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Paperback , 96 pages. Published April 27th by Osprey Publishing first published May 27th More Details Original Title. Osprey Campaign Other Editions 4. Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about Cassino , please sign up. Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Community Reviews. Showing Rating details. More filters. Sort order.

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Feb 27, Sean Chick rated it really liked it. Solid Osprey title. Its hard to see this one as an Allied victory. The Nazis held the line for months and escaped destruction when Mark Clark went for Rome. Jul 04, Sarah Sundin rated it really liked it. Not quite as detailed as most Osprey books, which is a bit disappointing.

Also a few maps had crucial details hidden in the fold of the book. Sep 22, Bute Maximilian rated it it was amazing Shelves: books-i-own.


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At one point I felt like was there. Darryl Lundy rated it did not like it Jun 15, Ron Struckus rated it it was amazing Aug 21, Bill Lenoir rated it liked it Sep 13, James Dalziel rated it liked it Mar 21, Lawrence rated it really liked it Aug 07, John rated it really liked it Mar 06, On the Allied side Eisenhower decided to make Rome his next target on 26 September. At this point the Enigma intercepts actually mislead the Allies, as they were intercepting high level discussions of the plans for a retreat to the north.

Eisenhower expected to be in Rome within six or eight weeks, and decided to postpone moving his HQ from Algiers to Italy until the city had fallen. They asked if the offensive should be cancelled, and the armies left around Naples and Foggia, but Eisenhower disagreed. He wanted to capture the airfields around Rome, and to move far enough north to allow an invasion of the south of France to be carried out from northern Italy. The Allied attack on the German defensive lines thus went ahead as planned. The Allies had three possible routes to Rome.

They could advance up the Adriatic coast to Pescara and then cross the Apennines from there, a very difficult route. They could follow the old Appian Way now Highway 7 along the west coast, but this route ran along mountains by the coast, and then across the Pontine marshes, drained by Mussolini but now flooded by the Germans.

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The third route took Highway 6. This also passed through a band of mountains, but if the Allies could get past Cassino they would enter the wider and flatter Liri valley, which would given them a direct route past the Alban Hills to Rome.

Geology and warfare: The WWII battle of Monte Cassino, Italy

Both sides quickly realised that the Allies would have to take this third route. The Allied command structure underwent a series of changes during this period. When Eisenhower made the decision to move north, he was commander-in-chief in the Mediterranean Theatre.

Maitland Wilson. Shortly afterwards Montgomery was also called back to take part in Overlord, and was replaced as commander of the Eighth Army by General Leese. Alexander and Clarke remained in their positions. The Allies also lost a number of their best units. Seven of the most experienced divisions were withdraw, also to take part in Overlord. They were to be replaced by new French, Moroccan and Algerian troops then training in North Africa, but in early December the Allies had 14 divisions in Italy, the Germans more than The first German defensive line north of Naples followed the line of the Volturno River in the west, running across the flat plains north of Naples, then into more hilly territory east of Capua and then crossing the Apennines.


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The Allies reached the Volturno Line in strength on 7 October, and prepared for a large scale attack, to begin on 12 October. This division managed to fight its way into the upper Volturno by 15 October. On October the 3rd and 34th Divisions crossed the Volturno to the west of its confluence with the Calore and managed to get established across the river.

Finally on the Allied left the British attack in the plains began on 13 October. The British attack ran into strong resistance. On the right the 56th Division was unable to cross near Capua, while in the centre the 7th Armoured Division managed to create a small bridgehead. On the left the 46th Division had more luck, establishing two battalions across the river, but even here a third battalion was defeated.

However by this point the Germans were close to their deadline of 15 October, and Vietinghoff began to pull back towards the next line. The Volturno line was cleared by 19 October. The second German line, the Barbara Line, was more of a line of outposts. The first break in this line came near the coast, where the British 7th Armoured Division reached Monte Massico on 31 October and broke through to the Garigliano. By 5 November the British were in place to attack the Bernhardt Line. On the right the US 34th and 45th Divisions attacked across the upper Volturno on the night of November, and then pushed into the mountains between there and Mignano.

Monte Cesima, in that area, fell to the Allies on 5 November.

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The strongest of the preliminary lines was the Bernhardt Line, which ran along the mountains to the east of the main Gustav Line. On the west coast the two lines followed the Garigliano River, but the Gustav line then followed the line of the river north to the point where it was formed by the junction of the Liri and the Rapido Rivers and then followed the Rapido into the mountains, passing to the east of Monte Cassino, while the Bernhardt Line branched off to include the mountains on either side of the Mignano Gap, which carried Highway 6 and the Rome to Naples railway.

After nine days this attack had be abandoned. This first phase of the battle ended on 13 November after Clark asked for a pause to allow his units to recuperate. The attack on the Bernhardt Line resumed on 1 December as part of a much large Allied offensive across Italy. At that point two divisions would land at Anzio to try and cut off the retreating Germans.

The main Eighth Army attack had to be postponed to 27 November because of heavy rain, and made slow but steady progress before getting bogged down across the Moro River in December. The Fifth Army attack began on 1 December.

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The British attacked Monte Camino on December and secured after five days. Monte Lungo and the village of San Pietro, which guarded the western end of the gap fell on December after a fierce battle. The Allies now controlled the approaches to the Gustav Line. The Allies now planned a two pronged assault on the Gustav Line. Washington, D. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. September 26, Retrieved September 26, from Encyclopedia. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia. Home History Dictionaries thesauruses pictures and press releases Gustav Line. Gustav Line Updated About encyclopedia. Gustav Line gale.