Vienna, Austria. Retrieved 1 August Retrieved 17 February Marijuana Botany , 2nd ed. Ron Publishing, California. Canadian Journal of Botany. Annals of Botany. Trends in Plant Science.
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United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Cannabis germplasm resources. In: Ranalli P. Archived from the original on 13 March Retrieved 10 February Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. Journal of Industrial Hemp. Journal of the Society of Agriculture and Forestry.
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American Journal of Botany. Journal of Applied Genetics. The American Naturalist. Ohio Journal of Science. A key to the early events of sex chromosome evolution". Plant Physiology. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. Journal of the International Hemp Association. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik. The Plant Cell. The Hemp Report. Genome Biology. Hofmann, and C. The nectar of delight. In: Plants of the Gods 2nd ed. Plant Systematics and Evolution. September Bulletin on Narcotics. Retrieved 13 January June Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior.
Fundamental aspects of the species problem in biology. In: The Species Problem in Cannabis , vol. Corpus Information Services, Toronto, Canada, pp. Michaelis, and M. Glossary of Genetics , 5th ed. Springer-Verlag, pp. Plant Science Bulletin. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs.
Botany and Chemistry of Hallucinogens. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois, pp. Species Plantarum 2 : Salvius, Stockholm. Ray Society, London, U. Paris, France, pp. Clinical Toxicology. Cannabinaceae Lindl.
Glossary for the Canna-Curious
In: Vavilov N. National Research Council Canada. Systematic Botany. Harvard University Botanical Museum Leaflets. A study of systematic wood anatomy in Cannabis. Harvard University Botanical Museum Leaflets 24 : 29— Leaf variation among Cannabis species from a controlled garden. Harvard University Botanical Museum Leaflets 28 : 61— Economic Botany. Random thoughts and queries on the botany of Cannabis. In: Joyce, C. Churchill, London, pp. Crop Science. Forensic Science International. Planta Medica. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology.
Retrieved 2 October Licensed Producers Canada. Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics. The Internet Classics Archive. Daniel C. Stevenson, Web Atomics. Retrieved 13 August Archived from the original on 25 March Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. January Archives of General Psychiatry. Archived from the original on 20 May Archived from the original on 16 February August American Journal of Public Health.
Pharmacotherapy Review. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. Journal of Ethnopharmacology Review. Archived from the original PDF on 24 May Journal of Experimental Botany. Science Advances. National Geographic. Chapter 1: Cannabis in the Ancient World. Christian vernacular education society. Notion Press. Purnalingam 1 January A Primer of Tamil Literature.
Ananda Press. The Journal of Industrial Hemp. International Hemp Association. The Living Torah. New York. A Comprehensive Guide to Cannabis Literature. Greenwood Press. Dread, The Rastafarians of Jamaica. London: Heinemann. Schaffer Library of Drug Policy. Retrieved 13 September Retrieved 20 August Access Unlimited. Retrieved 8 April During the festival the air is heavy with drumbeats, chanting and cannabis smoke.
Islamic Reform in South Asia. Cambridge University Press. July Oxford University Press. Deitch, Robert Algora Pub. Earleywine, Mitchell Emmett, David; Graeme Nice In fact, the history of Cannabis, Humulus and their extinct sister genus can be dated back to the Oligocene and Miocene Epoch The crown age of C.
This diversification time coincides with the Quaternary glaciation, the last of five known glaciations during Earth's history which is thought to have started at 2. The current distribution of the three subspecies could be explained as a consequence of secondary contact after historical divergence events. The Central-Asia-Origin has been the prevalent opinion for C. However, our molecular analyses revealed for the first time that the low latitude region distributed subsp.
This finding does not support the hypothesis of the Central-Asia-origin of Cannabis , but is partly in agreement with the speculation of Linnaeus that the native range of C. Indeed, the seeds from wild Cannabis populations in India are remarkably small, unlike those collected from any other area, also indicating that the wild Indian populations may be an ancient wild form Small, Each of the three haplogroups M, L, and H identified in this study contains haplotypes from both wild populations and cultivars.
Within each haplogroup, the wild and domesticated populations shared the most common haplotypes. For instance, haplotype H1, H3, and H4 are the most common haplotypes shared by the wild and domesticated populations in Group H; similar trends are observed for haplotype H9 in Group M, and haplotypes H5 and H10 in the Group L. The fact that the haplotype of the domesticated Cannabis cultivars are not limited to one of the three haplogroups indicates that there are probably multiregional domestication origins for this crop from the three subspecies of Cannabis.
Otherwise, the same genotype haplogroup should have been detected in different cultivars from high-middle-low latitude regions if the cultivars were domesticated from one single region. This molecular evidence is in accordance with the multiregional origin of human use of the cannabis plant proposed based on archaeological investigation Long et al. Actually, contemporaneous cannabis achenes 5,—10, years ago have been found in more than ten different archaeological sites located in the two distal parts both Europe and East Asia of the continent Long et al.
Thus the domestication of C. QZ designed and performed the research, analyzed the data, and wrote the manuscript. QZ and XC contributed equally as first author. LT and ES carried out pre-experiment research and revised the manuscript in detail. XC and MY provided the technical assistance. MY organized this work. All authors contributed to and approved the final manuscript. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
The authors are very grateful to Dr. Amaducci, S. Evaluation of a phenological model for strategic decisions for hemp Cannabis sativa L. Crops Prod. Key cultivation techniques for hemp in Europe and China. Avise, J. Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, Molecular Markers Natural History, and Evolution.
Sunderland: Sinauer and Associates Press, 78— Google Scholar. Phylogeography: retrospect and prospect. Bandelt, H. Median-joining networks for inferring intraspecific phylogenies. Beutler, J. Chemotaxonomy of Cannabis I. Chen, X. Genetic structure of five dioecious industrial hemp varieties in Yunnan. Plant Breed. CrossRef Full Text.
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Clarke, R. Cannabis domestication, breeding history, present-day genetic diversity, and future prospects. Plant Sci. Appleton , — Doyle, J.
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Hewitt, A. Johnston, and J. Young Berlin: Springer , — Drummond, A. BEAST: bayesian evolutionary analysis by sampling trees. BMC Evol. Excoffier, L. Arlequin suite ver 3. Gao, C. Diversity analysis in Cannabis sativa based on large-scale development of expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeat markers. Gilmore, S. Forensic Sci. Organelle DNA haplotypes reflect crop-use characteristics and geographic origins of Cannabis sativa. Herder, F. Plantae Raddeanae apetalae V.
Acta Horti. Hillig, K.
Genetic evidence for speciation in Cannabis Cannabaceae. Crop Evol. A chemotaxonomic analysis of cannabinoid variation in Cannabis Cannabaceae. Johnson, R. Hemp as an Agricultural Commodity. CRS Report for Congress. Congressional Research Service.
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Keppen, T. Li, H. An archaeological and historical account of Cannabis in China. Librado, P. Bioinformatics 25, — Long, T. Cannabis in eurasia: origin of human use and bronze age trans-continental connections. Mabberley, D. McPartland, J. Cannabis systematics at the levels of family, genus, and species. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. Guy, B. Whittle, and P. Robson London: Pharmaceutical Press , 71— Mcpartland, J. Models of cannabis, taxonomy, cultural bias, and conflicts between scientific and vernacular names.
Cannabis , is indigenous to europe and cultivation began during the copper or bronze age: a probabilistic synthesis of fossil pollen studies. Cannabis, utilization, and diffusion patterns in prehistoric europe: a critical analysis of archaeological evidence. Nei, M. Estimation of average heterozygosity and genetic distance from small number of individuals.
Genetics 89, — PubMed Abstract Google Scholar. Nylander, J. MrModeltest v2. Program Distributed by the Author. Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University. Oh, H. Two complete chloroplast genome sequences of Cannabis sativa varieties. Pahkala, K. Northern limits to fibre hemp production in Europe. Peakall, R. GenAlEx 6. Population genetic software for teaching and research-an update.
Bioinformatics 28, — Piluzza, G. Differentiation between fiber and drug types of hemp Cannabis sativa from a collection of wild and domesticated accessions. Piomelli, D. The cannabis sativa versus cannabis indica debate: an interview with Ethan Russo, MD. R Core Team Marijuana consists of the dried flowers of Cannabis plants selectively bred to produce high levels of THC and other psychoactive cannabinoids.
Various extracts including hashish and hash oil are also produced from the plant. The plant genus in the Cannabaceae plant family, Urticales order, Hamamelidae subclass. The flowering tops are called many slang terms including pot, marijuana, hashish, bhang, and ganja. The stem is an important source of hemp fiber. Cannabis is not going to have parabolic growth, there is a lot of hope and enthusiasm. Word in Definition. Princeton's WordNet 0. GCIDE 5. Origin: [L. See Canvas. Wiktionary 0.
Webster Dictionary 0. Freebase 0. National Library of Medicine 5. How to pronounce cannabis? Alex US English.