We believe that some of the outcome of this effort can be shared, so that different researchers that face the challenges of editing historical materials can benefit from them. Documentary texts provide a number of advantages over literary texts: we usually know the date and place when and where they were written; they are written in a non-literary style and include fragments that could be close to the common language and, last but not least, they have not been altered, neither linguistically nor in their redaction, by centuries of manuscript transmission.
In the first place, it must be a primary corpus: with primary corpus we intend a corpus made up from texts directly edited by the corpus researchers, not former editions by other authors.
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This is, a same research group takes care of searching for the texts, selecting and editing them. We arrive thus to the second requirement for a quality corpus: the corpus texts have to be transcribed and edited according to previously set scientific criteria. Also, the corpus must contain a large number of texts in order to have a representative sample.
Finally, the corpus must include not only texts and search engines, but also quantitative and qualitative analysis about topics such as the space-time distribution of linguistic variants. In this respect, we would like to underline that textual scholarship and corpus linguistics, specially when dealing with diachronic corpora, are closely linked, since the quality of the corpus is based on the quality of the editions that compose it.
We have taken into account these requirements when designing CODEA, so that the corpus could be said to meet the aforementioned standards. Also, it is reliable, because these texts are purpose built editions, carried out according to scientific and philological criteria. Texts in CODEA follow the editorial criteria of the International CHARTA Network and have been widely applied and amply recognized as useful; nevertheless, they are not static but develop progressively to meet the new challenges that editors face when working with different texts.
For instance, now these criteria provide editors with guidelines to face material accidents in the texts, such as deletions or corrections or to indicate different hands in the copy of the documents.
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Finally, one can see the quotability and retrievability of CODEA in the fact that it provides free and universal access to all of its contents, which can also be downloaded. As for representativeness, a much larger number of texts and documents are easily available nowadays than it was in the past, thanks to the digitalization and on line availability of some archives. But this fact make us face the need of selecting materials for our corpora.
There are two main methodological approaches. These two models, the macro-corpus and the specific corpus, are complementary, but lately, the tendency in Europe is to follow the specific model, which can reach both a better definition of the focal point of research and a higher quality in displayed materials. But even specific corpora are sometimes constructed used previous editions, like the Corpus of Middle English Prose and Verse , which includes editions from the nineteenth century.
Broadly speaking we could say that there are not noticeable tendencies in this respect in English, French or Italian philology. In general, on line editions are less palaeographical and do not mark the resolving of abbreviations like the Anglo-Norman on-line Hub. So, different corpora choose to show different bits of the information contained in the texts. Aware of the actual prospects of CODEA, we have made some sensible choices among the different options that the multi-edition furnishes us with: the documents are presented on line in a triple visualization.
In the case of the aforementioned document , it would be as follows:. Each one of the displays of the document in the CODEA web provides data for different kinds of research. The facsimiles of the documents can be used for palaeographical studies. Palaeographical transcriptions of documents are useful for graphic and phonetic studies.
Finally, critical presentations provide materials for syntactic and lexical studies, as well as for historical studies in general. Secondly, also the chronological and geographical span of the corpus will be expanded. On the other hand, the eighteenth-century documents will be a novelty, since this century is very scarcely represented in corpora although archives are plenty of documentary materials from this period , and also very little studied.
The difficulties that these documents pose have been the cause for them to be excluded from CODEA until the present date, although there are some other corpora within the CHARTA network that do work with this sort of texts; for instance, Enrique-Arias deals with problems of edition and study of Catalan-Spanish bilingual letters.
Previous experience shows that lexical and syntactic efficiency increases as the percentage of private documents increase. In consequence, it is possible and productive to study the influence of the official language in diachronic change of the Spanish language, in the context of multi-causality in linguistic change. On the other, documents written by historically socially deprived people, like travellers or Spanish gitanos gypsies.
We would also like to mention that the Spanish Institute of Gypsy Culture is supporting this project. Unfortunately, not all the archives in which we are interested have detailed, web-compliant catalogues, so on-site work has proved necessary. It is worth mentioning the relevance of close collaboration with staff in archives, since their knowledge of the funds can point out important documents not described or poorly described in the archive inventories.
Archivo General de Simancas, which keeps many remarkable epistolary collections, written by kings p. Tagging of linguistic features is also usual, as one can see in the projects on European Dialect Syntax.
Most corpora use TEI markup, although many textual and linguistic features are not included in the standard. This header is different from the ones currently used in CODEA, which are simpler and include less external data:. AMTO A. Search engines will include functionalities such as search by lemma for instance, when searching one verb the search results will include all forms, regular and irregular, including old morphological variants , form, high or low frequencies and lexical bundles within the document.
These engines will also be able to search the information included in the head: chancery, archive, date and place and so on. Users of CODEA will be able to visualize the results of these searches built into maps, tables or statistical graphics. We will shortly comment on only two of these works; a complete bibliographical list of the research that has been carried out up till now is available in the GITHE website e.
Our research team, together with the University of Tokyo, is currently developing a computer tool for interactive dating of undated documents. Researchers Ueda and Kawasaki, from University of Tokyo have written a complex program to date these documentary pieces with a very small margin of error Kawasaki In the first phase of the work, it was necessary to establish a large number of linguistic and non linguistic parameters, which range from hands or seals to syntax or notarial formulae. In CODEA this technique will be applied to all the undated pieces of the corpus, and its results will be available for study.
Edition of documentary texts for research and study should be based on a deep knowledge of historical linguistics and carried out according to previously set editorial criteria. Creation of primary corpora, this is, corpora built from ad hoc editions, is crucial for historical research and study and it is clear that information retrieval heavily depends on the way in which the texts are published. Therefore, a corpus is not only a tool for different studies, but a methodological approach to edition that be taken into account in textual scholarship.
CODEA, with its triple presentation, together with accurate and sound editorial criteria, aims to provide resources for many different studies, from graphematics to general history, which is impossible with a single edition. This is an oral literature that reflects local patterns of speech and is consequently of great value for linguistic analysis. However impressive the linguistic legacy of the Spanish borderlands might be, it is rather in the twentieth century that the Spanish language became such an integral part of the national scene.
Major currents of immigration followed close upon historical events. The Spanish- American War in brought Puerto Rico into its special relationship with the United States and opened the doors for the establishment of Puerto Rican communities, principally in New York City, but eventually in many other parts of the country. The Mexican revolution that began in had the effect of driving many refugees north of the border, but the principal magnet for immigration was the economic opportunities offered by U.
Mexican communities all over the Southwest were strengthened by immigration from Mexico, but many immigrants settled in other parts of the country; for instance, Chicago became home to an especially numerous and active community. The Cuban revolution of provoked yet another diaspora, the principal center of which is Miami. Over and above such catastrophic displacements there has been a steady immigration from all Spanish-speaking countries. Spanish is by far the largest non- English language spoken in the United States; indeed, with perhaps 30 million Spanish speakers, the United States counts as one of the largest Spanish-speaking countries after Mexico and Spain.
In studying the numerous varieties of U. Spanish, the predominant theme of linguistic research has been to measure the impact of English on immigrant Spanish. English affects the sound system phonology and word forms morphology in very limited ways, while the influence on vocabulary lexicon and phrase and sentence construction syntax tends to be notable.
Bilingual speakers among themselves often use both languages in the same discourse, a phenomenon labeled "code-switching" in the linguistic literature. The manner in which the rapid transitions from one language to the other are achieved possesses considerable importance for general linguistics. The Hispanic tradition has enriched American English literature in two ways: first, throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, numerous American writers have shown a special fascination with the Hispanic world in general, and the Spanish borderlands in particular.
Their works have helped to propagate large numbers of Spanish loanwords into American English. In the second half of the twentieth century, significant contributions to American English literature have been made by authors of Cuban, Puerto Rican, and Mexican descent. Their works often contain considerable numbers of Spanish words and phrases that their readers are presumed to know and no doubt penetrate into the language of mono-lingual English speakers.
The Hispanic presence in the United States shows every sign of continuing the steady growth characteristic of the twentieth century. The already great importance of the Spanish language in the national life of the United States will accordingly be enhanced with each passing decade. De Marco, Barbara, and Jerry R.
Craddock, eds. Special Issue, Parts 1—2 of Romance Philology 53 — Handbook of Hispanic Cultures in the United States. Houston, Tex. Roca, Ana, ed. Somerville, Mass.
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Wiegle, Marta, and Peter White. The Lore of New Mexico. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, Spanish language, member of the Romance group of the Italic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages see Romance languages. The official language of Spain and 19 Latin American nations, Spanish is spoken as a first language by about million persons and as a second language by perhaps another 50 million.
It is the mother tongue of about 40 million people in Spain, where the language originated and whence it was later brought by Spanish explorers, colonists, and empire-builders to the Western Hemisphere and other parts of the world during the last five centuries. It is the native language of over 17 million people in the United States , and is one of the official languages of the United Nations. Spanish is a descendant of the Vulgar Latin brought to the Iberian peninsula by the soldiers and colonists of ancient Rome see Latin language.
Thus the Spanish vocabulary is basically of Latin origin, although it has been enriched by many loan words from other languages, especially Arabic, French, Italian, and various indigenous languages of North, Central, and South America. The oldest extant written records of Spanish date from the middle of the 10th cent. There are a number of Spanish dialects; however, the Castilian dialect was already the accepted standard of the language by the middle of the 13th cent.
There are several striking differences in pronunciation between Castilian and major dialects of Latin American Spanish. In the former, c before e and i, and z before a, o, and u, are pronounced th, as in English think ; in the latter, they are sounded as s in English see.
Moreover, the alphabetical symbol ll in Castilian is pronounced as lli in English billion ; but in Latin American Spanish, as y in English you. On the whole, however, the differences between the Spanish dialects of Europe and of Latin America with reference to pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammar are relatively minor. One interesting feature of Spanish is that there are two forms of the verb "to be" : estar, which denotes a relatively temporary state, and ser, which denotes a relatively permanent condition and which is also used before a predicate noun.
Reflexive verbs often perform the same function in Spanish that passive verbs do in English. Because the inflection of the Spanish verb indicates person very clearly, subject pronouns are not necessary. Bibliography See W. Amastae and L. Harris and N. Vincent, The Romance Languages It is also spoken in a number of other countries, notably the USA and former Spanish dependencies such as the Philippines.
Spanish is a member of the Romance group of Indo-European languages but its vocabulary contains a large number of words of Arabic origin, the result of Moorish domination of Spain for many centuries. There are more than million Spanish speakers worldwide. Spanish of, pertaining to, or associated with Spain. Spanish flu influenza caused by an influenza virus of type A, in particular that of the pandemic which began in Spanish Inquisition an ecclesiastical court established in and directed originally against converts from Judaism and Islam but later also against Protestants.
It operated with great severity, especially under its first inquisitor, Torquemada, and was not suppressed until the early 19th century. Nobody expects the Spanish Inquisition is a catchphrase from a Monty Python script, in which the Inquisitors consistently fail to make a successful announcement of their arrival and identity. Spanish practice another term for old Spanish custom.
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