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Any modification or amendment of existing bylaws shall not become effective until the Oklahoma Water Resources Board has approved such modifications or amendments in whole, in part or as otherwise authorized by the Oklahoma Water Resources Board. Board of directors - Oath of office - Surety bond - Powers and duties - Effect on other laws. Each director of the board shall take and subscribe to the official oath of office and execute a surety bond to the district conditioned upon the faithful discharge of his duties.

Elect a president or chairman and vice-president or vice-chairman from its members and elect or appoint a secretary-treasurer. The secretary-treasurer of the board shall be bonded;. Conduct its business in open meeting, pursuant to the Oklahoma Open Meeting Act;. Maintain its records pursuant to the Oklahoma Open Records Act, except those records which are considered private or confidential under applicable laws of the United States;. Have standing to appear before any court of this state. Such standing shall extend to all matters germane to the powers and duties of the district including but not limited to questions of the validity of the establishment and operation of the district, contracts and collection of delinquent assessments;.

On a date specified by the board, each year, prepare a budget, estimating the amount of money required for the ensuing year to meet all obligations of the district and determine the assessments necessary to pay those obligations. Assessments may be modified or adopted by the Board when determined necessary;.

Determine collection procedures for all assessments imposed by the district. Assessments may be set by the board for all expenses of the district including the establishment and maintenance of a reserve fund, provided, however, that any assessments for construction or improvements and the principal indebtedness and interest which may be incurred relating thereto shall be approved by vote of the electors.

The amount approved by the electors for construction or improvements may include additional amounts necessary for the establishment of a reasonable reserve and the payment of costs of issuance and underwriters' discount. All plans of construction and improvements shall be submitted to the Oklahoma Water Resources Board;.

Let contracts for public improvements or public construction projects of the district. Cause an independent auditor to prepare and furnish an annual certified audit of the financial condition of the district for the preceding year to the board. A copy of such audit shall be submitted to the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, and made available to the electors and creditors of the district; and.

In the best interests of the entire district, establish a written comprehensive and reasonable plan of operation for the release, distribution, and use of water among the owners of lands within the district. Prior to the adoption of any final plan of operation or amendments thereto, the board shall provide for a meeting on the proposed or modified plan of operation. Notice of the intended action shall be mailed to the electors.

Copies of the plan or amendments thereto shall be made available, at no charge, to the electors. The board shall fully consider all written and oral submissions respecting the plan or amendments thereto. A final plan of operation or amendments thereto shall be submitted to the electors for approval at the annual meeting or at a special meeting of the electors called for such approval. Upon approval of such plan or amendments thereto, the plan or plan as amended shall constitute the official plan of operation for the district.

Copies of the official plan of operation for the district shall be made available to the public. Employ such agents, officers and employees, including but not limited to a manager, as may be required and prescribe their duties and compensation;. Institute, maintain and defend any and all actions, suits and proceedings, in person or by counsel, in the name of the district;.

Appear before the Oklahoma Water Resources Board to protest any application not in conformity with the district's plan of operation or not in the best interests of the district;. Perform any lawful act necessary to provide sufficient water to each elector in the district;. Provide for the proper drainage of all lands affected by the operations of the district;. Develop comprehensive plans for efficient use of streams and groundwater and the control and prevention of waste.

Such plans shall be filed with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board for informational purposes only;. Reclassify or authorize transfer of existing lands of the district as provided in the Oklahoma Irrigation District Act;. The power of eminent domain shall not be exercised to acquire water rights unless the land is acquired in fee. Oil, gas and minerals shall not be subject to the power of eminent domain, except to the extent necessary to prevent activities adversely affecting the purposes of the district,.

Accept the appointment of the district as fiscal agent of the United States or this state, or accept authorization of the district by the United States or this state to make collection of money for and on behalf of the United States or this state in connection with any federal or state project, and assume the duties and liabilities incident to such action, and do any and all things required by rules and regulations now or hereafter established by any agency or department of the federal or state government in regard thereto;. Sell and dispose of the property of the district if provision is made for the payment of indebtedness thereon and consent is obtained from all lienholders:.

Upon vote of the electors, install pumps and equipment to recharge underground basins and subbasins;. Upon vote of the electors, borrow money and issue special assessment bonds or notes, in such principal amounts as do not exceed the maximum amount voted by the electors. All such bonds or notes may bear interest at such fixed or variable rate or rates, in any combination, as may be determined by the directors of the district. Appoint committees of electors to undertake studies and report to the board upon any issue germane to the operations and management of the district; and.

Generally perform all such acts as shall be necessary to conduct the affairs of the district. The provisions of this section shall not be construed to affect or supercede any laws of this state relating to the authority or the jurisdiction of any agency of this state or political subdivision of this state to implement their respective duties pursuant to law, but shall be held and construed as auxiliary and supplementary thereto.

May 8, ; Laws , c.

oklahoma goes wet the repeal of prohibition cases in practical politics book 24 Manual

Each year, the board shall determine the assessments for the ensuing year. Except as otherwise provided by this subsection, the county treasurer shall be responsible for the collection of any assessments and delinquent assessments made pursuant to the provisions of the Oklahoma Irrigation District Act. Such assessments shall be collected as other special assessments according to law. The special assessment book maintained pursuant to subsection E of this section shall be the county treasurer's warrant and authority to demand and receive the assessments and delinquent assessments plus interest due and owing.

Such assessments shall become due, payable and delinquent at the same time ad valorem taxes are due, payable and delinquent. The Board may collect any assessments and delinquent assessments upon written notice to the county treasurer of such collection procedure and as provided for in the official plan of operation for the district. Such assessments shall be due, payable and delinquent on a specific date set by the board annually. Assessments collected by the county treasurer shall be certified not later than the first of October of each year to the county treasurer of the county in which the property is situated.

Assessments to be collected by the board which become delinquent shall be certified to the county treasurer of the county in which the property is situated. The certificate shall be substantially in the following form and shall set forth a table or schedule showing in properly ruled columns:. The certificate and report shall be prepared in triplicate in a book named "Assessment Book of Irrigation District No.

This district number or name shall also be printed at the top of each page. Two copies of the certificate shall be forwarded to the county treasurer of the county wherein the land is located. The county treasurer shall receive the certificate as a special assessment book, and shall certify it as other special assessment records. It shall be unlawful for any county treasurer to accept payment of the ad valorem taxes levied against any property described therein until the owner has been notified that there is a special assessment noted in the special assessment book.

Collection of assessments and delinquent assessments - Reports. If the county treasurer of each county in which lands of the district are located collects any assessments and delinquent assessments, the county treasurer shall make monthly reports of the sums collected.

On the first day of each month, the county treasurer shall issue a warrant payable to the district for all sums collected. The county treasurer shall make a report to the district, immediately after October 31 of each year, of the total sums collected and of the assessments not collected for the preceding year. If the board collects assessments and delinquent assessments, the board shall make monthly reports of the sums collected. The board shall make a report to the district, at the annual meeting of the electors, of the total sums collected and of the assessments not collected for the preceding year.

All assessments and all costs and expenses of collecting them shall constitute a lien on the lands against which the assessments have been levied. Such lien shall attach the date the assessment certificate is filed in the office of the county treasurer and shall continue until paid. Such lien shall be coequal with the lien of ad valorem taxes and all other taxes and special assessments and shall be prior and superior to all other liens. Delinquent assessments to be collected by the county treasurer pursuant to Section Any tax sale shall include all charges, and such lien may be evidenced by any ad valorem tax sale certificate including said charge substantially in the form required by law.

For delinquent assessments to be collected by the board pursuant to Section If any assessment is declared invalid, the board shall immediately amend all proceedings, remedy all defects or irregularities and make and provide for the collection of new assessments. Unless expressly declared to the contrary, no warranty deed or deed made pursuant to a judicial sale shall warrant against any portion of any assessment or assessments levied pursuant to this section except installments due before the date of such deed.

Money judgments against the district shall be satisfied in the manner provided in Sections The district is authorized to levy special assessments to carry out the provisions of this section. When the board calls an election and submits to the electors the question whether or not a construction plan and an assessment shall be levied to raise money to be used for any of the purposes provided in the Oklahoma Irrigation District Act, the election shall be called upon notice and shall be held and the result thereof determined and declared in all respects in conformity with the bylaws of the district.

No water shall be delivered to any land on which there are delinquent assessments owed to the district. Before any water user who has been delinquent is entitled to the delivery of water, such water user shall procure from the secretarytreasurer a certificate that all assessments have been paid. Repealed by Laws , c. Irregularity or error in land description not jurisdictional. Any irregularity or error in a description of land shall not be deemed jurisdictional if the land can otherwise be identified. No claims for goods or services shall be paid by the district until the claims have been allowed by the board.

The claims shall be paid only upon warrants signed by the manager and countersigned by the secretary-treasurer. The warrants shall state the date authorized by the board and for what purpose. No warrant shall be issued or obligation incurred unless the district has sufficient funds on hand to pay such warrant when it is presented for payment. The district shall keep records of each warrant as issued and as presented for payment, showing the date and amount of such warrant, to whom payable, the date of the presentation for payment, and the date of payment.

All warrants shall be drawn payable to the claimant or bearer. Two or more districts desiring to consolidate into one district may file a petition with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board and shall attach the following:. A certified resolution authorizing the same approved by the board of directors of all the districts;. A certified resolution authorizing the same approved by the electors of the districts in a meeting called in each district for that purpose;.

Any additional data and information required by rules and regulations of the Oklahoma Water Resources Board. After receipt thereof, the Oklahoma Water Resources Board may approve or disapprove the petition as it deems advisable.

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If the petition is approved, an amended order shall be issued and filed of record in the office of the county clerk of each county or counties wherein lands included within the consolidated district are located within thirty 30 days after date of issuance. All property, owned or purchased by a district, both real and personal and reasonably necessary to accomplish the purposes of the district, shall be exempt from taxation by this state, or by any municipal corporation, county or other political subdivision or taxing district of this state.

All property, products and benefits sold, leased or furnished by a district shall be exempt from sales tax. All bonds, notes and warrants and the interest thereon issued pursuant to the provisions of the Oklahoma Irrigation District Act shall be exempt from taxation by this state or by any municipal corporation, county or other political subdivision or taxing district of this state. All districts organized under the provisions of the Oklahoma Irrigation District Act shall be exempt from the payment of sales and use taxes on purchases and use of tangible personal property in this state.

Districts shall be exempt from payment of the vehicle excise tax levied on the transfer for first registration of vehicles purchased and used in this state. The election shall be conducted as provided by the bylaws of the district. If the electors vote to dissolve the district, the board shall immediately notify all persons having claims against the district of the result of such election and shall adjust, settle and pay all claims. If the amount realized from the sale of district property, together with other money of the district, is insufficient to pay the indebtedness of the district, assessments shall continue to be made against the land in the district until all obligations are paid.

Within thirty 30 days after all the property of the district has been disposed of and all of its obligations have been paid, the board shall file a certificate of dissolution in the office of the county clerk of each county in which the district is located, and in the office of the Oklahoma Water Resources Board. The certificate shall be signed by the president and attested by the secretarytreasurer, with the seal of the district affixed. The certificate shall state that the district has disposed of its property, has been dissolved and shall describe the lands released from the district.

If a district is inactive, the district judge of the county in which the greater part of the district is situated may designate a board of directors who shall act with the same authority and in the same manner in dissolving the district as if such board had been duly elected officers of the district. The district shall hold title to its property in its corporate name for the uses and purposes of the district unless required to hold title in some other name or manner by the United States or this state.

The formation of a district shall not transfer water rights to the district under lands included within the district. Any district which contracts with the State of Oklahoma or the United States may convey district property, with or without consideration, if such property is needed by this state or the United States in connection with the construction, operation or maintenance of an irrigation project.

Except for contracts of employment, directors and employees shall not be interested, directly or indirectly, in any contract entered into by the district unless the district court of the county wherein the principal office of the district is located considers the contract, the interest of such persons therein and approves the execution thereof.

Directly or indirectly accept or request any compensation, gift, loan, entertainment, favor, or service given for the purpose of influencing such director and employee in the discharge of his official duties;. Directly or indirectly spend district funds or permit any property of the district to be used for political campaigns;. Disclose confidential information acquired by reason of their official positions to any person, group, or others not entitled to receive such confidential information; or.

Use confidential information acquired by reason of their official position for their personal gain or benefit. A director shall immediately forfeit his office in the event he sues the district for any action, directly or indirectly, related to the operation of the district. The failure of a director or employee to comply with these prohibitions shall constitute a willful neglect of duty and shall be grounds for removal from office. A municipality may become an elector in the district by action of the council or trustees in execution of the petition by the mayor or chairman and attestation by the clerk.

The mayor or chairman may cast one vote on behalf of such municipality in all district elections and shall agree to pay an amount equal to the assessments against lands owned or held in trust by such municipality. Membership by such municipality shall not prevent residents therein who are qualified pursuant to the provisions of the Oklahoma Irrigation District Act from being electors of the district.

A corporation may become an elector in the district by action of its board of directors and execution of the petition by its president and chairman and attestation by its secretary-treasurer. The president or chairman may cast one vote on behalf of such corporation in all district elections and shall agree to pay an amount equal to the assessments against lands owned or held in trust by such corporations. The United States or the State of Oklahoma or any agency or instrumentality thereof, and the Commissioners of the Land Office, may become electors in districts organized pursuant to the Oklahoma Irrigation District Act and are authorized to agree to pay an amount equal to the assessments against lands owned or held in trust by such governmental entity, agency, instrumentality or department responsible for the supervision of land within a district, shall have one vote in the district and may exercise such vote through the chief officer of such agency or his designated representative.

The provisions of the Oklahoma Irrigation District Act shall not apply to the taking, use, or disposal of salt water associated with the exploration, production and recovery of oil and gas. The reclassification of land within any irrigation district now or hereafter organized under the provisions of the Oklahoma Irrigation District Act, may be changed in the manner prescribed by this section. Such reclassification shall not impair or affect the irrigation district's organization, or its rights in or to property or any of its rights or privileges of whatsoever kind or nature, nor shall it affect, impair or discharge any contract, obligation, lien or charge for or upon which it or the owner of lands therein were or might become liable or chargeable had such reclassification not been made.

The holder or holders of title or evidence of title of any body of land situated within the boundaries of any irrigation district, may file with the board a petition in writing, requesting that such land be reclassified.

The petition shall describe the tracts or body of land owned by the petitioners. The petition shall be deemed to give the assent of the petitioners to the reclassification in said district of the lands described in the petition and such petition shall be acknowledged in the same manner that conveyances of land are required to be acknowledged.

Upon the filing of a petition for reclassification and payment, by the petitioners to the secretary-treasurer, of sufficient monies to pay the costs of all proceedings on the petition, the secretary-treasurer of the district shall cause notice of such petition to be published once in a newspaper published in the county where the office of the directors is situated.

If any portion of said district or land lies within another county or counties then said notice shall be published in a newspaper published within each of said counties. The notice shall inform the public of:. The directors shall consider the petition at any regular or special meeting of the board and at the established office and place of business of the district upon a date not earlier than ten 10 days after the publication of the notice.

A copy of the notice, as published, shall be by the secretary-treasurer of the district mailed to each and all of the then owners of the tracts or parcels of land proposed to be reclassified. The notice shall be so mailed not later than ten 10 days prior to the date set for the hearing. The board at the time and place mentioned in the notice shall proceed to hear and consider any written comments which may have theretofore been filed by any person interested in said petition for reclassification, and arguments, if any, by persons interested, in support or opposition to the petition.

If, after giving due consideration, the board determines that:. The resolution shall be included in the minutes of the regular or special meeting of the board held for such purpose. When the reclassification of land is commenced by petition, the board to whom such petition is presented may require as a condition precedent to the granting of the same that the petitioners severally pay to the district such respective sums, as nearly as the same can be estimated by the board, as the petitioners or their grantors would have been required to pay for:.

The board shall prepare an itemized expenditure listing of such costs incurred which shall also include information detailing how any such estimated sums were determined. Upon the reclassification of land in the district and if no protest has been filed with the board within thirty 30 days after the entry of said resolution as provided in subsection E of this section, a certified copy of the minutes of the board making such change, and a plat of such district showing such change, certified by the president or chairman and secretary-treasurer, shall be filed for record in the office of the county clerk of each county in which the lands of the district are situated.

The district shall remain an irrigation district as fully to all intents and purposes as if the lands which were reclassified in the district had been included or excluded at the organization of the district. The district as so changed and all the lands therein shall be liable for all existing obligations and indebtedness of the organized district.

Upon filing of the copies of the minutes and the plat, copies thereof, certified by said county clerk, shall be admissible in evidence to prove the reclassification of said lands in the district. Lands within the boundaries of the district may also be reclassified by resolution of the board. Notice of the resolution to reclassify shall be given in the same manner as if the reclassification were by petition of the landowners except that the district shall bear all costs of publication and of the proceedings. The board at the time and place mentioned in the notice shall proceed to hear and consider any written objections which may have theretofore been filed by any person interested in the reclassification, and arguments, if any, by persons interested in support or opposition to the resolution.

The board shall give the same consideration required by subsection E of this section for determining whether the lands specified in the resolution should be reclassified. If, after the proceeding provided by this section, the board determines that the lands specified in the resolution should be reclassified, the board shall adopt the resolution.

The resolution shall be included in the minutes of any regular or special meeting of the directors held for such purpose. If any owner of the property reclassified pursuant to this subsection disputes the reclassification of such land, the owner may appeal the decision of the district court of the county having jurisdiction over the lands specified by the resolution. In case of reclassification of any lands by proceedings under this section, the board shall, at least thirty 30 days prior to the next succeeding regular election, make an order redividing such district for the purpose of electing directors to ensure equality in land area and number of electors.


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In case of the reclassification of any lands by proceedings under this section, the owners of the reclassified lands if they are to become assessable irrigable lands shall pay the reasonable costs of construction necessary to commence water delivery to said lands. Transfer and substitution of land unsuitable for irrigation.

A landowner who owns assessed irrigable land which is no longer useful or suitable for irrigation may transfer and substitute such land for other land owned by such landowner within the district or to land outside of but adjacent to the district when such transfer is approved by the board of directors of the district. The unsuitable land from which the transfer is made shall become nonirrigable land and the land to which the transfer is made shall become irrigable land. For the purposes of this act and other Laws in connection therewith, the members of the Conservation Commission of the State of Oklahoma may be, by the courts upon which jurisdiction is hereinafter conferred, appointed directors of the conservancy districts hereafter created under the authority of this act.

Upon the filing of such petition, without affidavit or further pleading, the clerk of such court shall give notice to all persons interested in or affected by the formation of any such district by publication once a week for two successive weeks in a newspaper, published in the county seat of each county in which any part of the proposed district is located. Said notice shall run in the name of the State of Oklahoma, shall be captioned "In the matter of the formation of the When such petition is filed in the Supreme Court of the State of Oklahoma, the clerk shall docket the same as an original action in such Court and the Supreme Court or any member thereof, shall forthwith determine which district court of this state is more conveniently near the center or middle of said proposed district and can hear and determine said petition to the greatest convenience of the people within said district, having in view the customary route of travel; and shall thereupon refer and assign said petition and proceeding to such district court and direct the hearing, determination and control and administration of such proceeding as an original action therein.

Upon the hearing had upon any such petition filed as hereinabove set out, if it shall appear to the court that the purposes of Chapter 70, Article 5, Oklahoma Statutes of , as amended by House Bill No. In such decree the court shall designate the general description of the outline of said district and shall appoint as directors thereof the members of the Conservation Commission of the State of Oklahoma and their successors in office, who shall thereupon have and exercise with reference to such conservancy districts all powers and duties conferred upon said Commission by Chapter 70, Article 5, Oklahoma Statutes of , as amended by House Bill No.

Upon the creation of any such conservancy district, as herein provided, the Conservation Commission of the State of Oklahoma, shall have authority and is hereby empowered and authorized to take such action as is deemed necessary by said Commission to properly carry out the intention and purpose of Chapter 70, Article 5, Oklahoma Statutes of , as amended by House Bill No. Jurisdiction of all actions for the creation of conservancy districts as outlined in this act is hereby specifically conferred upon the various district courts of the State of Oklahoma and upon the Supreme Court of the State of Oklahoma to be exercised in the manner herein prescribed.

Any petition filed under authority of this act by the Conservation Commission of the State of Oklahoma shall be accepted and filed by the clerk of the court in which the same is filed without costs, and all proceedings thereunder shall be had without cost to the Conservation Commission of the State of Oklahoma, except that such Commission shall be liable for all costs of publishing the notices herein prescribed.

The Conservation Commission or any landowner affected by any proposed conservancy district or by the creation of any conservancy districts under the provisions of this act, who is aggrieved by any order refusing to establish or establishing such district may, within one hundred eighty days after the rendition of such order, appeal from the same to the Supreme Court of the State of Oklahoma upon giving bond in the sum to be fixed by the court. The organization of any conservancy district hereunder shall not be subject to collateral attack in any suit, action or proceeding except as to jurisdictional questions.

If any part of this act shall be declared invalid by any court of competent jurisdiction, such decision shall not affect the remaining portions hereof. In any county or any part thereof of the state where the Conservation Commission of the State of Oklahoma has not exercised its powers for the prevention and control of soil erosion, the board of county commissioners may order the land subject to soil erosion and drifting to be cultivated, plowed, listed or planted, or may in any other manner take such steps as are necessary to prevent such soil erosion and drifting.

The State of Oklahoma does hereby ratify, approve and adopt the aforesaid Compact, which is as follows:. Bliss for the State of New Mexico, E. Spence for the State of Texas, and Clarence Burch for the State of Oklahoma, after negotiations participated in by Berkeley Johnson, appointed by the president as the representative of the United States of America, have agreed respecting Canadian River as follows:. We call the federal government extravagant when it lays a burden of one billion for purposes of uplift and we stand by complacently as liquor places a burden of sixteen billions for purposes of degeneracy and destruction, and there are some so deluded as to imagine that the government should encourage liquor because of the paltry two hundred and odd millions of revenue [note the false comparison between personal income forgone and government revenue - CJS].

Let no enlightened member talk about the need of liquor revenues. I say to him what Mr. Gladstone said to the deputation of brewers who made the same claim:. The liquor trust through its vast hordes of money corrupts our elections, not only to control the results in wet and dry campaigns, but the election of officers and political parties subservient to liquor interests. In many wet and dry campaigns bankers have been put under duress and required to notify farmers, merchants, and other business men that they would call in their loans if the elections went dry. The growing degenerate vote directly due to liquor is now menacing not only the elections in our great cites, but in the states that have large cities, and even in the nation itself.

Liquor not only creates this degenerate vote, but it also keeps a corruption fund available to purchase that vote, and does not hesitate to spend vast sums for this purpose. In this way it stands with club in hand over politicians and political parties. It is not surprising, therefore, to find the menace of this great blighting influence in our political life, by which our elections cannot be normal and political forces cannot follow in their normal course without cross currents and counter currents.

It is vain to hope for honest elections until the country is dry. The liberties and institutions of a free people must depend for their perpetuity upon the average standard of character of the electorate. In America where we have manhood suffrage the degeneracy produced, particularly in big cities, is undermining the foundations of our institutions. It is this same lowering of the average standard of character of the citizenship in the past that entailed the overthrow of the liberties of Greece and Rome and other republics.

It seems rather ironical for liquor men to call upon the name of liberty. Through control of political parties and politicians and from the supply of needed revenues liquor gets a strangle hold upon the government, and for ages governments have largely looked to liquor to supply revenues and give support for continuance in power. It is a clear sign of the times to note the general change of attitude of the governments of Europe toward liquor.

All governments should now be in full possession of the findings of science as to the real nature of alcohol, consequently when the general war broke out in Europe the governments, though in great need of revenues, promptly took advantage of the powers conferred under martial law to strike liquor a deadly blow [though not quite a 'deadly blow', the belligerent countries did indeed curtail alcohol sales - CJS]. Shortly after the promulgation of martial law the Russian government, in spite of the loss of hundreds of millions in revenue, issued a proclamation to compel prohibition of the national drink — vodka.

This order has been made permanent and, broadly speaking, the Russian empire is to remain dry forever [prohibition in Russia was repealed in the s - CJS]. The French government likewise issued a proclamation of prohibition of the manufacture and sale of absinthe, and has since extended this to include other distilled liquors [the green fairy was legalised in France only recently - CJS]. After the proclamation of martial law the German government closed down the breweries throughout the empire and has promulgated drastic measures for prohibition in the war zone of the east.

When a child is born in Germany the government sends a card to the mother warning against the deadly nature of alcohol. When a child enters public school in Berlin the Prussian government sends an anti-alcohol card to the father and mother by the child. It seems too bad that the Germans who have cast their lot in America should not have caught the progressive spirit of the fatherland.

Eight hundred German scientists, of them professors in German universities, have made a unanimous report on the nature of beverage alcohol, recommending its complete elimination. A German staff physician of the German army has announced that "we should not discuss moderation with a man. The thing has long since been settled by science. The use of narcotic poisons is simply indecent and criminal. It should be a source of humiliation to well-informed Americans that our government shows no indications of change of attitude toward liquor.

Our need for revenue is much less than that of the nations at war, and yet in sections 1 and 2 of the revenue bill recently passed we turned to liquor for nearly one-half the total amount, strengthening the hold of liquor upon the finances of the government [the government's dependence on alcohol taxes had actually been broken when the 16th Amendment was ratified in - CJS]. Liquor has the same stranglehold upon the throat of our government today that slavery had before Congress has not permitted the cotton planter to deposit his cotton in bond, but it has done everything for the distiller so he can place his liquor in bond and on these warrants get financial advances.

The first finding of science that alcohol is a protoplasmic poison and the second finding that it is an insidious, habit-forming drug, though of great importance, are as unimportant when compared with the third finding, that alcohol degenerates the character of men and tears down their spiritual nature. Like the other members of the group of oxide derivatives of hydrocarbons, alcohol is not only a general poison, but it has a chemical affinity or deadly appetite for certain particular tissues.

Strychnine tears down the spinal cord. Alcohol tears down the top part of the brain in a man, attacks certain tissues in an animal, certain cells in a flower. It has been established that whatever the line of a creature's evolution alcohol will attack that line. Every type and every species is evolving in building from generation to generation along some particular line.

Man is evolving in the top part of the brain, the seat of the will power, the seat of the moral senses, and of the spiritual nature, the recognition of right and wrong, the consciousness of God and of duty and of brotherly love and of self-sacrifice. All life in the universe is founded upon the principle of evolution. Alcohol directly reverses that principle. Man has risen from the savage up through successive steps to the level of the semi-savage, the semi-civilized, and the highly civilized. Liquor promptly degenerates the red man, throws him back into savagery.

It will promptly put a tribe on the warpath. Liquor will actually make a brute out of a negro, causing him to commit unnatural crimes. The effect is the same on the white man, though the white man being further evolved it takes longer time to reduce him to the same level. Starting young, however, it does not take a very long time to speedily cause a man in the forefront of civilization to pass through the successive stages and become semi-civilized, semi-savage, savage, and, at last, below the brute.

The spiritual nature of man gives dignity to his life above the life of the brute. It is this spiritual nature of man that makes him in the image of his Maker, so that the Bible referred to man as being a little lower than the angels. It is a tragedy to blight the physical life. No measure can be made of blighting the spiritual life. Nature does not tolerate reversing its evolutionary principle, and proceeds automatically to exterminate any creature, any animal, any race, any species that degenerates.

Nature adopts two methods of extermination— one to shorten the life, the other to blight the offspring. Alcohol, even in small quantities, attacks all the vital organs and the nervous system, the tissues, and the blood. A large percentage of premature deaths arising from disease are due to this cause.

The attack on the blood lowers the efficiency of the white blood corpuscles to destroy the disease germs, exposing the drinker far more than the abstainer to the ravages of consumption, pneumonia, typhoid, and other germ diseases. The records of insurance companies show that in the periods from twenty-five to forty-five the mortality of total abstainers is only a fraction of that of the average. This means that the bulk of deaths in young manhood are due to alcohol.

It means that people ought not to die in their prime any more than animals [animals frequently die in their prime, even in the absence of farming - CJS]. The records of the insurance companies show that a man starting at the age of 20 as a total abstainer lives to the average age of 65, whereas starting at the age of 20 as a moderate drinker he dies at 51, losing over fourteen years, or a cutting down of nearly one-third of his days [this claim was probably untrue in and would certainly be untrue today - CJS].

Starting at the age of twenty as a heavy drinker a man dies at thirty-five, a sheer loss of two-thirds of the span of his whole life. We are dying at the rate of 1, deaths per 61, of the population. Total abstainers in our midst are dying at the rate of per 61, of the population, though living under the same conditions. The latter figures are those applied to adult males as shown by the insurance companies' figures.

Investigations show that the shortening of life of the offspring is far greater and more serious than that of the parent, as I will point out later, and since the adult males are the fathers of the young of both sexes it is on the side of conservatism to apply the proportion to the whole population, so that we can conservatively say that additional deaths are caused every year per 61, of the population — deaths that are premature and unnecessary. This means that alcohol actually kills fully , American citizens every year.

When these figures were first printed they were subject to some ridicule and to many attempts to disprove them. Several German scientists have employed the same methods of reasoning, and the liquor interests of the continent have a standing offer of 6, marks to any scientist that can disprove the figures of the great insurance companies which are the foundation of this awful conclusion. When the great Titanic sank in mid-ocean with her precious cargo and shocked the whole world, she carried down less than 1, souls.

Alcohol carries down to a premature grave every day more than 2, American souls. Gladstone in the maturity of his philosophy announced that "strong drink is more destructive than the historic scourges of war, pestilence, and famine combined. Many battles have been fought in history for which there is no authentic report of the casualty, but of those of which there are records, from the Macedonian war, B.

Bearing in mind the qualifying circumstances, it can be generally said, therefore, that alcohol brings to a premature grave more Americans in one year than all the wars of the world, as recorded, have killed on the field of battle in 2, years [ utter drivel - CJS]. When the great war in Europe is over it will be found that the sum total killed on the field of battle for all nations will average less than 1, a day [ actually, it turned out to be over 10, a day - CJS].

Alcohol averages 2, Americans a day. Europe is really in the eyes of nature better off today in the midst of her great tragedy than she has been for centuries, because Europe is almost dry [not really - CJS]. The convention of life insurance presidents recently announced that Russia is saving fully 50, lives of her adult males per year from her recent prohibition order, which in a brief period of time will far more than make up for the soldiers killed in battle. No great nation was ever overthrown in war until after its vitality had been undermined by degeneracy arising from alcoholic dissipation.

When a soldier falls on the field of battle we all realize the tragedy, but in reality it is only his physical life that has been snuffed out. The bullet that pierced the brave soldier's heart never touched his character. When his soul rose to appear before its Maker it had no wound. But when the victim is stretched out in premature death from alcohol not only are his heart and other organs and tissues of his body wounded but the ghastly wound is the rent torn in his soul.

Civilized nations forbid in warfare the use of flat-nosed bullets that spatter in the flesh and bone. Alcohol uses dum-dums that not only spatter in the flesh and bone but crash into the soul. I realize full well how cruel war is, having had friends of mine among Spanish officers, men who had been kind to me in prison, who had treated me like a brother, mortally wounded, dying in agony [Hobson built his prohibitionist career on his reputation as a war hero.

On board the Spanish wrecks shortly after the battle of Santiago I saw the dead men about the decks where they had fallen at their posts of duty. I realized they were brave men and good men, and my soul cried out at the cruelty of their being killed at our hands. I realized not only the cruelty but also the calamity of war, particularly when it overtakes a nation unprepared as our nation is; but if I had to choose one or the other of these two destructive agents, alcohol or war, I would rather see America, sober, stand alone and face the combined world; I would rather see my country, as defenseless as I know she is, face all the great armies of the world rather than to see this great internal destroyer continue unchecked his deadly ravages throughout our land.

Alcohol makes a deadly attack upon the organ of reproduction in both male and female, and upon the nervous system of the little life before birth in the embryonic period. One-half of 1 per cent of alcohol in solution, such as a future mother might easily have in her circulation in attending a banquet or fashionable dinner, drinking only wine or beer, will, oft repeated, kill the little life and endanger the life and health of the mother. If both parents are moderate drinkers, drinking but one glass of wine or beer per day at one meal, the effect will more than quadruple the chances of miscarriage of the mother, increasing over per cent the dangers and sufferings in maternity, and will nearly double the percentage of their children that will die the first year in infancy.

The children of drinking parents on the whole die off four to fivefold more rapidly than the children of abstaining parents. This means that scores and scores of thousands of little children die every year from cruel wounds inflicted upon their little lives before they were born at the hands of their parents who did not know.

Stardust (The Solitary Knights of Pelham Bay Book 4)

If both parents are alcoholic one child in five of those that do survive will become insane before it is grown. One child in seven will be born deformed. One child in three will become epileptic, hysterical, or feeble-minded. Only one child in six will be normal; five out of six will be blighted. On the other hand, if both parents are total abstainers, there will be no more dangers and suffering in maternity than in the case of other species ; and no matter how hard the lot in life of the parents may be, nine out of ten of their children will be absolutely normal.

These children normally born will be easy to bring up, and, kept safe from degeneracy in their youth, will tend to rise one degree higher and nobler in character than their parents, following the line of the species evolution. If a family or a nation is sober, nature in its normal course will cause them to rise to a higher civilization. If a family or nation, on the other hand, is debauched by liquor, it must decline and ultimately perish.

Rome during long centuries was frugal and abstemious, practicing absolute Prohibition within its walls, and during this period we see the wonderful rise of the Roman Empire [not true - CJS]. When the Romans gathered into their great city and the youth gave themselves over to dissipation, we see the decline and finally the fall of that great empire. Similarly the other nations and empires of the past have risen only to fall.

We are all familiar with thoroughbred races of horses, dogs, and so forth, but who ever heard of a thoroughbred race of men? We know that great aggregates of plants and animals continue to rise, but a great nation is only born to die. Heretofore a nation has only been able to rise to a certain level, when, gathering in great cities, liquor has overtaken the youth and a great millstone has settled about its neck. Back it sank, never to rise again. We stand in the presence of this most startling discovery of science — that alcohol has absolutely disrupted the orderly evolution of the great human species.

There can be but one verdict, and that is this great destroyer must be destroyed. The liberties and institutions of a free people must depend for their perpetuity upon the average standard of character of the electorate. In America where we have manhood suffrage the degeneracy produced, particularly in big cities, is undermining the foundations of our institutions. It is this same lowering of the average standard of character of the citizenship in the past that entailed the overthrow of the liberties of Greece and Rome and other republics.

It seems rather ironical for liquor men to call upon the name of liberty. Through control of political parties and politicians and from the supply of needed revenues liquor gets a strangle hold upon the government, and for ages governments have largely looked to liquor to supply revenues and give support for continuance in power. It is a clear sign of the times to note the general change of attitude of the governments of Europe toward liquor. All governments should now be in full possession of the findings of science as to the real nature of alcohol, consequently when the general war broke out in Europe the governments, though in great need of revenues, promptly took advantage of the powers conferred under martial law to strike liquor a deadly blow [though not quite a 'deadly blow', the belligerent countries did indeed curtail alcohol sales - CJS].

Shortly after the promulgation of martial law the Russian government, in spite of the loss of hundreds of millions in revenue, issued a proclamation to compel prohibition of the national drink — vodka. This order has been made permanent and, broadly speaking, the Russian empire is to remain dry forever [prohibition in Russia was repealed in the s - CJS]. The French government likewise issued a proclamation of prohibition of the manufacture and sale of absinthe, and has since extended this to include other distilled liquors [the green fairy was legalised in France only recently - CJS].

After the proclamation of martial law the German government closed down the breweries throughout the empire and has promulgated drastic measures for prohibition in the war zone of the east. When a child is born in Germany the government sends a card to the mother warning against the deadly nature of alcohol. When a child enters public school in Berlin the Prussian government sends an anti-alcohol card to the father and mother by the child.

It seems too bad that the Germans who have cast their lot in America should not have caught the progressive spirit of the fatherland. Eight hundred German scientists, of them professors in German universities, have made a unanimous report on the nature of beverage alcohol, recommending its complete elimination. A German staff physician of the German army has announced that "we should not discuss moderation with a man. The thing has long since been settled by science. The use of narcotic poisons is simply indecent and criminal.

It should be a source of humiliation to well-informed Americans that our government shows no indications of change of attitude toward liquor. Our need for revenue is much less than that of the nations at war, and yet in sections 1 and 2 of the revenue bill recently passed we turned to liquor for nearly one-half the total amount, strengthening the hold of liquor upon the finances of the government [the government's dependence on alcohol taxes had actually been broken when the 16th Amendment was ratified in - CJS]. Liquor has the same stranglehold upon the throat of our government today that slavery had before Congress has not permitted the cotton planter to deposit his cotton in bond, but it has done everything for the distiller so he can place his liquor in bond and on these warrants get financial advances.

The first finding of science that alcohol is a protoplasmic poison and the second finding that it is an insidious, habit-forming drug, though of great importance, are as unimportant when compared with the third finding, that alcohol degenerates the character of men and tears down their spiritual nature. Like the other members of the group of oxide derivatives of hydrocarbons, alcohol is not only a general poison, but it has a chemical affinity or deadly appetite for certain particular tissues.

Strychnine tears down the spinal cord. Alcohol tears down the top part of the brain in a man, attacks certain tissues in an animal, certain cells in a flower. It has been established that whatever the line of a creature's evolution alcohol will attack that line. Every type and every species is evolving in building from generation to generation along some particular line. Man is evolving in the top part of the brain, the seat of the will power, the seat of the moral senses, and of the spiritual nature, the recognition of right and wrong, the consciousness of God and of duty and of brotherly love and of self-sacrifice.

All life in the universe is founded upon the principle of evolution.

Loosen up a little

Alcohol directly reverses that principle. Man has risen from the savage up through successive steps to the level of the semi-savage, the semi-civilized, and the highly civilized. Liquor promptly degenerates the red man, throws him back into savagery. It will promptly put a tribe on the warpath. Liquor will actually make a brute out of a negro, causing him to commit unnatural crimes. The effect is the same on the white man, though the white man being further evolved it takes longer time to reduce him to the same level. Starting young, however, it does not take a very long time to speedily cause a man in the forefront of civilization to pass through the successive stages and become semi-civilized, semi-savage, savage, and, at last, below the brute.

The spiritual nature of man gives dignity to his life above the life of the brute. It is this spiritual nature of man that makes him in the image of his Maker, so that the Bible referred to man as being a little lower than the angels. It is a tragedy to blight the physical life. No measure can be made of blighting the spiritual life.

Nature does not tolerate reversing its evolutionary principle, and proceeds automatically to exterminate any creature, any animal, any race, any species that degenerates. Nature adopts two methods of extermination— one to shorten the life, the other to blight the offspring. Alcohol, even in small quantities, attacks all the vital organs and the nervous system, the tissues, and the blood. A large percentage of premature deaths arising from disease are due to this cause. The attack on the blood lowers the efficiency of the white blood corpuscles to destroy the disease germs, exposing the drinker far more than the abstainer to the ravages of consumption, pneumonia, typhoid, and other germ diseases.

The records of insurance companies show that in the periods from twenty-five to forty-five the mortality of total abstainers is only a fraction of that of the average. This means that the bulk of deaths in young manhood are due to alcohol. It means that people ought not to die in their prime any more than animals [animals frequently die in their prime, even in the absence of farming - CJS]. The records of the insurance companies show that a man starting at the age of 20 as a total abstainer lives to the average age of 65, whereas starting at the age of 20 as a moderate drinker he dies at 51, losing over fourteen years, or a cutting down of nearly one-third of his days [this claim was probably untrue in and would certainly be untrue today - CJS].

Starting at the age of twenty as a heavy drinker a man dies at thirty-five, a sheer loss of two-thirds of the span of his whole life. We are dying at the rate of 1, deaths per 61, of the population. Total abstainers in our midst are dying at the rate of per 61, of the population, though living under the same conditions. The latter figures are those applied to adult males as shown by the insurance companies' figures. Investigations show that the shortening of life of the offspring is far greater and more serious than that of the parent, as I will point out later, and since the adult males are the fathers of the young of both sexes it is on the side of conservatism to apply the proportion to the whole population, so that we can conservatively say that additional deaths are caused every year per 61, of the population — deaths that are premature and unnecessary.

This means that alcohol actually kills fully , American citizens every year. When these figures were first printed they were subject to some ridicule and to many attempts to disprove them. Several German scientists have employed the same methods of reasoning, and the liquor interests of the continent have a standing offer of 6, marks to any scientist that can disprove the figures of the great insurance companies which are the foundation of this awful conclusion.

When the great Titanic sank in mid-ocean with her precious cargo and shocked the whole world, she carried down less than 1, souls. Alcohol carries down to a premature grave every day more than 2, American souls. Gladstone in the maturity of his philosophy announced that "strong drink is more destructive than the historic scourges of war, pestilence, and famine combined. Many battles have been fought in history for which there is no authentic report of the casualty, but of those of which there are records, from the Macedonian war, B.

Bearing in mind the qualifying circumstances, it can be generally said, therefore, that alcohol brings to a premature grave more Americans in one year than all the wars of the world, as recorded, have killed on the field of battle in 2, years [ utter drivel - CJS]. When the great war in Europe is over it will be found that the sum total killed on the field of battle for all nations will average less than 1, a day [ actually, it turned out to be over 10, a day - CJS].

Alcohol averages 2, Americans a day. Europe is really in the eyes of nature better off today in the midst of her great tragedy than she has been for centuries, because Europe is almost dry [not really - CJS].

George W. Armstrong Papers:

The convention of life insurance presidents recently announced that Russia is saving fully 50, lives of her adult males per year from her recent prohibition order, which in a brief period of time will far more than make up for the soldiers killed in battle. No great nation was ever overthrown in war until after its vitality had been undermined by degeneracy arising from alcoholic dissipation.

When a soldier falls on the field of battle we all realize the tragedy, but in reality it is only his physical life that has been snuffed out. The bullet that pierced the brave soldier's heart never touched his character. When his soul rose to appear before its Maker it had no wound. But when the victim is stretched out in premature death from alcohol not only are his heart and other organs and tissues of his body wounded but the ghastly wound is the rent torn in his soul.


  • Thomas James Norton, Losing Liberty Judicially;
  • A Guide to the Economic Removal of Metals from Aqueous Solutions.
  • About this book.
  • Safety management : a qualitative systems approach;

Civilized nations forbid in warfare the use of flat-nosed bullets that spatter in the flesh and bone. Alcohol uses dum-dums that not only spatter in the flesh and bone but crash into the soul. I realize full well how cruel war is, having had friends of mine among Spanish officers, men who had been kind to me in prison, who had treated me like a brother, mortally wounded, dying in agony [Hobson built his prohibitionist career on his reputation as a war hero.

On board the Spanish wrecks shortly after the battle of Santiago I saw the dead men about the decks where they had fallen at their posts of duty. I realized they were brave men and good men, and my soul cried out at the cruelty of their being killed at our hands. I realized not only the cruelty but also the calamity of war, particularly when it overtakes a nation unprepared as our nation is; but if I had to choose one or the other of these two destructive agents, alcohol or war, I would rather see America, sober, stand alone and face the combined world; I would rather see my country, as defenseless as I know she is, face all the great armies of the world rather than to see this great internal destroyer continue unchecked his deadly ravages throughout our land.

Alcohol makes a deadly attack upon the organ of reproduction in both male and female, and upon the nervous system of the little life before birth in the embryonic period. One-half of 1 per cent of alcohol in solution, such as a future mother might easily have in her circulation in attending a banquet or fashionable dinner, drinking only wine or beer, will, oft repeated, kill the little life and endanger the life and health of the mother.

If both parents are moderate drinkers, drinking but one glass of wine or beer per day at one meal, the effect will more than quadruple the chances of miscarriage of the mother, increasing over per cent the dangers and sufferings in maternity, and will nearly double the percentage of their children that will die the first year in infancy. The children of drinking parents on the whole die off four to fivefold more rapidly than the children of abstaining parents.

This means that scores and scores of thousands of little children die every year from cruel wounds inflicted upon their little lives before they were born at the hands of their parents who did not know. If both parents are alcoholic one child in five of those that do survive will become insane before it is grown. One child in seven will be born deformed. One child in three will become epileptic, hysterical, or feeble-minded. Only one child in six will be normal; five out of six will be blighted. On the other hand, if both parents are total abstainers, there will be no more dangers and suffering in maternity than in the case of other species ; and no matter how hard the lot in life of the parents may be, nine out of ten of their children will be absolutely normal.

These children normally born will be easy to bring up, and, kept safe from degeneracy in their youth, will tend to rise one degree higher and nobler in character than their parents, following the line of the species evolution. If a family or a nation is sober, nature in its normal course will cause them to rise to a higher civilization.

If a family or nation, on the other hand, is debauched by liquor, it must decline and ultimately perish. Rome during long centuries was frugal and abstemious, practicing absolute Prohibition within its walls, and during this period we see the wonderful rise of the Roman Empire [not true - CJS]. When the Romans gathered into their great city and the youth gave themselves over to dissipation, we see the decline and finally the fall of that great empire.

Similarly the other nations and empires of the past have risen only to fall. We are all familiar with thoroughbred races of horses, dogs, and so forth, but who ever heard of a thoroughbred race of men? We know that great aggregates of plants and animals continue to rise, but a great nation is only born to die.

Heretofore a nation has only been able to rise to a certain level, when, gathering in great cities, liquor has overtaken the youth and a great millstone has settled about its neck. Back it sank, never to rise again. We stand in the presence of this most startling discovery of science — that alcohol has absolutely disrupted the orderly evolution of the great human species. There can be but one verdict, and that is this great destroyer must be destroyed. The time is ripe for fulfillment. The present generation, the generation to which we belong, must cut this millstone of degeneracy from the neck of humanity.

What is the remedy for this great organic disease that is nation-wide and world-wide in its blight? Evidently the treatment must itself be organic and must itself be nation-wide and world-wide. We can look to nature and find out in what organic treatment consists, for instance, in diseases of the body physical. In the case of a cure for such a disease the cure consists not in the curing of the old disease tissues, but in the growth of young tissue, and the very essence of the cure is to insure that the disease or contagion shall not extend to the young tissue, giving nature an opportunity to grow the cure.

The cure of the old drinkers is not nature's cure for such an organic disease. It is not possible by enactment of a law to make old drinkers stop drinking, to change the deep-seated habits of a lifetime. The amendment proposed in this resolution does not undertake to coerce old drinkers; Or to regulate the use of liquor by the individual [this is a lie.

Prohibition sought to coerce everyone, young and old - CJS]. The cure for this disease lies in the stopping of the debauching of the young.