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Windows Presentation Foundation
Overview The Microsoft Windows Presentation Foundation WPF blends application user interface, documents, and media content to provide richer control, design, and development of the visual aspects of Windows programs. He isthe author of more than a dozen books about. NET programming. In a dimly-remembered past life, he studied English literature and theoretical physics. Table of Contents A table of contents is not available for this title. Average Review. Write a Review. Related Searches.
NET framework 3. WPF's emphasis on vector graphics allows most controls and elements to be scaled without loss in quality or pixelization , thus increasing accessibility. With the exception of Silverlight, Direct3D integration allows for streamlined 3D rendering. In addition, interactive 2D content can be overlaid on 3D surfaces natively.
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XAML is designed as a more efficient method of developing application user interfaces. Although it is rare that an entire application will be built completely in XAML, the introduction of XAML allows application designers to more effectively contribute to the application development cycle. Using XAML to develop user interfaces also allows for separation of model and view, which is considered a good architectural principle.
Windows Presentation Foundation - Wikipedia
As in web development, both layouts and specific themes are well suited to markup, but XAML is not required for either. Indeed, all elements of WPF may be coded in a. The XAML code can ultimately be compiled into a managed assembly in the same way all. NET languages are. The architecture of WPF spans both managed code and native code components. However, the public API exposed is only available via managed code. While the majority of WPF is in managed code, the composition engine which renders the WPF applications is a native component.
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It interfaces directly with DirectX and provides basic support for 2D and 3D surfaces, timer-controlled manipulation of contents of a surface with a view to exposing animation constructs at a higher level, and compositing the individual elements of a WPF application into a final 3D "scene" that represents the UI of the application and renders it to the screen.
WPF exposes a property system for objects which inherit from DependencyObject , that is aware of the dependencies between the consumers of the property, and can trigger actions based on changes in properties. Properties can be either hard coded values or expressions, which are specific expressions that evaluate to a result. In the initial release, however, the set of expressions supported is closed. WPF properties support change notifications , which invoke bound behaviors whenever some property of some element is changed. Custom behaviors can be used to propagate a property change notification across a set of WPF objects.
This is used by the layout system to trigger a recalculation of the layout on property-changes, thus exposing a declarative programming style for WPF, whereby almost everything, from setting colors and positions to animating elements can be achieved by setting properties. The interface elements of a WPF application are maintained as a class of Visual objects. Each element of WPF creates and adds one or more composition nodes to the tree. The composition nodes contain rendering instructions, such as clipping and transformation instructions, along with other visual attributes.
Thus the entire application is represented as a collection of composition nodes, which are stored in a buffer in the system memory. Periodically, MIL walks the tree and executes the rendering instructions in each node, thus compositing each element on to a DirectX surface, which is then rendered on screen. MIL uses the painter's algorithm , where all the components are rendered from back of the screen to the front, which allows complex effects like transparencies to be easily achieved. This rendering process is hardware accelerated using the GPU.
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This also frees the applications of managing repainting the screen; MIL can do that itself as it has all the information necessary. Animations can be implemented as time-triggered changes to the composition tree. On the user visible side, animations are specified declaratively, by setting some animation effect to some element via a property and specifying the duration.
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The code-behind updates the specific nodes of the tree, via Visual objects, to represent both the intermediate states at specified time intervals as well as the final state of the element. MIL will render the changes to the element automatically. The UI thread houses the Dispatcher via an instance of DispatcherObject , which maintains a queue of UI operations that need to be performed as a tree of Visual objects , sorted by priority.
UI events, including changing a property that affects the layout, and user interaction events raised are queued up in the dispatcher, which invokes the handlers for the events.
Pro WPF in C# 2010: Windows Presentation Foundation in .NET 4
Microsoft recommends that the event handlers only update the properties to reflect new content for application responsiveness, with the new content being generated or retrieved in a background thread. The render thread also caches the visual tree, so only changes to the tree need to be communicated, which will result in updating just the changed pixels. WPF supports an extensible layout model. Layout is divided into two phases: Measure ; and Arrange. The Measure phase recursively calls all elements and determines the size they will take. In the Arrange phase, the child elements are recursively arranged by their parents, invoking the layout algorithm of the layout module in use.
A number of development tools are available for developing Windows Presentation Foundation applications. The programming model for building either type of application is similar. Standalone applications are those that have been locally installed on the computer using software such as ClickOnce or Windows Installer MSI and which run on the desktop. Standalone applications are considered full trust and have full access to a computer's resources.
NET4 XBAP applications run in a partial trust sandbox environment, and are not given full access to the computer's resources and not all WPF functionality is available. The hosted environment is intended to protect the computer from malicious applications. XBAPs can run as fully trusted applications in. NET 4, with full access to computer resources. Although one gets the perception of the application running in the browser, it actually runs in an out-of-process executable different from the browser.
With the release of. On October 16, , Mozilla added the Firefox plugin and extension to its add-ons blocklist, because of a remotely exploitable serious security vulnerability, in agreement with Microsoft. On Windows 7, the Firefox plugin does not run by default. Microsoft sanctioned a limited number of 3rd party developers to work on ports for certain Linux distributions.
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