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What viruses? Is an affect a body in itself with its own life and life cycle? Is anyone immune, or can they be immunised? Although radio waves and viruses do, at least, have an ungraspable or invisible side to them, these metaphors also render opaque the actual mechanisms and media through which affect might actually travel between people.

We simply do not know how an affect might be transmitted, or passed, from one body to another. It would appear that there is still much work to be done in thinking through the geographies of emotional and affectual life.

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Emotional and affectual geography is, at first sight, far too broad and complex to have anything like coherent conceptual underpinnings, far less a radical split between one form of emotional geography and another. Charting agreements and disagreements within the burgeoning field of emotional and affectual geography has been a means to identify both its weaknesses and limits.

I have mapped: 1 their relational ontologies, privileging fluidity and movement; 2 their interweaving, and valuation, of proximity, intimacy and closeness; 3 their shared methodological predispositions; and 4 their understandings of the body. Emotional geography ensures that there is no split between thought and affect. It is argued that there is no straightforward correspondence between affect, the thought and its representation. This is especially evident in those places where emotional geography ignores the dynamics of the unconscious.

Affectual geography radically splits affect from thought, and thought from its representatives. The means through which affect might make itself known, whether via feelings or emotions or representations, are thereby rendered opaque. Nonetheless, contradictorily, affect can be consciously and deliberately engineered, but no account of how this is possible is given.

Without a theory of affect itself — or of how affect circulates, gets transmitted or becomes contagious — affectual geography can ironically only deal with its surface expression. Apologies for being blunt, but this is a straightforward hypocrisy. That is, emotional geography must know why emotions are important and interesting; also, it cannot presume that its approach is the only way to be caring, intimate or close; and it cannot assume that intimacy and proximity are inherently more caring or better than distance.

Avoiding these pitfalls will allow, promisingly, emotional geography to extend its repertoire of geographies, rather than simply lengthening its list of affecting emotions.

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Behind all this is a struggle between political visions: one formed around caring and emotional transformation, another formed around the critique of affectual manipulation and an ethics of radical openness. Progression to publication was guided by the insightful and supportive editorial work of Alison Blunt.

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Abstract This paper seeks to examine both how emotions have been explored in emotional geography and also how affect has been understood in affectual geography. Introduction It will not be news to anyone that affect and emotions have once again become a major theme for human geographical research.

This would involve a fuller programme of work, recognizing the emotions as ways of knowing, being and doing, in the broadest sense; and using this to take geographical knowledges — and the relevance that goes with them — beyond their usual visual, textual and linguistic domains. This means two things: 3a Affect is temporally prior to the representational translation of an affect into a knowable emotion.

Three common grounds; a shared ground that is not actually shared; and a fundamental disagreement Three common grounds: 1 relational ontologies that privilege fluidity; 2 valuing proximity and intimacy; and 3 an ethnomethodological predisposition There are shared coordinates in the latitude and longitude of emotional and affectual geography.

A shared ground that is not actually shared: the body It appears at first sight that emotional and affectual geography share a view of the body. The unconscious Both emotional and affectual geography claim some inspiration from psychoanalysis, whether this is directly from Freudian psychotherapeutic practice or as filtered through queer theory. Conclusion Emotional and affectual geography is, at first sight, far too broad and complex to have anything like coherent conceptual underpinnings, far less a radical split between one form of emotional geography and another.

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Gillian Reynolds (Author of Gendered Journeys, Mobile Emotions)

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  • Previous Figure Next Figure. Email or Customer ID. Forgot password? Old Password. New Password. Password Changed Successfully Your password has been changed. Again alcohol being a massive factor there. And the sense of risk or anything just completely distorted, despite the fact I was in a country with a very high prevalence of HIV and pretty much everyone having sex with everyone else all the time! Hilarious fun at the time…. Maggie, referring to her travels in Thailand. There are no inhibitions with sexual encounters.

    Gendered Journeys, Mobile Emotions

    You know you are not going to see them again so you can just be a bit more outrageous or…. You get into stupid situations because of the hype of being away. Looking back it was shocking behaviour…. Louise, referring to her travels in Thailand. It appears that stories that involve a high degree of risk are seen as part of the travelling experience.

    Tying into the pleasure seeking discourses of female sexuality and backpacking tourism discussed in the literature review, it can be argued that the women have been influenced by these discourses and acknowledge that to achieve a high state of stimulus, pleasure and gratification there often needs to be risk involved, resonating with Cohen's theory of the search for 'experience' tourism.

    These narratives show how women can reject the notion of risk as a constraint to their travelling experience, and instead use it as a tool to enhance their experiences and subsequent travel stories. Despite the well rehearsed narrative of this master script, many of the participants also expressed negative emotions in response to situations of risk and danger. Often, the women felt intimated, threatened and uncomfortable with situations which encompassed a high degree of risk, especially with regard to their positions as lone women and personal safety.

    The reflective interview process offers the participants the comfort of deciding which aspects of their travelling identities they wish to promote, often elevating the qualities of the strong, resilient, tough and fun backpacker, and the well rehearsed narratives give the illusion of control. I knew why I was doing it, but I hated it. You push it away farther, and it hits you harder. You push it again — farther — and it clobbers you. Underneath, as always, he wore a binder. But he was still debating hormones, whose effects are unpredictable — frighteningly so for Kai. There would be facial hair, sparse or thick.

    His voice would drop to an unknown degree. His wish was to be perceived as more masculine yet not male, feminine yet not female. What precisely he desired, physically, was a puzzle he was forever trying to solve. And he treasured singing as a mezzo-soprano; he dreaded that loss. The way I freaked out over my period. We learn gender. Kai grew up in the Maryland suburbs outside Washington; both his parents are economists. They read a piece of creative writing he gave them, a meditation using Dadaism to explicate the nonsense of either-or.

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    His mother asked if she could buy him new clothes. But my mother was there. And that made it normal. Coming out requires preparation, putting on emotional armor. The woman listened. But as they drove, and as Kai invited her repeatedly to ask questions, she remained disengaged. I have this theoretical framework which I think is better for the world, a framework where we have different bodies but where gender is almost entirely socially constructed, where people can articulate whatever they want about their gender.

    Logically and philosophically, for Kai, bodies signified nothing; physiology was without meaning. Logic and longing were irreconcilable. And for someone as smart and scientific as Kai, this was barely endurable. The contradiction between anatomical irrelevance and anatomical yearning was an existential challenge. He was on the brink of tears. When Salem was 8, their family moved from Plaistow, N. They let their sister use only clear polish, for fear that they would like the colors too well.

    Salem was called porky and brown-noser and faggot and punched in the chest and hit in the groin with footballs and dodge balls and a makeshift ball and chain wielded at high velocity by a boy they considered a friend. Salem withdrew to a mostly online existence, in which friendships — with three classmates, counting the bully with the ball and chain — consisted of playing video games, each kid in a separate, solo space at home but communing over shared screens, gunning and grenading enemy fighters.

    Online, they and their friends lured solitary, hapless players into the front seat of their armored vehicle with promises of safety. Salem, sitting behind, shot them in the back of the head. In the mirror, Salem despised their new facial hair; they tried to overcome the repulsion by growing mutton chops and a scraggly beard. If I had thought about gender for any length of time, I might have come to some uncomfortable conclusions.

    For Salem, as for so many, the internet wound up being an inadvertent route to self-recognition. In the late summer of — soon after Salem finished high school and their family moved to North Carolina, where their father had a new job managing an auto-repair shop in Raleigh — they first stared at manga featuring feminine men having sex with women. Salem was attracted to the women, while finding themself wishing they looked like those men. Before that, something else had happened online. It required secrecy. They decided to tell their sister, who is two years older, before telling their parents.

    The talk, in the summer of , did not go well. Language eluded them.

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    She later told them it must be a phase, that Salem would get over it, all of which, for Salem, felt like a drubbing of their reality. Their sister remembered this conversation somewhat differently, when I spoke with her by phone, with Salem on the line. Later in the summer, Salem steeled themself to come out to two of their three South Carolina friends.

    Salem chose to wait on saying anything to the bully. It was 3 in the morning. Playing a Vietnam War game online, Salem and one of the friends were North Vietnamese soldiers defending a hilltop, with a napalmed landscape separating them from the American infantry lower down on the hill. The second friend was just listening; all three had an audio link.

    Sporadically the Americans gave up their jungle cover and tried to rush near enough to take out the North Vietnamese, but Salem, in the role of an N. During a lull, Salem figured it was time. But given their failure with their sister, they elided the truth and took a more comprehensible tack. Via audio, they said they were a trans woman. Nothing more happened, but the moment was terrifying. After threats of boycotts by national companies and the N. Shortly before that, three years ago, they thought they might be a trans woman.

    They took the step of going to a voice clinic with the paradoxical hope of learning to pitch their voice higher but not of having a more feminine voice, not exactly. Yet what set of alterations would bring peace, a feeling that the physical is in sync with the psychological, is uncertain. Maybe, Hyzy said, it will be elusive forever. For the nonbinary, though, negation can even come from within the L. David Baker-Hargrove is a therapist and the founding president and co-chief executive of Two Spirit Health, which provides medical and mental health care to L. Our brains fight fluidity.

    We like this or that. Nonbinary presents a lot of challenges. To make the doubt and dismissal faced by nonbinary people worse, some physicians and surgeons who are committed to treating binary trans patients with hormones and surgery are wary of doing the same for the nonbinary, questioning whether the interventions are psychiatrically, and therefore medically, necessary. The bible of psychiatric diagnosis, the D. Perry, a nonbinary video artist and D.

    Perry was designing video projections of the three leaders, Marsha P. Johnson, Miss Major Griffin-Gracy and Sylvia Rivera, and talked about how their work contributed to the relative freedom Perry feels today. As an African-American, Perry also wanted to honor them; all three are people of color. Perry, who is 41 and was assigned female at birth, had top surgery at 33 and has been taking hormones for 4 years. Their voice is high, but their beard is heavy. They were tired of worrying about how they were perceived. There was art to be made, history and progress to be commemorated.

    Perry exuded a comfort with themself that was hard won. They grew up in Cleveland; their father was a preacher at an A. Zionist church where their mother was the music director; Perry was forbidden to attend health classes at school when the topic was sex education. Their mother, Perry told me, refused to listen. She said she would rather be lied to. The same seemed true for Laura Jacobs, the year-old nonbinary therapist who spoke to me about the foggy mirror. They were in their late 20s before they summoned the courage to raise their yearnings with their therapist, who had no relevant expertise, and in their early 30s when they started taking hormones, developed breasts and underwent genital surgery.

    I thought gender was a binary choice, so I made the choice to switch sides. They thought back, during one of our many conversations, to the aftermath of their own decision to have a vagina surgically constructed, a decision made in the absence of the language and intricate self-understanding that defines their life now.

    I refused to even consider it.

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    • The idea put me into shock; I would dissociate, become a deer in headlights. Wearing a strap-on symbolized a massive mistake. I felt that exploring it would lead to massive regret. But as the years went on, I started to dabble. It was hot, fun. Our talk shifted again from the past to the future. The classifications we live under will fall by the wayside. Johnson was about to sign up for a new dating app that caters to the genderqueer.

      A New Jersey-based therapist in her 50s, who describes herself as a butch lesbian and who has worked with nearly two dozen nonbinary high school and college students, is more circumspect. She guessed that many of her assigned-female nonbinary clients would once have lived as butch or — a subcategory — stone butch lesbians.