A group of studies assessing basic indicators of child well-being in the context of globalization. Here globalization is defined primarily as economic technological migration. Provides recommendations for policy and programs into the future. Provides broad and deep data on benchmarks and change throughout the latter half of the 20th century. Katz, Cindi.
Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, Unique for providing in-depth, ethnographic accounts of the impact of changing economic and social circumstances in a major urban area New York City and a developing one rural Sudan. Comparative analysis shows how globalization has impacts that are highly specific and highlights the unexpected ways in which people and places are subject to similar pressures and dilemmas. Changing Childhoods: Local and Global.
Chichester, UK: Wiley, Multidisciplinary and wide-ranging, addresses many key issues related to globalization including soldiering, migration, negotiation of identity. Poverty, health status, and violence are a strong focus. An excellent overall introduction particularly for students or those unfamiliar with the topic.
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Nayak, Anoop. New York: Berg, Unusual for placing whiteness and youth identity in the context of globalization, immigration, and social change. Uses social geography and cultural analysis to investigate masculinity, racism and anti-racism, and locality.
Accessibly written. Stephens, Sharon. Edited by Sharon Stephens, 3— This groundbreaking essay set the agenda for children and childhood studies overall and in particular charted early on the set of concerns that have emerged as central to the investigation of children and globalization.
Race, Place and Globalization: Youth Cultures in a Changing World
With an emphasis on ethnography, essays in Durham , cited in Anthologies. Wells, Karen. Childhood in a Global Perspective. Cambridge, UK: Polity, Accessibly written and an excellent introductory resource for undergraduates. Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content on this page. Please subscribe or login. Oxford Bibliographies Online is available by subscription and perpetual access to institutions.
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For more information or to contact an Oxford Sales Representative click here. Not a member? Sign up for My OBO. Already a member? Publications Pages Publications Pages. Subscriber sign in. On a macro scale, the role of consumerism is also present. Companies are able to sell product pertinent to a subculture, such as punk or rock apparel, and make profits through transnational transactions. Politically, subculturists can share deviant or subversive ideologies Haenfler For example, punks in Jakarta, where religion and politics are heavily intertwined, partake in practices which defy the common ideologies, one of them being the consumption of alcohol Wallach Aspects of culture are shared more rapidly.
As subcultures spread, the way they dress, music they listen to, or values that they represent are all able to be expressed to another group of people who many want to partake in similar activities. The way in which subcultures spread will likely take form through centralized diffusion or decentralized diffusion. Centralized diffusion entails governments or corporations, actively promote or impose an idea or product on a less powerful group Haenfler Having a large amount of power, this is a purposeful spread of a subculture or aspects of a subculture.
Reasons for this can often be political or economic, as the group with power is likely acting in their best interest. Decentralized diffusion is less planned, less controlled, and less influenced by differences in power Haenfler This form of diffusion allows for more voluntary participation as people may select to what extent they would like to participate in the subculture. It is important to note that the entirety of a subculture may not always spread.
Race, Place and Globalization: Youth Cultures in a Changing World: Anoop Nayak: Bloomsbury Academic
Certain components of a subculture may be more or less acceptable in a different location or more or less feasible to acquire. This can create differences in a local scene in comparison to a new place where the subculture is found. On the other hand, subcultures can also experience hybridity in which there is a sense of heterogeneity Mirabella Local and trans local practices are intertwined rather than being on a dichotomous spectrum. Participating in a subculture, being a subculturist, entails belonging to a smaller group of people.
These groups often see themselves as resisting the larger, mainstream group. Due to this separation, subculturists are marginalized. This is made possible by the size of subcultures, being smaller in quantity than the mainstream, and the fact that they do not blend with the norm.
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If the group were much larger, then it would not necessarily be considered a subculture but rather a more normative component of society. However, another component of this power dynamic is cultural hegemony. A further component in this inequality is the fact that elites are usually those within governments and corporations. In the digital age, the internet serves as perhaps the central mechanism of the globalization of subculture. For example, the anime fandom uses the internet to spread anime- related information and build online forums Eng Its respective functions, such as social media and video sharing platforms, allow subculturists to instantly spread their knowledge and learn from others.
However, Haenfler makes the important note that subcultures existed even prior to the widespread adoption of the internet Prior to the internet, subcultures often diffused through immigrants, a phenomenon which is still seen in present day Haenfler Whether the migration was voluntary or not, immigrants still carry their cultural knowledge with them. Migration patterns also facilitate this process, as immigrants are likely to settle in places where other people of the same background are found. This collectivity and culture knowledge transcending borders allows for new scenes to spring up.
This transfer of knowledge and culture was brought fourth through the physical movement of people as they carry their culture with them. Specifically, movement of people to and from city centers within Mexico, and emigration to the United States, over several generations produced the local punk scene in the Latin American country. For example, some Mexicans who are involved in the punk scene in Mexico worked in the United States.
After the punk was established, its popularity spread through flow of tapes, fanzines and some punk bands that became popular in the scene.
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Mexico City has one of the most vibrant punk scenes. A group of punks in Mexico. From this theory, we can hypothesize that the spread of the punk scene to Mexico and within that country had an economic component to it. Mexicans often migrated to find better employment opportunities. Consequently, the exposure to punk and the money invested in the scene provided the infrastructure for economic globalization of the punk scene in Mexico.
Furthermore, since there is no evidence of power playing a role in the adaptation of the subculture in Mexico, we can conclude that the subculture diffused through decentralization into Mexico. Anime started in Japan, and made its debut in America in the s Eng After the initial popularity of these titles, interest in anime grew quickly through word of mouth till about , when the first video recordings were commercially sold to the public.
Youth Cultures in a Changing World
Eng A group of anime fans at an Anime Expo gathering. Because fans had little access to new anime titles, they relied on personal contacts to acquire new recordings. Eventually, anime fans begun to host anime-only video rooms at science fiction conferences. The monogram of Hello Kitty.
In the late s and early s, anime titles were aired frequently on television Eng Corporations started to take advantage of the now widely popular anime videos and its characters to make profit from anime fans. However, initial efforts to produce anime videos with English voice-overs were not widely accepted by fans. For instance, Streamline Pictures, led by Carl Macek, produced a mashup of three anime videos titled Robotech with English voice-overs and sold it to anime fans Eng Although fans initially purchased Robotech, sales quickly went down because of its lack of authenticity because of the English voiceovers.
Anime fans wanted titles that were in their original Japanese language with English subtitles, rather than titles with English voice-overs Eng A picture of the Robotech cassette tape sold by Streamline Pictures. Also, technology had improved so much to the point that fans could actually add their subtitles to the videos Eng In the mid s fans began to subtitle anime videos, keeping the Japanese language spoken in the original version of the videos intact to preserve the Japanese origin of anime.
At the turn of the decade, anime fan clubs expanded to college campuses around the USA, and membership rapidly grew. The clubs allowed fans to pool together resources and purchase titles that were too costly to purchase individually. In addition, companies like US Renditions, and Animeigo begun to make anime titles with English subtitles and the Japanese language left intact, which became popular on college campuses. College students also had access to anime through Japanese pen pals and US servicemen and women who had returned home from serving in Japan Eng The manner through which the anime subculture began to spread in the US exemplifies centralized diffusion, where power structures influence the spread of a subculture.