB, make sure its planned route is not above populated areas—preferably above the sea. In the last decade, HAB experiments, which were considered esoteric and rare, have become more applicable for scientific researchers and near-space experiments. Radiosondes are commonly used for transmitting the sensory data in real-time. However, using this technology has a limited communication capability and is very hard to customize. New long-range wireless communication technologies such as LoRa allow us to transmit a wide range of sensory data with both substantial low-cost and light weight setup.
The maximum data rate provided by LoRa technology is For long duration application in which the balloon may circle the world, we also present a global two-way communication solution based on Iridium modem. As the state-of-the-art of communications is still limited, we presented a whole different approach which focused on retrieving the payload in a safe and secure way.
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These are shown in the map, below, where orange circles of miles and miles radius are centered on nuclear test site. During each flight we sampled X-rays and gamma-rays in the energy range 10 keV to 20 MeV at one minute intervals, accumulating more than data points. Low energy X-rays have been used in the past to trace radioactive fallout from atomic tests, so our measurements may have some bearing on the question.
Above: Red dots show where we have collected radiation data in airspace near N. And the answer is …. Comparing radiation levels pre-collapse vs. For instance, radiation dose rates in March at 31, feet were 0. Radiation dose rates in February at the same altitude were 1. If radiation is leaking from the collapsed mountain site, it is not having a detectable effect on aviation over neighboring countries. The authors, led by Prof.
Cosmic ray by Wikipedia
Nathan Schwadron of the University of New Hampshire, show that radiation from deep space is dangerous and intensifying faster than previously expected. The story begins four years ago when Schwadron and colleagues first sounded the alarm about cosmic rays. The worsening radiation environment, they pointed out, was a potential peril to astronauts, curtailing how long they could safely travel through space. In the s, the astronaut could spend days in interplanetary space. In … only days. Galactic cosmic rays come from outside the solar system. They are a mixture of high-energy photons and sub-atomic particles accelerated toward Earth by supernova explosions and other violent events in the cosmos.
The shielding action of the sun is strongest during Solar Maximum and weakest during Solar Minimum—hence the year rhythm of the mission duration plot above. As a result of this remarkably weak solar activity, we have also observed the highest fluxes of cosmic rays. Back in , Schwadron et al used a leading model of solar activity to predict how bad cosmic rays would become during the next Solar Minimum, now expected in The data Schwadron et al have been analyzing come from CRaTER on the LRO spacecraft in orbit around the Moon, which is point-blank exposed to any cosmic radiation the sun allows to pass.
Here on Earth, we have two additional lines of defense: the magnetic field and atmosphere of our planet. Both mitigate cosmic rays. But even on Earth the increase is being felt. The students of Earth to Sky Calculus have been launching space weather balloons to the stratosphere almost weekly since The energy range of the sensors, 10 keV to 20 MeV, is similar to that of medical X-ray machines and airport security scanners.
How does this affect us? Cosmic rays penetrate commercial airlines, dosing passengers and flight crews so much that pilots are classified by the International Commission on Radiological Protection as occupational radiation workers. Some research shows that cosmic rays can seed clouds and trigger, potentially altering weather and climate. Furthermore, there are studies 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 linking cosmic rays with cardiac arrhythmias in the general population.
Cosmic rays will intensify even more in the years ahead as the sun plunges toward what may be the deepest Solar Minimum in more than a century. Stay tuned for updates. Schwadron, N. Not so. Ordinary air travelers are exposed to cosmic rays, too. On a typical flight over the continental USA, radiation dose rates in economy class are more than 40 times higher than on the ground below.
Cosmic rays penetrate the walls of aircraft with ease. Inside the airplane we measure X-ray, gamma-ray and neutron dose rates along with GPS altitude, latitude and longitude. Three years after our first flight, our data set is impressive. We have 14, GPS-tagged radiation measurements collected during 67 flights over 2 oceans and 5 continents. If you accumulated that into a single flight, it would amount to 9. This substantial data set is allowing us to explore how radiation varies with altitude around the globe. Early results show that it works well over the continental USA, and we are beginning to check international flights, too.
As his plane cruised at a nearly constant altitude 35, ft across the equator, radiation levels gracefully dipped, then recovered, in a bowl-shaped pattern:. In one way, this beautiful curve is no surprise. Interestingly, however, the low point is not directly above the equator. A parabolic curve fit to the data shows that the actual minimum occurred at 5. Very likely it is. We are now planning additional trips across the equator to map the band of least radiation girdling our planet. In fact, we are working on a dataset now that includes an equator-crossing between the USA and Chile.
March 18, Among researchers, it is well known that air travelers are exposed to cosmic rays. This has prompted the International Commission on Radiological Protection ICRP to classify pilots and flight attendants as occupational radiation workers. Many studies of this problem focus on ionizing radiation such as x-rays and gamma-rays. On March 16th we turned the tables and measured neutrons instead.
During a hour flight from Stockholm to Los Angeles, Spaceweather. Knowledge transfer. In the CRAICC community, we have recognized the importance of discipline-tied fundamental education for tackling multidisciplinary research problems. However, in climate and global change science a shift towards multidisciplinarity is also needed in education Nordic Climate Change Research, The model includes pedagogical experiments, utilization of modern technologies e.
Junninen et al. On the doctoral level, emphasis was placed on joint intensive courses, doctoral student mobility, and cross-supervision between CRAICC partners. The courses were interdisciplinary and emphasized. The major CRAICC project aim was to quantitatively evaluate the identified feedback loops within the Arctic climate system with respect to changing climate and anthropogenic influences.
While the most well-quantified feedback loop in the Arctic climate system is the amplification of warming caused by albedo changes with decreasing sea-ice extent, there remain significant areas of scientific uncertainty with regard to other Arctic system feedbacks and aerosol—cloud—climate interactions. For example, the changes in emissions of particulate and gaseous compounds due to rapidly decreasing Arctic sea-ice coverage will also have feedback effects on albedo Stendel et al.
Earth system modelling efforts carried out within CRAICC have contributed to both the identification and quantification of Arctic feedbacks. However, the quantification of single feedback mechanisms remains difficult and the impact of further warming on ecosystems demands continued investigation. Decreasing sea-ice extent will result in changes in natural emissions e. All of these will have consequential climate feedbacks. In particular, DMS-, amine-, bromine-, and iodine-containing organic and inorganic species will be fundamentally impacted.
The increase in sea spray emissions from more open ocean and fetch will change their potential CCN contribution potentially a negative feedback. However, in the long term the disappearance of sea ice ends the surface water temperature buffering near the melting point, which will allow the sea surface water temperature to gradually increase. For sea spray, that might reverse the emission trend. The opening of Arctic seas during summer will also make commercial shipping possible, but emissions from Arctic shipping have to be evaluated with respect to cloud and climate impacts in addition to the fuel and technological changes that might also evolve in future scenarios.
Activity will be highly dependent on the Arctic sea-ice extent, which has been rapidly changing in the last decades. That said, shorter shipping routes will potentially lead to less global emissions. Exchange processes between the atmosphere and the cryosphere are another area for which CRAICC has contributed to narrowing the existing knowledge gaps.
Although similar processes govern the deposition of particles in the Arctic and mid-latitudes, particle emissions are different and can respond differently to climate change. Future emission projections of primary particles and secondary aerosol precursors in a changing Arctic climate are handicapped because even present emissions are not well quantified. Furthermore, chemistry in the snowpack is not well understood and BVOCs from thawing permafrost are expected to comprise a large and increasing fraction of Arctic and sub-Arctic secondary aerosol precursor emissions. The oxidation and conversion of BVOCs to condensable organic compounds requires more scientific investigation because the impact of secondary organic aerosols on e.
Further warming of the Arctic will enhance BVOC emissions, which in turn will have a significant impact on the organic aerosol mass load. Thus, the role of organic aerosol in the Arctic, including the role of organosulfates, remains a key area for knowledge advancement Hansen et al. A reduction in the uncertainty of projections on BVOC emissions arising from both terrestrial and marine sources is needed in order to predict future Arctic climate scenarios and to determine one of the most important feedback loops in the Arctic climate system.
In addition, natural including vegetation changes due to climate change and human-induced management, urban development land-use changes will impact BVOC emissions. Model experiments were carried out to investigate the BVOC—aerosol—cloud—climate feedback loop. Idealized climate change simulations indicated significant increases in global monoterpene emissions, emphasizing a potentially strong negative climate feedback mechanism, especially over boreal forest. Nevertheless, future work needs to be done to better quantify BVOC emissions in a future climate.
To build a deeper understanding of aerosol ageing processes, including long-range transport from Eurasia and North America to the Arctic, it will be necessary to obtain size-segregated chemical composition information for sub-micrometre Arctic aerosol particles and VOCs. This information is also highly relevant for determining the CCN potential of aerosols. New particles over the subarctic forest were found to be dominated by low-volatility HOMs formed from the ozonolysis and OH oxidation of monoterpenes. Given the relatively low present-day emissions of anthropogenic secondary aerosol precursors and primary particles in the subarctic forest region, new particle formation and subsequent growth by HOMs most likely has an important role in maintaining CCN concentrations.
However, because precursors involved in new particle formation are still not well described, the anthropogenic impact on new particle formation is not well constrained. This causes large uncertainties in the estimates for both pre-industrial and future CCN concentrations in the Arctic and sub-Arctic. Thus, without more fundamental knowledge about the formation and initial growth of new particles and their role in maintaining CCN concentrations, the strength and importance of the BVOC—aerosol—cloud—climate feedback loop remain poorly quantified.
In particular, if an increase in the height and cover of shrubs and graminoids occurs as a response to warming in the Arctic Elmendorf et al. Furthermore, changes in aquatic ecosystems are known to affect biogenic emissions, but insufficient understanding prevents the processes from being quantified Faust et al.
Atmospheric pollutants are often reactive species that undergo continuous transformations in the gas, particle, and aqueous phases, implying that new compounds are formed and secondary aerosol mass is produced by gas-to-particle conversion or cloud processing. Anthropogenic pollution in the Arctic remains sourced primarily from long-range transport, and its chemical and physical atmospheric transformation varies seasonally due to the position of the polar dome and due to the alternating absence and presence of solar radiation in the high Arctic.
Thus, the endpoint of products also varies, with significant uncertainty due to the relatively long ageing times and myriad exposure conditions. In general, this leads to a lack of knowledge concerning the partitioning of species between the gas and particle phases at extreme conditions. In most cases spatially resolved concentrations of atmospheric species are restricted to surface-level measurements.
In the Arctic, information in the vertical dimension is largely missing due to the region's remoteness and harsh environmental conditions. A number of modern techniques could promote Arctic data collection with vertical resolution, including unmanned aerial vehicles UAVs , tethered balloons, and ground- and satellite-based remote sensing technologies. Aircraft measurements also remain an option, but are expensive and only cover small time spans. Currently, such observations are not contributing to existing monitoring networks and are limited in time and space, but the use of such technologies needs to be extended and promoted throughout the Arctic.
Although the state of scientific understanding regarding the direct forcing of greenhouse gases and atmospheric particles has developed, the level of understanding of aerosol indirect forcing remains limited. In the high Arctic, even aerosol direct forcing leaves open questions because the mixing state of long-range-transported pollution is not sufficiently well described. The role of clouds, especially the impact of anthropogenically emitted particles on clouds, is still uncertain although it has been the focus of intense research for decades.
Indirect forcing of Arctic clouds is also unique because the polar night excludes cloud interactions with solar radiation, but does allow cloud interactions with terrestrial radiation. The Arctic haze season is also a unique anthropogenically influenced phenomenon and requires deeper insight into its cloud impacts. More experimental work on the seasonal behaviour of cloud radiation is needed and must be implemented into climate models.
However, further quantification of indirect aerosol effects requires more fundamental understanding of the role of Arctic clouds and the anthropogenic influences on Arctic cloud formation and evolution. A substantial part of Arctic warming has been attributed to BC deposition on snow- and ice-covered surfaces Quinn et al. CRAICC has contributed to illuminating this scientific area of interest using measurements of atmospheric BC concentrations and deposition and comparing the observed values to modelled results e.
Massling et al. In addition, BC records retrieved from paleoclimate archives lake sediments and ice cores within CRAICC have contributed to understanding the scale and significance of modern variations in BC with respect to historical values Ruppel et al. However, estimates of how the spatial distribution of albedo will change due to future BC deposition remains highly uncertain due to limited knowledge and the fact that Arctic response to BC may be unique.
Furthermore, the growth of Arctic shipping and extraction of minerals and oil from Arctic reservoirs may significantly affect local sources. By comparing local BC emissions to mid-latitude emissions, Sand et al. In addition to the direct albedo response to BC, BC particles also affect snowpack albedo by changing the snow and ice crystal grain sizes, an effect that is not well described and is not included in climate models.
The bottom line is that BC projections need to be improved for further model implementation. Snow albedo varies spatially, temporally, and spectrally and is determined by snow properties and the surrounding environment. From these, the effective snow grain size, i. Surface darkening due to BC, dust, or other impurity deposition causes spectrally dependent albedo declines.
Cost-Effective Platforms for Near-Space Research and Experiments
Natural snow metamorphism processes constantly modify albedo, and when snow ages, with or without melting, snow grain sizes increase and as a consequence albedo decreases Wiscombe and Warren, Extreme winds, in turn, can break snow grains into smaller entities and create snow dunes or induce snow—dust storms Dagsson-Waldhauserova et al.
The influence of dust on climate in the cryosphere has not been sufficiently studied, although it may be of the same order of magnitude as the effect of BC on cryospheric surfaces. Experiments quantifying the melting and insulation effects of dust layers on snow- and ice-covered surfaces were carried out within the CRAICC project Dragosics et al.
The frequency, variability, and intensity of Icelandic dust events were investigated Dagsson-Waldhauserova et al. Dust influence may also be amplified by the melting of Icelandic Arctic glaciers, which may amplify the effect of dust resuspension. With the rapid development of computing power, paleoclimate models are becoming increasingly useful tools to investigate past climate changes on various spatial scales.
Climate models are mathematical representations of our ability to model the climate system, including movements of heat and mass within components of the climate system and also interactions between different components. Testing of different scenarios, termed sensitivity testing, allows us to explore plausible mechanisms behind climate changes and to analyse temporal—spatial variability. All paleoclimate models include uncertainties, and the magnitude of the uncertainty in the model output depends not only on the forcings used in the simulations, but also on model-specific features, such as the physical principles, complexity, and resolution.
Multi-model comparisons and proxy—model comparisons provide the means to test the reliability of model performance. The reliability of the models and simulations increase if independent models consistently indicate the same or similar results and if the model results agree with the proxy-based climate reconstructions. Such recent model tests have shown that paleoclimate models generally indicate consistent results for the Holocene in northern Europe, including the Arctic, but differ substantially in other Arctic regions, such as eastern Siberia and Alaska Zhang et al.
The influence of short-lived climate forcers in the high Arctic is still a highly uncertain quantity as it depends on natural and anthropogenic emissions and their complex interactions. Both types of emissions may change in the future, but those changes may also be for different reasons.
Retrospective analysis of GLEs and estimates of radiation risks
Anthropogenic emissions will change as a result of changed activity patterns and burdens at mid-latitudes and in industrialized areas, the regions from which most anthropogenic emissions observed in the high Arctic presently originate. Changes may involve e. In general, better emission protections are needed as they strongly determine the level of pollution in the Arctic.
Within CRAICC, a large number of data from multiple research platforms were utilized in order to qualitatively and, more importantly, quantitatively assess the state of the knowledge of natural emissions and their changes. Field scientists and climate modellers have worked closely together to advance the knowledge of many complex Arctic topics. The lack of extensive ground-based monitoring in the Arctic promotes this kind of large international collaboration between scientists that operate or use existing Arctic monitoring networks. In the Arctic, in addition to the direct effects of increasing global CO 2 , there is a risk that an acceleration of climatic changes will occur due to feedback processes that are unique to the Arctic.
Continued Arctic research is needed to provide better parameterizations in global models, which can be used to identify risks and climate thresholds, thereby informing politics and policymaking, and help to weigh climate adaptation versus climate mitigation. The data for simulations performed under Sect.
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