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A unique work for scholars, students, Civil War buffs and reenactors, and general readers. The standard against which all future works will be measured. Highly recommended. All levels and collections. An important resource for mostlibraries A necessary acquisition for public and academic libraries with collections on the Civil War, social movements such as abolition, and women's studies. The readable entries include both illustrations and bibliographies A Canadian judge released the raiders, and the stolen money even ended up back with them.

Americans were outraged, and many northern newspapers demanded that Lincoln invade Canada. However, a new set of trials and arrests helped cool tempers.

Women, Gender, and World War II

Many of the raiders were in custody when the war was drawing to a close in April By the late s, the Canadian and Maritime colonies were in trouble. Their economies were weak and debts were high. Their economic future looked even worse when Britain ended a trade deal with the colonies and the United States announced its intention to do the same see Reciprocity. The colonial governments were poorly structured and ineffective — and their ability to defend themselves was nearly non-existent.

Many powerful British leaders advocated cutting ties with the troublesome and expensive colonies and encouraged them to become more independent. Canadians and Maritimers were also aware of the threat of the United States annexing or invading them because of its popular idea of Manifest Destiny , which said that the United States was destined to own all of North America. All of these factors had led Canadian and Maritime politicians to consider strengthening the small, weak colonies by joining them into a bigger, richer, more defendable unit, but nothing had come of it.

Then, the Civil War made the threat of American invasion more likely, while the number of British political leaders who were eager to cut support for the North American colonies increased. The time for colonial unification, Confederation , had come.

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The St. The new state they designed was based on the British ideas of monarchism and governing through a parliamentary system with an elected lower house House of Commons and an appointed upper house Senate. From the United States, they adopted a written constitution and the establishment of a federal system , meaning that there would be a central federal government and subnational provincial governments. John A. The Civil War ended in , with many Canadians and Maritimers still deciding whether to support Confederation.

Though the Fenian Raids failed, they were a reminder that the United States posed a threat to Canadian sovereignty. As a result, they encouraged support for Confederation see Fenian Raids exhibit. On 1 July , Confederation was proclaimed, and Canada became an independent country. The Civil War continued to have an impact in Canada for many years after the conflict ended in Many Americans remained upset over Canadian and Maritime actions during the war and were upset over the fact that many Confederate generals and even President Jefferson Davis had fled there after the war.

Even more Americans were upset that Britain had helped the Confederacy in a number of ways during the war, including allowing ships to be built in Britain that became part of the Confederate navy. It became known as the Alabama Claims, named after the deadliest of the British-built ships that, as part of the Confederate navy, destroyed or captured nearly 60 Union ships see Alabama. British and American officials discussed the option of the United States taking Canadian territory instead of the money. Grant, who, like many Americans, believed in Manifest Destiny. Macdonald representing Canada.

Women's Role In The Civil War

The conference led to the adoption of the Treaty of Washington. Also important was that the treaty would only come into effect when it was ratified by the British and US governments and, significantly, the Canadian government.

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He is believed to have been wounded in the leg at the Battle of Antietam in Maryland. He was discharged in October and returned to Canada East the following year. Edward P. Anderson Abbott , the first Canadian-born Black person to graduate from medical school, served the Union Army as a civilian surgeon in several Washington, DC, hospitals. First, the idea that the South was physically destroyed by the fighting has been largely discarded.

Second was the impact of emancipation. Slaveholders lost their enormous investment in slaves as a result of emancipation. Planters were consequently strapped for capital in the years immediately after the war, and this affected their options with regard to labor contracts with the freedmen and in their dealings with capital markets to obtain credit for the planting season. The freedmen and their families responded to emancipation by withdrawing up to a third of their labor from the market. While they were able, for the most part, to cling to their landholdings, the ex-slaveholders were ultimately forced to break up the great plantations that had been the cornerstone of the antebellum Southern economy and rent small parcels of land to the freedmen under using a new form of rental contract — sharecropping.

From a situation where tenancy was extremely rare, the South suddenly became an agricultural economy characterized by tenant farms. The result was an economy that remained heavily committed not only to agriculture, but to the staple crop of cotton. Crop output in the South fell dramatically at the end of the war, and had not yet recovered its antebellum level by Table 5 compares the economic growth of GNP in the United States with the gross crop output of the Southern states from to Over the last quarter of the nineteenth century, gross crop output in the South rose by about one percent per year at a time when the GNP of United States including the South was rising at twice that rate.

By the end of the century, Southern per capita income had fallen to roughly two-thirds the national level, and the South was locked in a cycle of poverty that lasted well into the twentieth century. How much of this failure was due solely to the war remains open to debate. Atack, Jeremy, and Peter Passell. Second edition. New York: W. Norton, Beard, Charles, and Mary Beard. The Rise of American Civilization. Two volumes. New York: Macmillan, Bensel, Richard F. New York: Cambridge University Press, Brown, Richard D. Modernization: The Transformation of American Life, New York: Hill and Wang, Burdekin, Richard C.

Cochran, Thomas C. Egnal, Marc. Engerman, Stanley L. Faulkner, Harold Underwood. American Economic History. Fifth edition. Gilchrist, David T. David Lewis, editors. Economic Change in the Civil War Era. Goldin, Claudia Dale. Goldin, Claudia, and Frank Lewis. Gunderson, Gerald.

Women, Gender, and World War II - Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History

Hacker, Louis. New York: Columbia University Press, Hughes, J. New York: Addison Wesley, Huston, James L. James, John. Lerner, Eugene. McPherson, James M. New York: Oxford University Press, North, Douglass C. The Economic Growth of the United States, Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, Ransom, Roger L. America, Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, Robertson, Ross M. History of the American Economy. New York: Harcourt Brace and World, United States, Bureau of the Census.

Washington: U. Government Printing Office, Walton, Gary M. Eighth edition. New York: Dryden, Weidenmier, Marc. Weingast, Barry. Weingast, Barry R. Princeton: Princeton University Press, Williamson, Jeffrey. Wolfson, Murray. Wright, Gavin. New York: Basic Books, Citation: Ransom, Roger. Net Encyclopedia, edited by Robert Whaples. August 24, Please read our Copyright Information page for important copyright information.

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Newsletters To join the newsletters or submit a posting go to click here. Roger L. Economic Causes of the War No one seriously doubts that the enormous economic stake the South had in its slave labor force was a major factor in the sectional disputes that erupted in the middle of the nineteenth century.

Land Policy 1. Bensel Transportation Improvements 2. The Tariff 3. Banking 4. Financing the War No war in American history strained the economic resources of the economy as the Civil War did. Gross Southern Crop Output to 2. Source: Computed from data in Gerald Gunderson , Table 1. Table 2 Urban Population of the United States in a. Direct Costs:. Total Direct Costs of the War. Per capita. Total Indirect Costs of The War. Population in Million. Source: Union: Atack and Passell , Table Source: Ransom and Sutch , Table 7.