The key question is whether the third world country that has acquired this modern piece of technology can put it into operation run it. The operation of a modern television station calls for 3 types of professionals: engineers and technicians, television journalists and producers, and managers and administrators.
Consequently, if the host country is to benefit from this transfer of technology it needs to have a community of modern professionals.
Also, for a culture to successfully utilize television, it is helpful if the other media of communication are developed. In sum, at the time of the introduction of television in third world countries, such countries should possess an advanced sector of education and mass media which could form the basis for initiating the multiplier effect for which television has the potential. When introducing television to a third world country, one further needs to be aware of the impact that traditional values may have on the utilization of this medium. Hence, media has to be inclusive to reach wider audience for financial reasons.
Also it is also done to keep the media platforms inclusive and democratic. We have certain things which we like to watch. So the mass media has to cater all kinds of programs to reach the audiences of different interest. However, media has to give consideration to these issues- Caste, Age, Gender, Ethnicity. But we consider media not for selfless, honest service but for earning fame, earning money. People desire to live freely, independently and have space in society. We have space when we have identity. So, everyone fights for getting their identity. Media as an agent for socialization and acculturation.
The boom in media industry has distorted our traditional way of socializing with people.
Media, Culture and Society: An Introduction - Paul Hodkinson - Google книги
Earlier there ware limitations of various sorts hindering the socialization process. Our social circle was limited. But now with increasing number of people having easy access to media, mainly internet, the face of socialization has changed forever. People have become accustomed to socializing in the virtual world. The rising number of social networking sites to the number of people searching for their soul mates in the virtual world proves how media is fast becoming an agent for socialization. Media has grown to cover societies all over the world that we had no clue about.
Being aware about the presence of societies with cultures so different than ours has become possible due to media. Foreign culture no longer seems foreign because of our constant exposure to it through media. Media has become basic need for us. We know world through media and on relating to those we interact with others. We transport our knowledge and share ideas. We talk about the incidents happening around the globe, about our favorite celebrities and programs.
Internet creates a community. Through internet we meet new people. Hence, in all these, media is the mediator that brings topics for communication which helps us in socializing with people. Every society is influenced more or less by others. We learn about different people and their cultural backgrounds through media and hence it helps us not to become alien with those cultures.
We learn to accept those cultures and apply those in our everyday practices. Speaking in English language, wearing western dresses etc. Somewhere around the age of two or three, children in our society first encounter the media as an agent of socialization in the form of TV. Socialization comes through the characters, images, words, and narrative story lines. Some media specifically act to be agents of socialization but most only strive to be entertainment sources. Sports, increasingly a branch of marketing, become especially influential for teenage boys.
The internet web pages, e-mail, chat rooms have emerged as another media socialization source for people. Besides, more and more people are flooding to online socialization sites through internet. Social networking sites like facebook, hi5, MySpace, Orkut etc have evolved to provide services beyond just frivolous interaction and entertainment. People have started to become busy in these online sites more than just being out socially in real, through the cables and wires and few other technological devices.
Acculturation: It is the adoption of the culture of one group by another group. It is a one way process where the dominant group has no effect in its culture. Enculturation: It simply means the assimilation of two or more cultures. Biosociology maintains that human behavior in primarily the result of genetic influences and physiology. For example, male aggression has been linked to higher levels of the hormone testosterone. Therefore, biosociologists would say that males are inherently more aggressive than females and that this is a positive trait from an evolutionary standpoint because the more aggressive males would have been most likely to survive and acquire mates thus passing their aggressive genes along to their descendents.
I suppose the gentle males all got wiped out…. Males may have testosterone, but they learn to be aggressive and they can also learn to be compassionate. Humans are social primates. Without this society itself would cease to exist. Nurture: Socialization is needed and occurs because humans:. The newborns are incapable of caring for themselves. In the case of humans this dependency lasts up to 20 years socially anyhow , perhaps longer. Sociologists therefore maintain that the self we develop is a result mainly of our social circumstances. However, it is a part of being human, being a primate, to nurture.
Therefore, the nurture side is not entirely devoid of nature. Provides: social position, emotional support, physical support, role models. What is a primary group? What is a secondary group? In which of these do we spend most of our adult lives? The period from infancy to about five years is the most important time in our lives for socialization. We learn more during this time span than during the entire rest of our lives. We start out at birth knowing nothing.
By the time we are 5 we can speak, write some , count, tie our shoes, walk. We learn values as well during this time.
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The family serves to place us in the stratification system of society. It gives us a social class position at birth. Types of mass media: movies, television, print- magazines and newspapers, books, etc. Notes: The American Academy of Pediatrics notes that children as young as 2 are spending, on average, 16 to 17 hours in front of the television every week; children, on average, view about 10, violent acts on television each year.
The Academy has further recommended that children under the age of 2 watch no television. While we are accustomed to complaints that children or adults watch too much television, a new mass media problem has emerged since Internet Addiction. Some indications include:. Withdrawal symptoms that develop within a few days to a month after reducing or stopping use. The resumption of use decreases the symptoms. Use of the Internet more often for longer periods of time. Excessive use impacts negatively on job, relationship, or other role obligations. Some research has indicated that middle aged women and people already prone to depression and bipolar disorders are most likely to develop this disorder.
The subject has been studied by psychologists. Resocialization: Process of learning new and different norms and values. Can be voluntary- enter a new status on our own through marriage, military service and job. Socialization is a lifelong process. Adult socialization often includes learning new and sometimes very different norms and values from those in which the person was raised.
This process can be voluntary. Currently, joining the military qualifies as an example. The norms and values associated with military life are different, in some cases very different, from those in civilian life. Resocialization into a total institution involves a complete change of personality. Sociologist Erving Goffman studied resocialization in mental institutions.
For example, the institution requires that patients comply with regulations, even when compliance is not necessarily in the best interests of an individual. With changing times, media has evolved as cultural artifact. Media has become a part of our everyday experience. It has become a culture primarily because media has begun taking some space although not physical in our lives.
Cultural artifacts reflect our everyday life and media does the same. We have increasingly become more dependent on media. We are guided by media and people can relate to the media contents. Newspapers, radios, televisions, internet and mobile technologies have become an integral part of our life. For instance, radio dramas are cultural artifacts because they are representational and participatory. They denote a lifestyle. When something becomes part of everyday experience and when it is reflected in our attitude and behavior; when something becomes a part of us and our living, it becomes a cultural artifact.
For anything to be labeled a cultural artifact, we have to consider how widespread it is. Even if something is disappearing, like pagers, it will still be considered a cultural artifact as it denotes the culture of a certain time-frame in history. This is to say, culture is not just something from today.
It is something from the past as well. Not everything becomes culture. It becomes culture when it becomes a part of your life which invades your life. But a music player is. Media as a whole becomes a culture because we are guided by it learning, exposure, information ; we are dependent on it. It represents who we are. It creates our identity; our experiences are also represented in it.
Cellphone is not just a device; it is a part of living, of experience. The things that become part of living becomes culture in the course of time. When it is reflected in our everyday experience, it becomes cultural artifact. We love it, we preserve it. This is to discuss how development of mass media technologies has helped promotion of education in the world. Proliferation of educational sites; promotion of educational institutions, globalisation of education systems; digital archives and libraries; distance education.
In other words, the controversies are the issues media deal with and those that the media audience and users experience as the consequences of good or bad representations. Note that the issues are related to US media. Are freebies gifts given to journalists the same as bribes? Are news agencies that use press releases and video news releases without attribution guilty of unethical behavior? Are the dangers of concentration within media monopolies overstated?
Do magazines compromise their editorial integrity in their push to obtain advertisers and celebrity news? Do new media have an immediate effect on our behaviors and attitudes? Do paparazzi freelance photographers threaten privacy and First Amendment rights? Do public relations practitioners provide a valuable service to the public?
Do the mass media undermine openness and accountability in democracy? Does concentration of ownership limit the diversity of voices in the newspaper industry? Does media coverage of criminal trials undermine the legal process? Does media violence cause more violence in society or merely reflects that society is violent? Does the globalization of media industries homogenize media content? Does the low number of women and minorities in the newsroom affect the way in which news is covered and presented?
Is censorship always wrong because it curtails freedom of expression? Is it wrong to present the news in an entertaining way, distorting the information it conveys? Is there a conflict of rights between a free press and the rights of a defendant for a fair trial? Is there scientific proof in addition to anecdotal evidence that movie violence has caused real-life violence? Should books sometimes be censored or banned by government or quasi-governmental organizations such as schools and libraries?
Should news reporters vote or belong to political parties, or is that a conflict of interest? Should public relations professionals be attributable to a government agency? Should smoking in movies be eliminated or at least made to look unglamorous, since health experts believe it leads to increase smoking among young people? Should songs with explicit lyrics be banned from radio and television? Should television networks be required to show a certain amount of educational programs for children? He needs to acknowledge the source. The term digital divide refers to the gap between those people with effective access to digital and information technology and those without.
It includes the imbalances in physical access to technology as well as the imbalances in resources and skills needed to effectively participate as a digital citizen. Groups often discussed in the context of a digital divide include gender, income, race and location. The term global digital divide refers to differences in technology access between countries. The term initially referred to gaps in ownership of computers between groups, during which time the increase of ownership was limited to certain ethnic groups.
The term came into regular usage in the mids, though the term had previously appeared in several news articles and political speeches as early as Since the start of the George W. Bush Administration, the NTIA reports have tended to focus less on gaps and divides and more on the steady growth of broadband access, especially amongst groups formerly believed to be on the wrong side of the digital divide. It should be noted that there is a considerable literature on information and digital inequality that predates this current label.
The concept of a digital divide is more of a new label and less of a unique concept. The term initially referred to gaps in the ownership of, or regular access to, a computer. Recently, some have used the term to refer to gaps in broadband network access. The term can mean not only unequal access to computer hardware, but also inequalities between groups of people in the ability to use information technology fully.
Due to the range of criteria which can be used to assess the imbalance, and the lack of detailed data on some aspects of technology usage, the exact nature of the digital divide is both contextual and debatable. The discussions on digital divide often are tied with other concepts. Typical measurements of inequality distribution used to describe the Digital Divide are the Lorenz Curve and Gini coefficient, however, the question of whether or not the digital divide is growing or closing is difficult to answer.
An opportunity for growth for the 21st century, examples of these ways of measuring is illustrated. In the Lorenz curve, perfect equality of internet usage across nations is represented by a degree diagonal line, which has a Gini coefficient of zero. Perfect inequality gives a Gini coefficient of one.
Therefore if you look at figures 2. The progress represented is predominantly of the middle-income groups when compared to the highest income groups. The lowest income groups continue to decrease their level of equality in comparison to the high income groups. Therefore, there is still a long way to go before the digital divide will be eliminated. One area of significant focus was school computer access; in the s, rich schools were much more likely to provide their students with regular computer access.
In the late s, rich schools were much more likely to have internet access. In the context of schools, which have consistently been involved in the discussion of the divide, current formulations of the divide focus more on how and whether computers are used by students, and less on whether there are computers or internet connections. The E-Rate program officially the Schools and Libraries Program of the Universal Service Fund , authorized in and implemented in , directly addressed the technology gap between rich and poor schools by allocating money from telecommunications taxes to poor schools without technology resources.
Recently, discussions of a digital divide in school access have broadened to include technology related skills and training in addition to basic access to computers and internet access. Technology offers a unique opportunity to extend learning support beyond the classroom, something that has been difficult to do until now. The world today is increasingly driven by a combination of information and entertainment values and these are both promoted by the explosion of different means of communication such as satellite T. V and internet communication.
This means the market for information is extremely competitive. The Nepalese mass media sector is highly political and commercial, with few personal dimension. Nepalese media is a combination of two very different extremes: tightly controlled National institutions that mainly reflect the official views the state owned media and free-market and entertainment-based private media channels that reflect a combination of state and private views.
There were also a few who included postal services in the list. The modern history of mass communication in Nepal starts after bringing a printing press in AD BS from Britain. The publication of Gorkhapatra is considered as the beginning of newspaper publication in Nepal.
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Nepal Television started its transmission since B. S however Nepal T. V act was approved in B. On 20th of Chaitra, B. S Radio Nepal was formally established. But all these three mediums of mass communication were under ownership of the state. It took decades for the private sector to come forward and compete with these state owned media and influence the people of Nepal and their society. According to famous Nepali journalist Shiva Regmi the radio sets started to enter in Nepal since the decade to B. But the radio broadcasting started from B.
Radio Nepal started its short wave transmission in B. S with the help of W transmitter. At that time Radio Nepal has programme of 4 hours and 30 minutes. Now the Radio Nepal is transmitting its programme more than 17 hours each day. It is government controlled media of Nepal. It started its FM transmission in B. S Kartik 13, in Kathmandu. Nepal Government started to provide license for private radio stations through FM transmission since B.
The development of Broadcasting system started with the innovation of wireless Transmission system. D, transmitting message through the air by electronic impulses.
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Radio stations speaks mainly two voices A. M and F. M means Amplitude Modulation and F. M means Frequency Modulation. Radio Nepal is the national broadcaster with maximum geographic coverage and highest audience listenership in NepaL. In Nepal, Kathmandu valley is the most crowded place in terms of FM radio frequencies ranging from Analog tuning has now become more difficult with more frequencies on pipeline and new radio stations operating around the valley.
Facts and Figures. It can be easily assumed that a greater part of Nepalese population owns a radio set. This was also evident from the statistics of the survey data which shows that though some of the rural respondents did own a television, a majority owned only a radio. This is because much of the rural Nepal is devoid of electricity and proper transportation services. This has been greatly challenged the television and print media for reaching out to the public. The low literacy rate and poor communications infrastructure are also the reasons for little recognition of.
In most of the electrified rural areas — terrestrial signals of Nepal Television is the only one that can be received. In many or the rural areas, respondents stated that they have to visit the district headquarters or nearby townships to read newspapers or the magazines. In other regions, the newspaper would reach in a week at its earliest. However, situation was comparatively better in the rural areas of the Tarai, where people had higher level of access to television as well as daily newspapers.
There were very few respondents who mentioned having telephone lines in their household. There were some VDCs close to the headquarters where a number of villagers owned a mobile phone. This was quite evident in Palpa district where a majority of the household in MadanPokhara VDC had at least one mobile phone. The figures for radio While the figures for magazines was negligible, newspaper was the most preferred source of information for some of the respondent, most of which were from the urban population.
Internet was preferred media for only a small percentage of urban population. When asked the reasons behind their choice of media, easy accessibility and low operating costs were key considerations, followed by the variety of channels and content. The urban population favored the choices and selection of the content in both the radio and television.
The Role of Media in Society
Most of the respondents wanted to hear more about the local issues in their radio and this figure was higher The cost issue was not a big deal for some urban population while this was the major reason for many of the rural respondents. From the data analysis, it is seen that radio is mostly used for news and music, but this was not the primary reason for preferring radio to other forms of media. Surprisingly, news and music were the least reasons for preferring the radio.
When you are to define yourself what will be the perfect way of defining yourself. Telling your full name will be enough or more than that.