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Information is encoded on the tag; the RFID reader accesses that information and passes it along to the person or system that needs it. Within the tag, there is a microchip that holds information and an antenna.

RFID for Libraries

This assembly is usually covered with a protective overlay. The durability of the overlay is determined by the application. If your tag is being placed inside a book, paper provides adequate protection; if the tag is affixed to a jet engine part, something more resilient would be required. The back of the overlay has an adhesive, so the assembly can be permanently affixed to an item. In a book, the final assembly is unobtrusive, usually 2 inches or 50 millimeters square and very thin.

The RFID tags placed on library items are passive, meaning they have no batteries or other power source. The energy needed to power and read the tag comes from the reader. An RFID-equipped library usually has readers at the circulation desk and at self-service kiosks with additional readers installed in the security gates near the entrances and exits. Many libraries also use RFID technology in an automated returns and materials handling system. Productivity can be further enhanced with a hand-held reader, which is used to pull holds and transit materials after check-in, scan shelves for misplaced books or take a full inventory of the collection.

RFID readers emit signals that search for a tag. If a user is checking out a stack of books, each tag instantly responds with its unique item ID number, which is the same one that appears on the barcode used by many libraries. The RFID system relays the ID number to the library management system, which retrieves the title, checks it out and generates a receipt. If the library has an automated materials handling system, it will direct the book to the appropriate bin for reshelving.

If a user starts to leave the library with an item, the reader asks the tag if the item has been checked out. If the tag responds negatively, the gate reader will sound an alert, reminding the user to return the item or check it out. An alert can also be sent to library staff, identifying the exact item that is causing the alarm. The range of an RFID system is tailored for each application in which it is used. In a library, where high-frequency RFID systems are used, they read tags that are no more than a few inches to a few feet away, allowing for accurate item processing. In a large warehouse, systems need to be able to read tags that are on pallets up to 15 feet away or moving along conveyance systems at a high rate and utilise ultra-high frequency RFID technology to accomplish this.

RFID has a couple of advantages over using barcode technology. Each time a barcoded item is checked in or out, the user or staff member must present it individually to the reader and align it with a scanner. This is a time-consuming process compared to RFID technology, which allows several items to be processed at once without requiring alignment.

Barcoded items sometimes require multiple scans before they are read. And barcodes can be scratched or rendered unreadable due to normal wear-and-tear, due to their placement on the outside of a library item. Faster, easier checkout and check-in. A stack of RFID-tagged items can be read and checked out simultaneously, by a librarian or a user.

Because the technology is so fast and easy to use, library users are more inclined to process their own transactions. Check-in is also much faster and easier with an RFID system. Increased attention from library staff. For many users, the increased interaction with the library staff is the greatest benefit of RFID. When librarians spend less time on routine physical tasks, they can pay more attention to human connections and the customer experience. A more productive visit to the library.

Libraries face the astonishing challenge of keeping track of multiple resources. With RFID, those items are accurately located so users and librarians can easily find them. In the process of converting to RFID, libraries typically get an immediate benefit from the recovery of misplaced items — often hundreds of them — that were thought to be lost.

RFID benefits staff, too. Job satisfaction greatly improves and repetitive stress injuries decrease when librarians spend more time helping users and less time processing books and other library materials. The library is a free institution that helps community members engage in lifelong learning activities and is considered a safe place for everyone, regardless of social, cultural, and economic backgrounds.

Libraries are tasked to create more programmes, partnerships, outreach, innovation and community connections every day. By improving staff productivity and satisfaction, RFID can help libraries focus on carefully crafted programs, engaging spaces and building human connections, ensuring staff time is dedicated to outcomes with the largest community impact.

The technology behind RFID is commonly accepted today. It is durable, reliable and cost-effective — which is why it is becoming increasingly popular in our day-to-day lives. For some, privacy issues are seen as the primary concern. People want assurances that no one will be able to track their personal library activity through RFID. We believe that educating libraries on the technical capabilities of RFID will alleviate much of the concern over what can and cannot be known using this technology.

RFID tags used in libraries do not contain user information. They only program item IDs and library-related information to each tag, meaning user privacy cannot be compromised.


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The short range of most library RFID systems means that it is extremely unlikely that someone would be able to access the tags on books or other media once the user has checked them out of the library. Privacy can be heightened when self-checkout is combined with RFID. An inquisitive observer would have a difficult time trying to scan all the titles when a stack of items is placed on an RFID reader and instantly checked out. Generally, the high-frequency RFID tags used in library items cannot be read at more than 18 to 24 inches from a reader antenna. With larger, specialised high-power antennas, such as those found in our RFID gate premium, tags can be read within a 3-foot range.

Putting information on an RFID tag is easy and remarkably fast.


  • Man and the Natural World: Changing Attitudes in England 1500-1800 (New Edition).
  • Michael Bond - the man behind Paddington Bear.
  • 1. Introduction.
  • See a Problem?.
  • RFID in Libraries, Part II;

Each manufacturer has its own system. All the equipment you need has been consolidated in an easy-to-maneuver conversion station that rolls between shelves, maximizing the efficiency of the conversion process. These stations are usually rented for a major conversion. The RFID workstation automatically encodes the information that was just scanned from the barcode. With bibliotheca, the conversion process is optimally automated.

ALA Resources on RFID

There is no complex setup, no complicated manual input of access codes or other data. The base of the tag and the antenna must be strengthened, and antenna is to be made of copper wire. Authorization by a certified notary public is required and the warranty period should be clearly listed. After going over the above policies, analyzing the important factors, setting up policies for improvement, confirming the results, and setting up standard procedures, the actual results are as follows:.

After the staff of quality control circle proposed and implemented new policies, patrons have voiced fewer complaints about problems when checking out materials using the automated checkout, improving the quality of circulation services. The establishment of a standard operating procedure for processing RFID tags decreased the frequency rate of errors occurring during processing. Quality testing of the RFID tags at the procurement stage and a quality control operation were set up. Improvements made to the checking out system to facilitate patrons in checking out material led to increased efficiency and quality.

The results of further analysis and improvements made to related operations in the Taipei Public Library indicate that RFID technology can also be applied to the following:. As the experience of this project is shared and passed on, any branch library or reading room of the Taipei Public Library can apply RFID technology.

Standardizing the specification of RFID tags and testing mechanisms can be used as references for other libraries at the time of procurement. The RFID management system of an intelligent library is a good model for others. Even though RFID tags have many advantages and have become more broadly applied in managing library collections, problems still exit in the application of this technology.

Only when these problems are resolved will this technology be successfully used in actual operations and eventually reach the goal of high quality management. The following is a summary of the problems that the Taipei Public Library encountered in practice and possible directions for improvement in the future:. Presently, publishers are striving for novel and diversified designs for publications, so that covers and edition types of books are well diversified.

Metal or shiny book covers Fig.

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These affects the way libraries manage their collections with the application of RFID. RFID transmits signals through electromagnetic waves, so it is extremely sensitive to liquids and metals. Book covers containing metal lower the success rate of RFID tag reading. Though some SMDs can counter the effect of metals, they are more expensive than the RFID tags themselves, so this solution is not cost-effective.

Zhang, In the future, if the research and develop unit or the supplier of RFID tags can develop a less expensive product and solve the problem of metal interference in reading RFID tags, then metal-laced book covers can be read effectively, and ensure the implementation of a comprehensive automated checkout service. Poor reading habits of certain patrons tend to ruin the wiring in the tag and the fixed position of RFID tags in books may affect the ability to read tags when books are stacked in piles.

Most tags are pasted on book covers or on the inside of book covers. Usually the spine of the book is shelved facing outward; thus originally RFID tags were located in the inner part of shelves. The use of a racket-like portable reader, which is bigger and heavier, lowers the efficiency of librarians. Moreover, the reading range of a portable reader is unstable. Most libraries that have adopted RFID technology to manage their collections keep the bar code system and do not have the advantage of comprehensive RFID wireless reading. For example, the Taipei Public Library has not replaced all of its bar code label applicators with RFID label applicators, so the managing collections still has room for improvement.

If the function of RFID portable readers can be strengthened in the future and the hardness of the wiring and micro-circuitry in the RFID tag can be improved, the attrition rate can be effectively decreased. RFID tags suitable for publication can be developed and processing can be improved, making the application of RFID technology in the library more extensive and practical.

As mentioned earlier, with respect to the security mechanism of books, the relatively large size of RFID tags makes them more difficult to hide than the original bar codes. So the tags are more fragile. This increases not only the number of problems in checking out library materials by means of automated checkout machines, but also the frequency of replacing RFID tags. The shape and the size of the RFID tag is similar to the present bar code. Conforming to the management needs of the library, the library had RFID tags produced as a bar code and pasted the tag on the spine of a book, just like the existing magnetic strip, so that the tag would not be easily damaged and could be used for a longer period of time.

In the future, if suppliers in Taiwan can develop a more compact RFID tag that conforms to the existing ISO standard and reading frequency and is easier to hide, this will solve the difficulties RFID tags encounter in library applications and make them more widely accepted and useful in a broader range of library services. RFID technology can be applied in the circulation of materials. When materials are to be stored, staff members can decide where they should be put according to their suppliers, time of procurement, and user demand, so that materials procured first can be used first, and due dates can be controlled.

When the materials are delivered to the processing unit, they are listed and catalogued by means of RFID. This assures accurate processing and avoids mistakes and misplacement of materials, making the material available to the public in a much shorter period of time. The library may adopt the same mode of purchasing and processing to establish a complete management mechanism of books and shelving.

When new material is placed on shelves in the library, librarians can determine their location in the library from a distance through the application of RFID, review how often an item has been checked out to determine how valuable the material is and if it is no longer being used.

Patrons can easily learn about the circulation status of materials by checking on the computer adjacent to the shelving area, making it easy to find exactly what he or she wants. This is indeed the way intelligent collection management should work. The rapid increase in the quantity and quality of information technology has transformed the fields of information science, mass communications, and broadcasting, as well as the way people obtain information and knowledge.

The growth of information proceeds exponentially. The public needs to be able to acquire increasing amounts of information and develop information literacy. Applications of modern technology help libraries transcend the limitations of time and space and to improve the quality and efficiency of the services they provide. Among new technologies, standard regulations have been gradually set up for RFID system beginning in Zhuang, With its automated identification recognition, RFID has been ranked as one of the ten most important inventions of the 21 st century and is an important tool in the future of industrial development throughout the world.

RFID Technology Center, RFID has drawn attention from scholars in a wide range of fields, and with its rapid development, it will soon be used in a manifold number of ways in widely different areas. Presently, the application of RFID in libraries is still relatively new, so in most cases libraries have only made partial use of it.

How to increase its stability, and control its quality, to increase the good will of library staff in adopting this new technology, and to lower its unit price are key factors in transforming circulation services and replacing the entire system of traditional bar codes and magnetic strips with RFID technology.

It analyzed the reasons by means of a fishbone diagram, and proposed several solutions to improve circulation operations and decrease the number of patron complaints. Their experience in dealing with problems stemming from the use of RFID and propose ways to improve its performance can serve as an important reference for other public libraries in Taiwan that have begun using RFID technology.

Licensee IntechOpen. Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers. Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. Edited by Cristina Turcu. We are IntechOpen, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books. Built by scientists, for scientists. Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals. Downloaded: I ndustrial Technology Research Institute, Although there are many advantages in using RFID so that it should play a key role in managing library collections, there are some hidden problems that need to be addressed before it can reach the goals of high quality management and meet the demand of actual operations.

Using RFID in the library 2. Introduction RFID is a denoting radio detector that uses radio waves to deliver information to identify people or objects carrying encoded microchips. Chen, It is comprised of three parts: Zhuang, 2. The reader With the delivery of energy and signals by high frequency radio waves, the identification rate of the tag can reach 50 per second. The application system Combined with techniques such as a database management system, the internet, and a firewall, the RFID can provide automatic, safe, and convenient instant surveillance functions.

Advantages of using RFID in library collection management over the traditional barcode The main reason why a library chooses to replace barcodes with the new technique of RFID is that it drastically increases the efficiency of circulation services and inventory operations. Function Barcode RFID Reading quantity One barcode is read at a time Many RFID tags can be read at the same time Remote reading Infrared rays are needed to read a barcode RFID tags can be read or renewed without infrared rays Information volume Low volume of information saved High volume of information saved Reading and writing capacity Barcode information cannot be replicated Electronic information can be read and written repeatedly Reading convenience Only barcodes in good condition can be read.

RFID tags can be very thin and can be read even inside packaging. Information accuracy Barcodes need to be read by humans, so human errors are possible. RFID tags can deliver information for tracking materials and for security purposes Duration A stained or damaged barcode cannot be read, and have low durability. RFID tags can be read even when stained or dirty. High-speed reading Reading barcodes is more time-consuming. High-speed reading is possible. Table 1. Differences between barcode functions and RFID functions. It can read information of many individuals at the same time without having to read from a stable angle The RFID Reader has a wide range reading capacity than can read many overlapping RFID tags simultaneously and saves time and energy.

It reads and identifies information easily and quickly The RFID tag is read through a radio frequency which can transmit information even when the tag is not visible. Fan, Chen Xue-zhu compared the differences between RFID and the present identification management procedure through interviews with librarians and a field survey to understand the operational mode on the management of a featured collection.

Intelligent collection management of the Taipei public library 4. Setting up intelligent collection management at the Taipei public library The Taipei Public Library first evaluated the possibility of applying RFID technology to the management of the library and drew up plans for the direction and the method of application.

In general, the following goals have been achieved through this project: An intelligent library creates a new kind of library service and presents a new image of Taipei as a city of technology, one that promotes reading to its public.

by Pandian, M. Paul

Analysis of problems occurring when using RFID tags at the Taipei public library To make sure that the efficiency of RFID tags is the main factor affecting the quality of collection management of intelligent libraries, the staff of the Quality Control Circle of the Taipei Public Library analyzed the main factors of the above problems with a fishbone diagram Fig. Policies for promoting the efficiency of RFID tags In the analysis shown in the fishbone diagram in Figure 2 , three possible factors causing the malfunction of an RFID tag are indicated--human factors, facility factors, and problems caused by outside library materials.

The staff of the Quality Control Circle of the Taipei Public Library investigated possible ways of improving the above three factors which are described below: 5. Improper location of automated checkout machines 5. Description of the problem The three automated checkout machines are located at the service desk on the first floor of the Central Library of the Taipei Public Library. Suggested improvement After discussion, the staff of the Quality Control Circle of the Taipei Public Library found locations for the automated checkout machines to enlarge the service area for patrons checking out material, thereby decreasing reading errors made by the machine.

Results After repositioning the automated checkout machines, the frequency rate of mistakes occurring when materials are checked out decreased to 1. Processing mistakes made by librarians 5. Set up standard procedures for wafer processing and checking out requested materials Revise the processing program of RFID tags in the Central Library and the intelligent libraries. Review the regulations for the procurement of RFID tags. Results The staff of the Quality Control Department of the Taipei Public Library categorized the problems of RFID tags into three types: faulty tags, tags torn off, and 2 tags mistakenly put on one item by a librarian.

Improper operation of automated checkout machines 5. Description of the problem Since patrons tend to be unfamiliar with the automated checkout machines, when they try to check out materials, they are unable to remove the security code of the RFID tags. Suggested improvement: Clarify the instructions for operating the automated checkout machines. Assign volunteer workers to help patrons operate the machines. Reasons of decreasing mistakes during process RFID One policy proposed to eliminate mistakes during the processing of RFID tags was to enhance the standardized processing and revise the original wafer processing program.

The reasons are analyzed below: 5. Standardizing operating procedures: The Department of Reading of the Public Library produced a flow chart of the RFID wafer processing procedure for new staff and staff members liable to make mistakes during processing due to their unfamiliarity with the procedure.

Reviewing and reproducing information on RFID tags: Specific librarians were put in charge of the wafer processing procedure for placing RFID tags on problematic materials and new materials, so that faulty tags would be eliminated to ensure circulated materials could pass through similar security mechanisms.

Establishing procurement specifications of RFID tags for quality control: A statistical analysis indicated that faulty tags made up the highest percentage of problematic tags. Other terms listed on the contract include: Tags need to meet the standard of ISO at the frequency rate of Actual results After going over the above policies, analyzing the important factors, setting up policies for improvement, confirming the results, and setting up standard procedures, the actual results are as follows: The quality control circle staff proposed improvement policies leading to the following results a decline in the frequency rate of mistakes occurring when patrons check out materials through automated machines to 1.

The results of further analysis and improvements made to related operations in the Taipei Public Library indicate that RFID technology can also be applied to the following: As the experience of this project is shared and passed on, any branch library or reading room of the Taipei Public Library can apply RFID technology. It can serve as a model for solving problems concerning RFID tags for other libraries.

Future direction for the quality improvement of RFID tags Even though RFID tags have many advantages and have become more broadly applied in managing library collections, problems still exit in the application of this technology. The following is a summary of the problems that the Taipei Public Library encountered in practice and possible directions for improvement in the future: 6.

RFID for Libraries: A Practical Guide - M. Paul Pandian - Google книги

The types of materials used for book covers and the edition shape of books affect the reading rate of RFID tags Presently, publishers are striving for novel and diversified designs for publications, so that covers and edition types of books are well diversified. Zhang, In the future, if the research and develop unit or the supplier of RFID tags can develop a less expensive product and solve the problem of metal interference in reading RFID tags, then metal-laced book covers can be read effectively, and ensure the implementation of a comprehensive automated checkout service.

The size of RFID tags affects its widespread use As mentioned earlier, with respect to the security mechanism of books, the relatively large size of RFID tags makes them more difficult to hide than the original bar codes. Conclusion The rapid increase in the quantity and quality of information technology has transformed the fields of information science, mass communications, and broadcasting, as well as the way people obtain information and knowledge.

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