Description: Some Arval brethren /
On January 7, the Arval Brethren gathered in the pronaos o f the T emple o f Concord in the Roman Forum to proclaim the sacrifice of Dea Dia and announce the dates for the May festival indictio. Marcus Valerius Trebicius Decianus, the master, with washed hands, veiled head, in the open air, beneath the gable, facing east, with his colleagues, proclaimed: May it be good, propitious, fortunate, successful and salutary for the emperor Caesar Trajan Hadrian Augustus, son of the deified Trajan Parthicus, grandson of the deified Nerva, pontifex maximus, and for the whole of his house, for the Roman people, the Quirites, and for the Arval Brethren; the sacrifice of Dea Dia this year will be May 27 at home domi , May 29 in the grove and at home in luco et domi , May 30 it will be completed at home the domus was that of the magister of the Brotherhood while the locus was the Arval Grove containing the temple of Dea Dia.
On February 26, the Arval Brethren assembled in the pronaos o f the temple o f Concord in the Roman Forum where, after a solemn prayer, the co-optation of a new member took place in accordance with the recommendations contained in a letter from Hadrian sealed with the signum impressed with the head of Augustus. On March 6, the Arval Brothers assembled in their sacred grove and offered an expiatory sacrifice for the felling of trees which had been damaged in a storm.
The sacrifices were accompanied with cake offerings. One of the other functions of the Fratres Arvales was to execute maintenance work in the grove. When the trees fell from decay or after a storm or were struck by lightning, and when replanting was undertaken, solemn sacrifices suovetaurilia maiora were offered on the spot.
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On May 27, the first day of the festival, the Arval Priests met at sunrise in the house of their magister , Marcus Valerius Trebicius Decianus, and made offerings of i ncense and wine to Dea Dia. Then they repeated the offerings of wine and incense and took them to the altar. On May 29, the second day of the festival which was the most important of the three , the Arval Brethren assembled in the grove of Dea Dia and made several sacrifices.
The rest of the Brethern sat down in the tetrastyle and feasted off the sacrifice. After the sacrifice was complete, all the members made a libation with incense and wine. Afterwards, they proceeded to the election of the new magister Tiberius Julius Candidus for the ensuing year from the coming Saturnalia to the next. Then they went down to the tetrastyle where, reclining in the dining room, they feasted in the presence of the master.
Next came the four-horsed chariots races in the circus of the grove with acrobats specialized in vaulting between running horses. The magister honoured the victors with palms and silver wreaths.
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The brethren then returned to the house of the magister and dined together. On May 30, the third day of the festival, the Arvales celebrated again at the house of the magister and the rituals were similar to those followed on the first day. On 9 July, the Arval Brethern promptly gathered to sacrifice at the temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on the Capitoline Hill and offered sacrifices in honour of the arrival of Hadrian in Rome. The emperor attended the ceremony in person as one of the co-opted members.
A new member was co-opted in accordance with the reading of a posthumous letter of Trajan. The text of the letter was quoted with a description of the closing seal, portraying Marsyas and Olympus playing the flute. Vitorius Hosidius Geta and the younger Haterius Nepos who had probably been with Hadrian in the east. I came, I saw, I photographed The problem is how to understand the significance of the 'arvales' in Roman society and to assess the significance of Augustus' re-establishment of the college and its rituals.
The main facts are not really in dispute.
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- The Acts of the Arval Brethren of AD (#Hadrian) – FOLLOWING HADRIAN.
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It seems likely that there is very little continuity between the ritual practice of the Augustan 'arvales' and that of the preceding period. The tradition of republican religion is one of the introduction of new elements, of the reconstruction or re-interpretation of the old. The problem was how to reconcile change with continuity, to conceive the new as somehow traditional. It is against this background that the mixture of new and old in the Arval rituals has to be seriously interpreted.
In my view, therefore, Syme's whole approach is based on a misconception of the nature of Roman religion. The same inscription contains a hymn, which appears to have been sung at the festival from the most ancient times  Dea Dia was honoured by the singing of the song of the Arval Brethren, the Carmen Arvale, during the festival in her honour in May:.
Lares were household gods, marmor is another reference to Mars, the god of war amongst other things. Despite their name and agricultural leanings they have nothing to do with arval bread, the traditional funeral fare.
That word comes from Old Norse, meaning something akin to a feast or a wake. The song may have Etruscan-Libyan origins, as proposed by D.
Besides this festival of the Dea Dia, the fratres arvales were required on various occasions, under the emperors, to make vows and offer up thanksgivings, an enumeration of which is given in Forcellini . There is no boldness in supposing that this was a custom handed down from time immemorial, and, moreover, that it was a duty of this priesthood to invoke a blessing on the whole territory of Rome. It is proved by inscriptions that this college existed till the reign of the Emperor Gordian, or A.
The Ambarvalia was a Roman agricultural fertility rite held at the end of May in honor of Ceres. At these festivals they sacrificed a bull, a sow, and a sheep, which, before the sacrifice, were led in procession thrice around the fields; whence the feast is supposed to have taken its name, ambio , I go round, and arvum , field.
This sacrifice was called a suovetaurilia in Latin. These feasts were of two kinds, public and private.
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The private were solemnized by the masters of families, accompanied by their children and servants, in the villages and farms out of Rome. The public were celebrated in the boundaries of the city, and in which twelve fratres arvales walked at the head of a procession of the citizens, who had lands and vineyards at Rome. During the procession, prayers would be made to the goddess. The Carmen Arvale ambervale Carmen was a prayer see above preferred on this occasion.
The name "Ambarvalia" appears to be predominantly an urban designation. Roman farmers' almanacs, menologia rusticae describe this only as segetes lustrantur "crops are purified".
Numerous other communities of the Italian peninsula enacted similar rites with different names. The private ambarvalia were certainly of a different nature from those mentioned by Strabo, and were so called from the victim hostia ambarvalis that was slain on the occasion being led three times round the cornfields, before the sickle was put to the corn. This victim was accompanied by a crowd of merry-makers chorus et socii , the reapers and farm-servants dancing and singing, as they marched along, the praises of Ceres, and praying for her favour and presence, while they offered her the libations of milk, honey, and wine.
This ceremony was also called a lustratio  , or purification; and for a beautiful description of the holiday, and the prayers and vows made on the occasion, the reader is referred to Tibullus . It is, perhaps, worthwhile to remark that Polybius  uses language almost applicable to the Roman ambarvalia in speaking of the Mantineans, who, he says specifying the occasion , made a purification, and carried victims round the city, and all the country.
There is, however, a still greater resemblance to the rites we have been describing, in the ceremonies of the rogation or gang week of the Latin church. These consisted of processions through the fields, accompanied with prayers rogationes for a blessing on the fruits of the earth, and were continued during three days in Whitsun-week. The custom was abolished at the Reformation in consequence of its abuse, and the perambulation of the parish boundaries substituted in its place .
An example of expiatory sacrifice accompanying tree cutting in a sacred grove, as recorded in the Acts of the Arval Brethren A. Latin text from Hermann Dessau, ed. II, Pars I . See also, John Scheid, ed. The importance of Arval Brethren apparently dwindled during the Roman Republic, but emperor Augustus revived their practices to enforce his own authority.
After Augustus' time emperors and senators frequented the festivities. At least two emperors, Marcus Aurelius and Elagabalus, were formally accepted as members of the Brethren. The first full descriptions of their rituals also originate from this time. They were abolished along with Rome's other traditional priesthoods by AD. The Acta Arvalia were the recorded protocols of the Arval Brethren. The acta were inscribed in marble tablets fastened to the walls of the Temple of Dea Dia, goddess of the Sacred grove, between the right bank of the Tiber and the hill Monte delle Piche.
The oldest of the protocols are evidence of Old Latin. They are mentioned by Varro. The acta document routine rituals and special occasions, the vota of participating members, the name of the place where sacrifices occurred, and specific dates. They are an important source for ancient Roman prosopography  and a useful one for the study of Rome's distinctive archaic religious traditions.