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Social Credit Career Sketches. Persistent discrimination and exclusion in the Quebec denominational school system prompted the Jewish community to establish their own schools as early as the late nineteenth century. Montreal Canada , April 25, Further policies, however, were discriminatory. For example, in , Chinese immigration was restricted and a head tax for all Chinese immigrants was imposed. In , handicapped individuals were prevented from entering the country. The Immigration Act further enabled the government to obtain the right to reject any groups it deemed undesirable.
By , nearly a third of the Canadian labour force was unemployed. In , more than , individuals immigrated to Canada.
Social Discredit: Anti-Semitism, Social Credit, and the Jewish Response Janine Stingel
By , that number dwindled to less than 12, In response to the growing economic crisis, from nearly 30, immigrants were deported back to their countries of origin As antisemitism spread throughout Germany in the early s, German Jews — as well as other European Jews — were desperate to leave the continent. The government skirted accusations of antisemitism during this period by claiming that allowing tens of thousands of Jewish immigrants into Canada would have exceeded the proportional representation of Jews in the country as a whole.
Such decisions by the Canadian government would have devastating consequences for Jews leeing persecution in Europe. With Faith and Thanksgiving. Montreal: The Eagle Publishing Co. King was greatly inluenced by a well-known nineteenth century Canadian intellectual of British origin, Goldwin Smith. Smith was a fervent antisemite who believed that Jews were a negative inluence who sought world domination. National unity and maintenance of relative peace between French and English speaking Canadians were also preoccupations given the conscription crisis.
Prime Minister Mackenzie King, Source: Library of Congress Diary entry written by W. Mackenzie King, Prime Minister of Canada, Ottawa, 29 March Convened by the United States, discussions focused on the threat of Nazism to the survival of the Jews of Europe.
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When delegates were asked how they would respond to the current situation, the Canadian delegation — represented by Mr. Both Blair and King remained virtually silent on the issue of Jewish immigration. Their personal feelings regarding Jews, however, are well documented in private and internal communications.
From , King wrote more than 30, pages in his personal diary.
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Some of the excerpts from his writing relay sympathy for Jews during the Holocaust. We do not want to legitimatize the Aryan mythology by introducing any formal distinction for immigration purposes between Jews and non-Jews. Headline from the Globe and Mail. Toronto Canada , January 31, Desperate to lee Nazi persecution, some forged their qualiications, and Blair was quick to call out these individuals. During the Holocaust , approximately , individuals immigrated to Canada, 8, of who were Jewish.
Important to note during this period is that the percentage of Jews in the low of immigration to Canada was superior to the earlier period from The steep decline in Jewish immigration during the Holocaust is concurrent with a decline in overall immigration to Canada during this period. Despite increasing persecution of Jews in Europe, pleas from opposition party constituents across the provinces could not sway the Liberal government to modify its immigration policies in order to save more Jews during the Holocaust.
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Antisemitic sign. Canada, circa s.
Canada and the Holocaust | The Canadian Encyclopedia
The word refers to the thousands of glass windows that were broken in synagogues and in Jewish-owned businesses during the pogroms of November , It is an important historical event which marked the escalation of state orchestrated persecution against Jews. Anti-Jewish rioters acted upon direct orders from SS oficials throughout Germany, annexed Austria, and in parts of German-occupied Czechoslovakia to destroy synagogues.
Fire marshals received strict orders from the Nazis to prevent individuals from attempting to stop the destructive ires that burned the centuries-old synagogues to the ground during Kristallnacht. Never before had the Nazis unleashed this level of mass violence. Onlookers watch the Frankfurt synagogue burning to the On September 1, , German troops invaded Poland, and two days later, ground during Kristallnacht.
Britain and France declared war on Germany. Front headlines about the violent incidents in Europe. At least seven other English Canadian newspapers including the Winnipeg Free Press, the Toronto Daily Star and the Montreal Gazette published articles on Kristallnacht, describing mounting persecution of Jews in the affected countries.
During this same period, some French language Quebec media reported on Kristallnacht. However, as of March, - and throughout the summer of that same year leading up to the beginning of the Second World War - the Canadian press had all but ignored the Jewish plight in Europe While condemning the impossibility for intellectuals and journalists to express themselves freely, Pelletier did not mention anything about the suffering incurred by European Jews, something that was well known at the time.
Through his editorials, Pelletier also expressed how Jews were a distinct race, incapable of assimilating into Quebec society. Pelletier was equally vocal regarding his opinions regarding Jewish immigration during the Holocaust. We have welcomed thousands from Russia and Central Europe - Why should we receive in addition those from Nazi Germany? No offense to Mr. Have we not already received in this country - from - tens of thousands of Jews following the pogroms of Russia and central Europe?
That is enough. Source : Anctil, P. Montreal: Septentrion. Even the outbreak of war and the mounting evidence of an ongoing Nazi program for the total annihilation of European Jewry did not move Canada. Two weeks later, on July 31, French Agathe-des-Monts. The squealing Jew always makes himself heard when he is got after and driven out of the other fellows country for their crook business dealings […] We demand that the Jews, ALL of them now enjoying their FREEDOM in our Country, be driven out quickly before we have a few Hittlers [sic] rise up and cause the governments a surprise.
We further urge that future immigration be conined to peoples of the white race of types suitable for life in the Dominion. The irst dated January 30, contained , names, and was speciically against Jewish immigration. The second petition, dated March 2, , contained , signatures and was against all immigration. The majority of signatures on both of these petitions were from individuals living in towns without Jewish inhabitants. Oshawa Ontario Canada , Jews were Archives. Ontario Jews were also subject to antisemitic discrimination in social and recreational arenas.
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The two opposing groups engaged in violent ighting, supported by individuals on both sides. The Party remained in power until Canada, August 25, William Whittaker, Canadian National Party leader, wearing his brown shirt uniform. Winnipeg Canada , circa A staunch federalist, Arcand was opposed to Quebec nationalism, siding instead with British imperialism out of a desire to build a fascist Canadian state.
Popular with his supporters, they were mostly ignored by the professional and nationalist press, and did not relect the opinions Adrian Arcand, leader of the National Unity Party of the public at large. Arcand was also anchored in Quebec politics, of Canada, addressing a founding the Ordre patriotique des Goglus in , a party that public audience. Note the promoted antisemitism.
Montreal Canada , There are a few examples of public dissent, such as a demonstration attended by 4, people in Montreal. Such mass support from the public at large, however was uncommon during the Holocaust. The goals of the organization were to: educate the public about the plight facing European Jews; to lobby the Canadian government on behalf of European Jews seeking to immigrate, and to assist recent Jewish immigrants. International delegates — along with Jewish groups from all over the world - convened in order to discuss how those individuals affected by war could be assisted.
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Pearson chaired this meeting in which the WJC urged that Jewish people be considered distinct from other nationals displaced by war. The Anglican Church of Montreal condemn the violent actions against Jewish property and Jewish individuals during Kristallnacht, in newspaper The Gazette. Montreal Canada , November 12, He was also one of the few politicians that pressured King and his caucus on the matter of accepting Jewish immigrants from Europe.
A letter written by Heaps in urged King to consider the increasing dangers facing European Jews and pressed for modiications to the immigration laws at the time. Winnipeg immediately after the First World War. Following a thirteen Canada , Saul Hayes, Executive Director of the CJC from , also played a critical role in issues of civil rights, ensuring that Jewish refugees received aid. Their efforts, however, were futile. On September 10th of that year, CJC president Samuel Bronfman sent a letter addressed to Prime Minister King, citing that these children were facing persecution, and likely murder.
The efforts of the CJC were in vain. Samuel Bronfman. Halifax Canada , Canadian citizenship could also be acquired Courtesy of Paul Herczeg. Establishing a form of Canadian citizenship was in fact an important step in paving the way for increasing immigration during the post-war period, during which time the Canadian economy had improved. Canadian immigration would consequently steadily increase as of From , 19, Jews immigrated to Canada. From , 20, Jews immigrated to Canada Many of these individuals were survivors that settled in Montreal.
Canada, May, Source: Canadian Jewish towards all Jews rooted in anti-Israel rhetoric. The information in this section illustrates these manifestations through some key examples of contemporary antisemitism. Some of the examples highlighted relect more than one of these forms. Serving on many committees, he championed human rights both in Canada and abroad. Abella, Irving and Harold Troper. Hayes, Saul, et al. Newman, Peter Charles. Bronfman Dynasty: the Rothschilds of the New World. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, Harper, Stephen.