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Arms, Alliances and Stability: The Development of the Structure of International Politics

If they do not acquire great power capabilities, they may be exploited by the hegemon. Layer: States ensure their security by acquiring technology, military power, and economic power. As they acquire power, they will eventually emerge as great powers and bring the world to a state of instability since unipolarity will tend to disappear. This can therefore be considered the first reason why unipolar systems are not stable. As soon as states fear for the rise of a hegemon, conflict may then arise with one strong alliance of states fighting against the great power to restore a balance:.

This reflects the fact that in unipolar systems there is no clear-cut distinction between balancing against threat and balancing against power. So the core of unipolar systems are unstable because states naturally seek to balance the power of a hegemon as their instinct pushes them to fight for their own survival. Consequently, the preponderance of power of a state is often seen as fragile and easily negated.

The collapse of the Soviet Union in produced a major change in world power relationships. The bipolar structure that had shaped the security policies of the major powers for nearly half a century vanished, and the United States emerged as the sole surviving superpower Wohlforth: 5. At that time, scholars of international relations increasingly shared the wisdom that. US preponderance is fragile and easily negated by the actions of other states […]. Unipolarity is an illusion, a moment that will not last long, or is already giving way to multipolarity. Wohlforth: 6. As confirmed in an article in Foreign Policy , other states quickly tried to counterbalance US hegemony:.

The American superpower, which once existed, is no doubt fading away—which shows the unstability of unipolarity. Multipolar systems exist where three or more states have a significant voice in the international political economy.

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The interdependence of parties comes from the fact that actors tend to rely on others and create alliances in order to balance against emerging states Kegley, ed. Moreover, because international relations in multipolar systems are very complex, it can become very difficult for states to evaluate who their potential threats are and to protect their wealth and economic positions Kegley: All these facts are therefore responsible for making multipolar systems unstable.

The outbreak of World War I bears witness of the instability of multipolar systems. Indeed, this bloody war resulted from the decisions taken by the five great powers of the time: Austria-Hungary, Germany, Russia, France, and Britain Richard F. Hamilton: Before the outbreak of the war, many treaties were signed and promises were made between those great powers:. Austria-Hungary and Germany promised help and assistance against any aggressor that threatened Romania … Russia promised to attack Germany if France were attacked by Germany or Italy supported by Germany … and in case one or all of the powers of the Triple Alliance mobilized, France and Russia would also mobilize.

Richard F. Eventually, the war started as Austria-Hungary supported by Germany drew into conflict with Serbia and its ally Russia, and France and Britain, bound by treaty to Russia, moved to counter Germany Kissane: One can easily deduce that the alliance structure and the interdependence of parties were catalysts of the major global conflict of This case confirms therefore that alliances do not guarantee balances of power between states, and as a result, great powers in multipolar systems cannot keep their power for long as they will eventually be overthrown by another state feeling threatened.

Multipolar systems can therefore not endure or be stable. Bipolarity corresponds to the equal distribution of power between two states dominating the international scene in terms of political ideologies, economic system, technological and military devices. Rising uncertainty heightens potential miscommunication and conflict. Bipolarity is therefore the most stable form of international power distribution.

This bipolar system, which lasted for almost half a century until , is commonly viewed as an intense struggle for power between the superpowers. This period is known by the name of the Cold War, which refers to the presence of factors that restrained the confrontation and prevented a shooting war Martin Griffiths: These factors will now be analyzed, with the aim of demonstrating that bipolarity is the most stable distribution of power for three principal reasons. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union dominated the global system thanks to their military power and particularly their possession of nuclear arms.

The consequences transformed the balance of power in East Asia, resulting in a reassessment of Japan's recent entry onto the world stage. It was the first major military victory in the modern era of an Asian power over a European one. In , the Empire of Japan and the Korean Empire signed the Eulsa Treaty , which brought Korea into the Japanese sphere of influence as a protectorate.

The Eulsa Treaty led to the signing of the Treaty two years later. The Treaty ensured that Korea would act under the guidance of a Japanese resident general and Korean internal affairs would be under Japanese control. Korean Emperor Gojong was forced to abdicate in favour of his son, Sunjong , as he protested Japanese actions in the Hague Conference. Finally in , the Annexation Treaty formally annexed Korea to Japan.

Officially, China remained a unified country. In practice, European powers and Japan took effective control of certain port cities and their surrounding areas from the middle nineteenth century until the s. In — the United States won international acceptance for the Open Door Policy whereby all nations would have access to Chinese ports, rather than having them reserved to just one nation. Britain, in addition to taking control of new territories, developed an enormous power in economic and financial affairs in numerous independent countries, especially in Latin America and Asia.

It lent money, built railways, and engaged in trade. The Great London Exhibition of clearly demonstrated Britain's dominance in engineering, communications and industry; that lasted until the rise of the United States and Germany in the s. Historians agree that Lord Salisbury as foreign minister and prime minister — was a strong and effective leader in foreign affairs. He had a superb grasp of the issues, and proved:.

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In — under Salisbury, Britain continued its policy of Splendid isolation with no formal allies. Britain and Germany each tried to improve relations, but British distrust of the Kaiser for his recklessness ran deep. The Kaiser did indeed meddle in Africa in support of the Boers, which soured relations. The main accomplishment was a friendly treaty. Germany gave up its small Zanzibar colony in Africa and acquired the Heligoland islands, off Hamburg, which were essential to the security of Germany's ports. Liberal Party policy after was shaped by William Gladstone as he repeatedly attacked Disraeli's imperialism.

The Conservatives took pride in their imperialism and it proved quite popular with the voters. A generation later, a minority faction of Liberals became active " Liberal Imperialists ". After a protracted hard-fought war, with severe hardships for Boer civilians, the Boers lost and were absorbed into the British Empire.

The war bitterly divided with Liberals, with the majority faction denouncing it. The "Eastern Question" involved the slow steady disintegration of the " Sick man of Europe " the Ottoman Empire , often called "Turkey" , the rise of nationalism in the Balkans, and the general issue of alliances in Eastern Europe. In the s the "Eastern Question" focused on the mistreatment of Christians in the Balkans by the Ottoman Empire, and what the European great powers ought to do about it.

Each of the countries paid close attention to its own long-term interests, usually in cooperation with its allies and friends. The Ottoman Empire was hard-pressed by nationalistic movements among the Christian populations. After , the large Arab population would also grow nationalistic. The threat of disintegration was real. Egypt for example although still nominally part of the Ottoman Empire, have been independent for century. Turkish nationalists were emerging, and the Young Turk movement indeed took over the Empire.

While the previous rulers had been pluralistic, the Young Turks were hostile to all other nationalities and to non-Muslims. Wars were usually defeats, in which another slice of territory was sliced off and became semi-independent, including Greece, Serbia, Montenegro, Bulgaria, Romania, Bosnia, and Albania.

The Austro-Hungarian Empire, headquartered at Vienna, was a largely rural, poor, multicultural state. It was operated by and for the Habsburg family, who demanded loyalty to the throne, but not to the nation. Nationalistic movements were growing rapidly. The most powerful were the Hungarians, who preserved their separate status within the Habsburg Monarchy and with the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of , the creation of the Dual Monarchy they were getting practical equality. Other minorities, were highly frustrated, although some — especially the Jews — felt protected by the Empire.

German nationalists, especially in the Sudetenland part of Bohemia however, looked to Berlin in the new German Empire. That is it did not demand an independent state, rather it flourished by holding most of the high military and diplomatic offices in the Empire. Russia was the main enemy, As well as Slavic and nationalist groups inside the Empire especially in Bosnia-Herzegovina and in nearby Serbia.

Although Austria, Germany, and Italy had a defensive military alliance — the Triple Alliance — Italy was dissatisfied and wanted a slice of territory controlled by Vienna. He saw Russia as the main adversary, because of its own expansionist policies toward Slavic and Orthodox areas.

He distrusted Slavic nationalist movements as a threat to his multi-ethnic empire. He was thoroughly convinced that the Slavic minorities could never come together, and the Balkan League would never accomplish any damage to Austria. His policies alienated the Bulgarians, who turned instead to Russia and Serbia.

Although Austria had no intention to embark on additional expansion to the south, Aehrenthal encouraged speculation to that effect, expecting it would paralyze the Balkan states. Instead, it incited them to feverish activity to create a defensive block to stop Austria. A series of grave miscalculations at the highest level thus significantly strengthened Austria's enemies.

Russia was growing in strength, and wanted access to the warm waters of the Mediterranean. To get that it needed control of the Straits, connecting the Black Sea and the Mediterranean, and if possible, control of Constantinople, the capital of the Ottoman Empire.

Slavic nationalism was strongly on the rise in the Balkans. It gave Russia the opportunity to protect Slavic and Orthodox Christians. This put it in sharp opposition to the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Serbia had multiple national goals. The large number of Serbs living in Bosnia looked to Serbia as the focus of their nationalism, but they were ruled by the Germans of the Austrian Empire.

Austria's annexation of Bosnia in deeply alienated the Serbian peoples. Plotters swore revenge, which they achieved in by assassination of the Austrian heir. Austria worked hard to block Serbian access to the sea, for example by helping with the creation of Albania in Montenegro, Serbia's main ally, did have a small port, but Austrian territory intervened, blocking access until Serbia acquired Novi Pazar and part of Macedonia from the Ottoman Empire in To the south, Bulgaria blocked Serbian access to the Aegean Sea. They won decisively and expelled that Empire from almost all of the Balkans.

Expansion of Serbia would block Austrian and German aspirations for direct rail connections to Constantinople and the Middle East. Serbia relied primarily on Russia for Great Power support but Russia was very hesitant at first to support Pan-Slavism, and counselled caution. However, in it reversed positions and promised military support to Serbia. Germany had no direct involvement in the Balkans, but indirectly Bismarck realized that it was a major source of tension between his two key allies, Russia and Austria.

Therefore, Germany's policy was to minimize conflict in the Balkans. In Serbia and Montenegro declared war on Turkey, and were badly defeated, notably at the battle of Alexinatz 1 September Russia, which supported Serbia, threatened war against Turkey. In August , Russia declared war on Turkey, and steadily defeated its armies. In early January Turkey asked for an armistice; the British fleet arrived at Constantinople too late. Britain, France, and Austria opposed the Treaty of San Stefano because it gave Russia and Bulgaria too much influence in the Balkans, where insurrections were frequent.

War threatened. After numerous attempts a grand diplomatic settlement was reached at the Congress of Berlin June—July The new Treaty of Berlin revised the earlier treaty. Germany's Otto von Bismarck —98 presided over the congress and brokered the compromises.

Bosnia was eventually annexed by Austria-Hungary in The Treaty of Berlin had a new type of provision that protected minorities in the Balkans and newly independent states Great Power recognition was nominally conditional on the promise of guarantees of religious and civic freedoms for local religious minorities. Historian Carol Fink argues:. Fink reports that these provisions were generally not enforced—no suitable mechanism existed and the Great Powers had little interest in doing so.

Britain stayed aloof from alliances in the late 19th century, with an independence made possible by its island location, its dominant navy, its dominant position in finance and trade, and its strong industrial base. It rejected tariffs and practiced free trade. After losing power in Britain in , Liberal leader Gladstone returned to center stage in by calling for a moralistic foreign policy, as opposed to the realism of his great adversary Benjamin Disraeli.

The issue drew the party line between Gladstone's Liberals who denounced the immoral Ottomans and Disraeli's Conservatives who downplayed the atrocities and supported the Ottoman Empire as an offset to Russian power. Disraeli had threatened war with Russia on the issue and Gladstone argued he was wrong. Liberal opinion was convulsed by atrocities in the Balkans, in particular the massacre of more than 10, Christian Bulgars by Turkish irregulars. Gladstone denounced the Turks for committing "abominable and bestial lusts His pamphlet sold an astonishing , copies.

The climax was his " Midlothian campaign " of when he charged Disraeli's government with financial incompetence, neglecting domestic legislation, and mismanagement of foreign affairs. Gladstone felt a call from God to aid the Serbians and Bulgarians who were Eastern Orthodox Christians ; he spoke out like an ancient Hebrew prophet denouncing tyranny and oppression. The real audience was not the local electorate but Britain as a whole, especially the evangelical elements.

By appealing to vast audiences denouncing Disraeli's pro-Turkish foreign policy, Gladstone made himself a moral force in Europe, unified his party, and was carried back to power. Chancellor Bismarck took full charge of German foreign policy from to his dismissal in Bismarck made clear to all that Germany had no wish to add any territory in Europe, and he tried to oppose German colonial expansion. Bismarck feared that a hostile combination of Austria, France and Russia could overwhelm Germany.

If two of them were allied, then the third would ally with Germany only if Germany conceded excessive demands. The solution was to ally with two of the three. In he formed the League of the Three Emperors , an alliance of the kaiser of Germany, the tsar of Russia, and the emperor of Austria-Hungary. It protected Germany against a war with France. The three emperors together could control Eastern Europe, making sure that restive ethnic groups such as the Poles were kept in control.

The Balkans posed a more serious issue, and Bismarck's solution was to give Austria predominance in the western areas, and Russia in the eastern areas. The system collapsed in Kaiser Wilhelm ousted Bismarck in and developed his own aggressive foreign policy. The Kaiser rejected the Russian alliance, and Russia in turn turned to an alliance with France.

Between and , Germany repeatedly intervened in the internal affairs of France's neighbors. This was part of an integrated strategy to promote republicanism in France by strategically and ideologically isolating the clerical-monarchist regime of President Patrice de Mac-Mahon. It was hoped that by ringing France with a number of liberal states, French republicans could defeat MacMahon and his reactionary supporters. The modern concept of containment provides a useful model for understanding the dynamics of this policy. Containment almost got out of hand in in the "War in Sight" crisis.

It was sparked by an editorial entitled "Krieg-in-Sicht" in an influential Berlin newspaper the Post. It indicated some highly influential Germans, alarmed by France's rapid recovery from defeat in and its rearmament program, talked of launching a preventive war against France to hold it down. There was a war scare in Germany and France, and Britain and Russia made it clear they would not tolerate a preventive war.

Bismarck did not want any war either, but the unexpected crisis forced him to take into account the fear and alarm that his bullying and Germany's fast-growing power was causing among its neighbors. The crisis reinforced Bismarck's determination that Germany had to work in proactive fashion to preserve the peace in Europe, rather than passively let events take their own course and react to them. The central development in Russian foreign policy was to move away from Germany and toward France. This became possible in , when Bismarck was dismissed from office, and Germany refused to renew the secret Reinsurance Treaty with Russia.

That encouraged Russian expansion into Bulgaria and the Straits. It meant that both France and Russia were without major allies; France took the initiative and funding Russian economic development, and in exploring a military alliance. France, which had been shut out of the entire alliance system by Bismarck, decided to improve relations with Russia. It lent money to the Russians, expanded trade, and began selling warships after Meanwhile, after Bismarck lost office in , there was no renewal of the Reinsurance treaty between Russia and Germany.

The German bankers stopped lending to Russia, which increasingly depended on Paris banks. In a secret treaty stipulated that Russia would come to the aid of France if France was attacked by Germany. Another stipulation was that in a war against Germany, France would immediately mobilize 1. It provided that if any of the Triple Alliance Germany, Austria, Italy mobilized its reserves in preparation for war, then both Russia and France would mobilize theirs.

George F. Kennan argues that Russia was primarily responsible for the collapse of Bismarck's alliance policy in Europe, and starting the downward slope to the First World War. Kennan blames poor Russian diplomacy centered on its ambitions in the Balkans. Kennan says Bismarck's foreign policy was designed to prevent any major war even in the face of improved Franco-Russian relations.

Russia left Bismarck's Three Emperors' League with Germany and Austria and instead took up the French proposal for closer relationships and a military alliance. The Bosnian crisis of —09 began on 8 October , when Vienna announced the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. These territories were nominally owned by the Ottoman Empire but had been awarded in custody to Austria-Hungary in the Congress of Berlin in This unilateral action—timed to coincide with Bulgaria's declaration of independence 5 October from the Ottoman Empire—sparked protestations from all the Great Powers and especially Serbia and Montenegro.

In April the Treaty of Berlin was amended to reflect the fait accompli and bring the crisis to an end. The crisis permanently damaged relations between Austria-Hungary on one hand and Serbia, Italy and Russia on the other. At the time it appeared to be a total diplomatic victory for Vienna, but Russia became determined not to back down again and hastened its military build-up. Austrian—Serbian relations became permanently stressed. It aroused intense anger among Serbian nationalists that led to the assassination of Franz Ferdinand in The continuing collapse of the Ottoman Empire led to two wars in the Balkans, in and , which were a prelude to World War I.

Nevertheless, many of their ethnic compatriots lived under the control of the Ottoman Empire. In , these countries formed the Balkan League. There were three main causes of the First Balkan War. The Ottoman Empire was unable to reform itself, govern satisfactorily, or deal with the rising ethnic nationalism of its diverse peoples.

Secondly, the Great Powers quarreled among themselves and failed to ensure that the Ottomans would carry out the needed reforms. This led the Balkan states to impose their own solution. Most important, the members of the Balkan League were confident that it could defeat the Turks. Their prediction was accurate, as Constantinople called for terms after six weeks of fighting. After five centuries, the Ottoman Empire lost virtually all of its possessions in the Balkans.

The Treaty had been imposed by the Great Powers, and the victorious Balkan states were dissatisfied with it. Bulgaria was dissatisfied over the division of the spoils in Macedonia , made in secret by its former allies, Serbia and Greece. Bulgaria attacked to force them out of Macedonia, beginning the Second Balkan War. The Serbian and Greek armies repulsed the Bulgarian offensive and counter-attacked into Bulgaria, while Romania and the Ottoman Empire also attacked Bulgaria and gained or regained territory.

The long-term result was heightened tension in the Balkans. Relations between Austria and Serbia became increasingly bitter. Russia felt humiliated after Austria and Germany prevented it from helping Serbia. The main causes of World War I , which broke out unexpectedly in central Europe in summer , included many factors, such as the conflicts and hostility of the four decades leading up to the war. Militarism, alliances, imperialism, and ethnic nationalism played major roles. However the immediate origins of the war lay in the decisions taken by statesmen and generals during the Crisis of , which was sparked by the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand the Archduke of Austria Hungary by a Serbian secret organization, the Black Hand.

By the s or s all the major powers were preparing for a large-scale war, although none expected one. Britain focused on building up its Royal Navy, already stronger than the next two navies combined. Germany, France, Austria, Italy and Russia, and some smaller countries, set up conscription systems whereby young men would serve from 1 to 3 years in the army, then spend the next 20 years or so in the reserves with annual summer training. Men from higher social statuses became officers.

Each country devised a mobilisation system whereby the reserves could be called up quickly and sent to key points by rail. Every year the plans were updated and expanded in terms of complexity. Each country stockpiled arms and supplies for an army that ran into the millions. Germany in had a regular professional army of , with an additional 1.

By the regular army was , strong and the reserves 3. The French in had 3. The various national war plans had been perfected by , albeit with Russia and Austria trailing in effectiveness. All plans called for a decisive opening and a short war. For a few years after its defeat in France displayed a bitter Revanchism : a deep sense of bitterness, hatred and demand for revenge against Germany, especially because of the loss of Alsace and Lorraine. French policy makers were not fixated on revenge. However strong public opinion regarding Alsace-Lorraine meant that friendship with Germany was impossible unless the provinces were returned, and public opinion in Germany would not allow a return to happen.

In the chief pressure group was the Parti colonial , a coalition of 50 organizations with a combined total of members. France had colonies in Asia and looked for alliances and found in Japan a possible ally. At Japan's request Paris sent military missions in — , in — and in — to help modernize the Japanese army. Admiral Courbet destroyed the Chinese fleet anchored at Foochow. The treaty ending the war, put France in a protectorate over northern and central Vietnam, which it divided into Tonkin and Annam.

Bismarck's foreign policies had successfully isolated France from the other great powers. After Bismarck was fired, Kaiser Wilhelm took erratic positions that baffled diplomats. No one could quite figure out his goals. Germany ended its secret treaties with Russia, and rejected close ties with Britain. France saw its opportunity, as Russia was looking for a new partner and French financiers invested heavily in Russian economic development. In Paris and St. Petersburg signed an alliance. France was no longer isolated — but Germany was increasingly isolated and distrusted, with only Austria as a serious ally.

The Triple Alliance included Germany, Austria, and Italy, but Italy had serious disputes with Austria, and switched sides when the world war erupted. Britain was also moving toward alliances, having abandoned its policy of splendid isolation. By , France settled its disputes with Britain. It formed the basis of the Allies of the First World War. France was deeply split between the monarchists on one side, and the Republicans on the other. The Republicans at first seemed highly unlikely to welcome any military alliance with Russia.

That large nation was poor and not industrialized; it was intensely religious and authoritarian, with no sense of democracy or freedom for its peoples. It oppressed Poland, and exiled, and even executed political liberals and radicals. At a time when French Republicans were rallying in the Dreyfus affair against anti-Semitism, Russia was the most notorious center in the world of anti-Semitic outrages, including multiple murderous large-scale pogroms against the Jews.

On the other hand, France was increasingly frustrated by Bismarck's success in isolating it diplomatically. Paris made a few overtures to Berlin, but they were rebuffed, and after there was a threat of war between France and Germany over Germany's attempt to deny French expansion into Morocco. Great Britain was still in its "splendid isolation" mode and after a major agreement in with Germany, it seemed especially favorable toward Berlin. Colonial conflicts in Africa brought Britain and France to a major crisis The Fashoda crisis of brought Britain and France almost to the brink of war and ended with a humiliation of France that left it hostile to Britain.

By Russia was the only opportunity for France to break out of its diplomatic isolation. Russia had been allied with Germany the new Kaiser Wilhelm removed Bismarck in and in ended the "Reinsurance treaty" with Russia. Russia was now alone diplomatically and like France, it needed a military alliance to contain the threat of Germany's strong army and military aggressiveness.

The pope, angered by German anti-Catholicism, worked diplomatically to bring Paris and St. Petersburg together.

Alliances and Treaties: Cooperation and Exchange in War and Peace — EGO

Russia desperately needed money for our infrastructure of railways and ports facilities. The German government refused to allow its banks to lend money to Russia, but French banks eagerly did so. For example, it funded the essential trans-Siberian railway. Negotiations were increasingly successful, and by France and Russia had signed the Franco-Russian Alliance , a strong military alliance to join together in war if Germany attacked either of them.

France had finally escaped its diplomatic isolation. Paris and London had a high-level military discussion about coordination in a joint war against Germany. By , Russia and France worked together, and Britain was hostile enough toward Germany to join them as soon as Germany invaded Belgium. In the s relations between Britain and Germany improved as the key policy-makers, Prime Minister Lord Salisbury and Chancellor Bismarck were both realistic conservatives and largely in agreement on policies.

In January he escalated tensions with his Kruger telegram congratulating Boer President Kruger of the Transvaal for beating off the Jameson raid. German officials in Berlin had managed to stop the Kaiser from proposing a German protectorate over the Transvaal. In Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz became German Naval Secretary of State and began the transformation of German Navy from small, coastal defence force to a fleet meant to challenge British naval power. Tirpitz calls for Riskflotte Risk Fleet that would make it too risky for Britain to take on Germany as part of wider bid to alter the international balance of power decisively in Germany's favour.

It was the new policy of Germany to assert its claim to be a global power. Bismarck's conservativism was abandoned as Germany was intent on challenging and upsetting international order. London began to see Berlin as a hostile force and moved to friendlier relationships with France. Morocco on the northwest coast of Africa, was the last major territory in Africa not controlled by colonial power. Morocco nominally was ruled by its Sultan. But in a child took the office, and soon died leaving chaos. By , Morocco was the scene of multiple local wars started by pretenders to the sultanate, by bankruptcy of the treasury, and by multiple tribal revolts.

No one was in charge. General Hubert Lyautey wanted a more aggressive military policy using his French army based in Algeria. France decided to use both diplomacy and military force. With British approval, it would control the Sultan, ruling in his name and extending French control.

British approval was received in the Entente Cordiale of On 31 March , Germany's Kaiser Wilhelm II visited Morocco's capital, Tangier, and delivered a sabre-rattling speech demanding an international conference to ensure Morocco's independence, with war the alternative. Historian Heather Jones argues that Germany's use of warlike rhetoric was a deliberate diplomatic ploy:. In the Agadir Crisis of France used force to seize more control over Morocco. The German Foreign Minister Alfred von Kiderlen-Waechter was not opposed to these moves, but he felt Germany was entitled to some compensation elsewhere in Africa.

He sent a small warship, made saber-rattling threats, and whipped up anger among German nationalists. France and Germany soon agreed on a compromise. However, the British cabinet was alarmed at Germany's aggressiveness toward France. David Lloyd George made a dramatic "Mansion House" speech that denounced the German move as an intolerable humiliation.

There was talk of war, and Germany backed down. Relations between Berlin and London remained sour. After the dominance of Britain's Royal Navy was unchallenged; in the s Germany decided to match it. Grand Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz — dominated German naval policy from until Tirpitz turned the modest little fleet into a world-class force that could threaten the British Royal Navy. The British responded with new technology typified by the Dreadnaught revolution , and remained in the lead.

Germany's navy was not strong enough to confront the British in World War I; the one great naval Battle of Jutland failed to end Britain's control of the seas or break the stifling blockade. Germany turned to submarine warfare. The laws of war required an effort be made to allow passengers and crew to board lifeboats before sinking a ship.

The Germans disregarded the law and in the most dramatic episode sank the Lusitania in in a few minutes. Admiral Henning von Holtzendorff — , chief of the admiralty staff, argued successfully in early to resume the attacks and thus starve the British. The German high command realized the resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare meant war with the United States but calculated that American mobilization would be too slow to stop a German victory on the Western Front. The First World War was a global conflict that lasted from to It saw the Central Powers Germany and Austria-Hungary, later joined by the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria , fighting the "Entente" or "Allied" powers, led by Britain, Russia and France from , who were later joined by Italy in , and other countries such as Romania in Despite overcoming Romania in and Russia in March , the Central Powers collapsed in November, ; and Germany accepted an "armistice" that in practice was a total surrender.

Britain, United States and Germany spent large sums funding their allies. Propaganda campaigns to maintain morale at home and undermine morale in the enemy camp, especially among minorities, was a priority for the major powers. They also engaged in subversion, by subsidizing political groups that try to overthrow the enemy regime, as the Bolsheviks did in Russia in Some land was promised to several nations, so some promises therefore had to be broken.

That left permanent bitter legacies especially in Italy. The world war was settled by the victors at the Paris Peace Conference in They met together informally times and made all the major decisions, which in turn were ratified by the others. The major decisions were the creation of the League of Nations ; the five peace treaties with defeated enemies most notably the Treaty of Versailles with Germany ; heavy reparations imposed on Germany; the awarding of German and Ottoman overseas possessions as "mandates" , chiefly to Britain and France; and the drawing of new national boundaries sometimes with plebiscites to better reflect the forces of nationalism.

In the "guilt clause" section , the war was blamed on "aggression by Germany and her allies. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Diplomacy and wars of six largest powers in the world. For the previous diplomatic era, see International relations, — Main article: Concert of Europe. The national boundaries within Europe as set by the Congress of Vienna, Main article: Congress of Vienna.


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Main article: Atlantic slave trade. Main article: Spanish American wars of independence. Further information: Crimean War. Further information: Anti-Corn Law League. Main article: Belgian Revolution. Main article: Revolutions of In order to reinforce regional cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region, which includes such countries, it is most important to strengthen the basis of cooperative relations by accumulating "political dialogue for mutual reassurance among the friendly countries.

Contribution to Stability through Economic Cooperation. Japan's Official Development Assistance ODA is provided to developing countries, based on the fundamental principles of the recognition of interdependence and humanitarian considerations, with the objectives of economic growth, stabilization of the people's livelihood and improvement in their welfare in the developing countries.

It is implemented as support for their self-help efforts.

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Through economic and social development in the developing countries, it is noted that Japan's ODA with such objectives has traditionally helped the stabilization of the region, and has eventually contributed to the peace and stability of the whole world. In fact, looking at the countries in Asia, to which a large part of Japan's assistance has been provided, these countries have achieved remarkable economic development based on a market economy and, through which Asia has become a region with political stability and vitality.

This should be attributed mainly to the fact that Asian countries have made strenuous self-help efforts toward economic and social development and to their expansion in trade and investment. But, at the same time, it could be appreciated that Japan's ODA has helped and promoted their self-help efforts. When looking at the international scene, various problems which many developing countries are faced with, including external debts, poverty and environmental problems, have deteriorated further, new problems are emerging, in the wake of the collapse of the post-Cold War international structure and the pursuit of a new order, all of which are accompanied by increased requirements for assistance and funds.

Japan has made clear, on many occasions, its policy of actively taking part in international efforts to construct a new world order, by making the most of Japan's economic and technological strength, as well as experience. ODA is an important pillar of Japan's foreign policy and Japan should participate in these international efforts through assistance. The Gulf Crisis, which occurred under the international effort to establish a new order, posed a serious challenge for Japan in this respect, asking how Japan could join international efforts to restore peace in the Middle East and secure the peace and stability of the world.

Naturally, the international community expected Japan's active contributions in the field of economic assistance. As the international community worked together for the liberation of Kuwait under the coordination by the United Nations, Japan answered to the expectations of the world by implementing ODA with the aim of making speedy, flexible and direct contributions to the peace and stability of the region.

Japan came up with assistance measures in response to new developments and changes including the cease-fire. Japan provided emergency commodity loans to the affected countries in this region and, within the existing ODA frameworks, provided possible assistance to Asian nations, including Sri Lanka, the Philippines and India, which suffered an economic blow caused by the Gulf Crisis. Japan also contributed funds to international organizations engaged in refugee assistance and dispatched Japan Disaster Relief Teams, as well as experts and research teams on environmental problems, to the Gulf region.

Japan also has rapidly increased its assistance and support to Central and Eastern Europe, Mongolia and Peru, which are pushing forward with democratization and economic reforms. This is also considered as Japan's cooperation through contributing to the stability of those countries and regions, which are under accelerating changes resulting from structural changes in the international community. Specifically, concerning the assistance and support to Central and Eastern Europe, in addition to assisting Poland and Hungary, Japan expanded support to other countries. In the assistance package to Central and Eastern Europe, technical cooperation the acceptance of trainees from and dispatch of experts to those countries is an important element.

Similarly, Japan has increased assistance to Mongolia, which is promoting democratization and rapid transformation to a market economy, and Peru, which has implemented a stringent economic policy for its economic reform under the initiatives of President Alberto Fujimori. In addition to these individual and specific cases of assistance, a new development was made in the aid strategy itself. Specifically, against the background of dramatic changes in the international community, as public attention has increasingly been mounting on the role of Japan's ODA, a main pillar of Japan's foreign policy, Prime Minister Toshiki Kaifu announced in April the Japanese Government's stance to link Japan's ODA with military expenditures of the recipient countries.

This Japanese initiative drew worldwide attention. The issue of military expenditures of recipient countries was referred to for the first time internationally in a communique announced by the joint Development Committee of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund IMF in April A Ministerial Conference of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development OECD held in June also addressed in a communique the idea that assistance should be linked to democratization, military expenditures and other factors of the recipient countries. It was also encouraged to take actions similar to Japan in a declaration of the London G-7 Summit held in July.

Amidst the fluid international situation when the world is undergoing structural transformations, the possibility of regional instabilities causing various problems, including the emergence of refugees and evacuees and economic difficulties of the countries involved, is undeniable. Japan's ODA will be implemented hereafter, as it has been in the past, primarily with the objective of helping developing countries' economic and social development, stabilization of their livelihood and improvement in their welfare.

But it would also be important for Japan to further expand its ODA, while further promoting understanding among the Japanese public, taking into account Japan's contribution to the solution of the problems above. The Political Declaration of the G-7 London Summit in July began as follows: "We believe the conditions now exist for the United Nations to fulfill completely the promise and the visions of its founders.

A revitalized United Nations will have a central role in strengthening the international order. We commit ourselves to making the United Nations stronger, more efficient and more effective in order to protect human rights, to maintain peace and security for all and to deter aggression. The United Nations was founded with a grand ideal of establishing permanent peace based on the tragic experiences of two world wars in the 20th Century. In the era of the Cold War, however, the collective security system centering on the U.

Security Council, the pivotal system for maintaining international peace and security which is the primary objective of the United Nations, did not function sufficiently. The collective security system which the founders of the United Nations had envisaged is as follows: Member states of the United Nations pledge not to threaten or resort to the use of force. If a member state violates the pledge, other member states will jointly take non-military measures against the violator through a decision of the Security Council.

Should the measures prove to be inadequate, U. The details of the collective security system are stipulated in Chapter 7 of the U. Charter, according to which all U. And a special agreement for that purpose is to be concluded between the Security Council and member countries.

Plans for the deployment of U. However, no special agreement concerning the armed forces provided for in Chapter 7 of the U. Charter has been concluded yet. And while the Military Staff Committee was established, substantial activities have not been carried out. There has been no case of organizing the U. After World War II, the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union gradually intensified and both countries were involved in almost all regional disputes in one way or another. Accordingly, the direction of the conflicts was influenced by calculations of the two countries based on their respective world strategy.

Since both the Eastern and Western blocs frequently executed vetoes at the Security Council, the Council fell in a pit of not being able to take effective action to solve the conflicts. As the universal security system under which the world is considered as one unit without any specific hypothetical enemy did not work, both the Eastern and Western blocs organized regional security systems.

Charter which stipulates the inherent right of either individual or collective defense, regarded each other as the major potential enemy. What is about to drastically change this situation is the new move for cooperation between the United States and the Soviet Union. As symbolized by the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact in July , this dramatic change in the East-West relations shows an irreversible direction, although there will be some turns and twists. The environment surrounding the United Nations is improving so considerably that the Security Council is gradually restoring its proper functions, paving the way for revitalization of the United Nations.

The United Nations succeeded in playing a major role in solving regional disputes in various parts of the world as follows: the Soviet Union agreed to withdraw its forces from Afghanistan in April ; Iran and Iraq reached an agreement on a cease-fire in July and peace negotiations thereafter; Cuba agreed to withdraw its forces from Angola in December ; the independence of Namibia was realized in March ; and the anti-government guerrillas in Nicaragua were dissolved in June But what made the function and role of the United Nations in maintaining international peace and security movement into the limelight was the Gulf Crisis which suddenly occurred in August Iraq's obvious challenge against international law and order roused the world's antipathy and Iraq was censured by the world.

Concerning the Gulf Crisis, a solution of the problem within the East-West framework was not sought, in which either the United States or the Soviet Union should have stopped the Iraqi action. Instead, the United Nations, in particular the Security Council, assumed the heavy responsibility of solving the problem. The response to the Gulf Crisis was regarded as an important test of whether the United Nations could effectively function under the new international relations of the post-Cold War era. With the strong support of international public opinion, the Security Council identified Iraq's action as a breach of international peace and security and adopted Resolution on August 2, the day of the Iraqi invasion, demanding Iraq to withdraw from Kuwait immediately and unconditionally.

On August 6, the Security Council adopted Resolution , imposing comprehensive economic sanctions upon Iraq for not abiding by Resolution Furthermore, the Security Council adopted Resolution on August 25, which called upon the member states deploying maritime forces in the region to take necessary measures, including inspection of all inward and outward maritime shipping, in order to ensure effectiveness of the economic sanctions.

In only two previous occasions were economic sanctions imposed based on U. Security Council resolutions; these were against South Africa and Rhodesia. These economic sanctions had a limited effect and did not have a major impact on the world economy. The economic sanctions imposed upon Iraq, however, were comprehensive and accompanied by military deployments to ensure the effectiveness of the sanctions. It was the first time for the United Nations to implement such large-scale economic sanctions.

On November 29, the U. Security Council adopted Resolution authorizing the member states cooperating with the Government of Kuwait to use all necessary means unless Iraq fully implemented the foregoing resolutions on or before January 15, The Gulf Crisis, in effect, ended with the use of force against Iraq by the multinational forces, which was authorized by Resolution , but the procedure in the Security Council from the first resolution to this 11th one is very important. The procedure took place in accordance with the concept of the U.

Charter that military measures should be taken only after non-military measures were thoroughly implemented. It is technically difficult to quantitatively measure the effects of economic sanctions. However, even if the economic sanctions bore certain effects to increasingly isolate Iraq from the world physically and psychologically, it was clear that the economic sanctions were insufficient to destroy the Iraqi will to continue the invasion and stop the violation of human rights in Kuwait at an earliest time so that the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait could be terminated.

The fact that when the international community took a series of actions, from accusing Iraq of invading Kuwait to the actual use of force, following the procedures required by the United Nations, proved that the international community united to restore international peace and security legitimately and legally. It was not that the situation was brought under control by some major power.

The series of measures taken by the U. Security Council during the Gulf Crisis became a very important precedence in considering how the international community should cope with regional conflicts which can occur in the future. The use of force by the multinational forces was not a typical action to be taken by the U. Charter and under the command of the Security Council. But it was conducted under the authority of the Security Council resolutions based on the U. Accordingly, the use of force by the multinational forces is a sanction in line with the fundamental concept of the U.

This indicates a policy direction to cope with an urgent request from the international community to restore international peace and security effectively under a decision by the Security Council in a circumstance where a special agreement based on the U. Charter has not yet been concluded. The fact that the international community could unite under the United Nations to cope with the Gulf Crisis his led to the expectation that international peace and security can be maintained by promoting this kind of cooperation and establishing a collective security system with the United Nations as a pivot.

Nevertheless, there were special factors in the Gulf Crisis which enabled such unified action by the international community. First, in the Gulf Crisis, it was obvious to the international community what party was to be criticized. Normally, all parties concerned in international conflicts have some grounds for their arguments, and it is difficult for the international community to reach a uniform judgment and take joint action.

The Gulf Crisis was caused by too obvious a violation of international law by Iraq as to amalgamate Kuwait with the clear unilateral use of force. Furthermore, Iraq took foreigners as hostages, destroyed oil facilities to let oil run and set fire to oil wells. These inhuman actions and environmental destruction invited the anger of the international community from the viewpoint that these actions were a crime against humanity as a whole.

Security Council, needed to improve their respective relations with the United States and other Western nations and saw no benefit arising from supporting Iraq. The Soviet Union, which was pushing forward its economic and social reforms, needed a stable international situation and support from the Western countries and cooperation with the United States was important.

China also saw an interest in taking a cooperative posture toward the international community to lift, in effect, economic sanctions imposed on China by major countries since the Tiananmen Square incident in June Third, as the Gulf region has overwhelmingly abundant oil resources which were of vital significance for the world economy, the consequence of the Gulf Crisis was a matter directly affecting the security and prosperity of many countries.

Accordingly, each country was required to make a serious response. The combination of these three factors made none of the major countries see any interest in supporting Iraq. It is uncertain whether another serious situation will emerge to which the experience of the Gulf Crisis could be applied and whether there will be a set of favorable conditions for the international community to unite in making individual countries determined to willingly make great sacrifices. Nevertheless, amid fundamental changes in the East-West relations, it is likely, in general, that both the United States and the Soviet Union, as well as all of the permanent members of the Security Council, will increasingly find interest in bringing armed conflicts under control, paving the way for the possibility that the United Nations will play a more important role in solving regional conflicts.

It will be important in the future to steadily strengthen the U. The Political Declaration of the G-7 London Summit also emphasized as a lesson learned from the Gulf Crisis the importance of coping with regional disputes multinationally with the United Nations playing a central part. It is necessary for Japan, on its part, to actively contribute to the U. The Security Council adopted Resolution demanding that Iraq meet the series of conditions set forth in the resolution so that a cease-fire could be effectuated between Iraq and the multinational forces.

Among the conditions demanded, for example, was that Iraq and Kuwait respect the boundary once agreed upon between the two countries concerning the border dispute which Iraq used as an excuse to invade Kuwait. The resolution called on the Secretary-General to make arrangements for demarcation of the boundary between the two countries. This was practically equivalent to the Security Council demarcating the boundary between the two countries. The resolution not only demanded Iraq to destroy its weapons of mass destruction, including ballistic missiles, nuclear weapons, biological weapons and chemical weapons and prohibited the redevelopment of those military capabilities, but also ensured the effectiveness of the destruction and prohibition of those weapons by providing for all procedures from inspections, destructions and continued monitoring under the supervision of an international organization.

Furthermore, the resolution clearly stated the Iraqi liability for loss reparations and stipulated an effective procedure to establish funds to ensure payments to countries and nationals that suffered losses. Thus, this resolution is an epoch-making decision by the Security Council to maintain international order in that it not only deals at the time of the cease-fire with settling the situation caused directly by the Iraqi invasion, but also provides for measures to be taken addressing to the causes of the conflict, such as demarcation of the boundary, and sanction measures to prevent the dispute from recurring, such as limiting Iraq's military capabilities.

Peace-keeping Operations PKO by the United Nations have been established and developed through actual practices as practical means to help solve regional disputes throughout the world under the circumstances where the collective security system provided for in Chapter 7 of the U. Charter does not sufficiently function. Peace-keeping Operations are to fulfill tasks through the authority and persuasion of the United Nations in a neutral and non-aligned position.

They are now one of the activities which draw the greatest attention of the world. In , the U. They paved the way for the U. Peace-keeping Operations to receive the Nobel Peace Prize. In , four more Peace-keeping Operations were set up: the U. Since the establishment of the U. Truce Supervision Organization UNTSO in , Peace-keeping Operations have been a practical means of preventing regional disputes from worsening through the intermediation of the United Nations, contributing to a peaceful solution.

The conventional forms of Peace-keeping Operations have been cease-fire observation missions and peace-keeping forces, composed mainly of military personnel. Recently, however, the Peace-keeping Operations by the United Nations have been expanded to new fields and their activity forms have diversified. A specific example is election monitoring missions. This was implemented for the first time when Namibia became independent. This operation was highly appraised by the international community and a new area of peace-keeping activities by civilians was opened.

The problem in Western Sahara is a dispute over the jurisdiction of Western Sahara as to whether it should become an independent state or be merged into Morocco. It has long been one of the destabilizing factors in North Africa. Due to mediating efforts by the United Nations and the Organization of African Unity OAU , the disputing parties reached an agreement on a peaceful solution through a referendum. The United Nations is to be involved in a series of peaceful steps from administration of a cease-fire to observation of the referendum. Preparations are steadily made for holding the referendum in January Discussions are underway within the United Nations to set up a Peace-keeping Operation in Cambodia in the near future, which is a very significant issue for Japan.

A blueprint has already been drawn concerning how the United Nations should be involved in establishing peace in Cambodia. The establishment of the U. In addition to activities in the military field, such as observation of a cease-fire and demilitarization, it is envisaged to engage in activities in the conduct and supervision of elections, as well as control and supervision of administration during the transitional period. UNTAC, therefore, is expected to be a very large operation, but its actual scale and activity will be discussed in due course.

While Japan had continued to make contributions to the U. Peace-keeping Operations, its contributions bad mainly been limited to financial support. However, with the recognition that financial contributions alone were no longer sufficient in the light of Japan's increasing international responsibility, Japan sent a political officer to a U.

Peace-keeping Operation for the first time in Since then, Japan has steadily increased its contributions in terms of personnel, including dispatching civilians to the election monitoring missions in Namibia and Nicaragua. Under the present system, however, Japan's contributions to the U. Peace-keeping Operations with regard to personnel are inevitably limited considerably. The Gulf Crisis gave the Japanese an opportunity to reconsider the issue of how to maintain peace and security.

At the same time, this activated the discussions on how Japan should participate in and cooperate with these international efforts. Against this background, from the perspective of the urgent need of establishing a system to send personnel to the U. Peace-keeping Operations, including the legal aspects, the Government of Japan submitted a bill on the U. Peace-keeping Operations in the extraordinary session of the Diet at the end of But the bill was not enacted because debate was not completed.

Nevertheless, through national discussions including the Diet deliberations on the bill, the recognition that it is indispensable for Japan to make sufficient contributions to the maintenance of the peace and security of the world has won increasing support among the public. A cooperation with U.


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Peace-keeping Operations - in particular, by means of sending personnel to non-armed cease-fire observer missions, as well as the Peace-keeping forces where use of weapons is strictly limited to the purpose of self-defense, both of which are to be dispatched with the consent of the countries concerned and to operate in a neutral position - has been gaining increasing support in the Japanese public and considered to be an appropriate contribution of Japan with its peace Constitution.

It will be necessary for the Government of Japan to proceed with necessary steps to decide upon actual ways for cooperating with the Peace-keeping Operations with personnel in accordance with the present Constitution, respecting public opinion and making sufficient explanations within and out of the country. As mentioned earlier, the United Nations has a function of solving conflicts. Japan also stresses the reinforcement of the U. For this purpose, Japan deems it practical to strengthen the authority of the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

Specifically, Japan has proposed to set up a U. Conflict Prevention System under the Secretary-General. The Secretary-General will: 1 monitor constantly a situation which is likely to become a threat to international peace and security and implement studies and research on it; 2 organize survey teams of experts to be sent by individual nations and send survey teams to areas where the situation is likely to deteriorate in order to study its causes, as well as the ongoing situation; 3 based on the survey result conducted by the team, write a report to be submitted to the Security Council and give warning, if necessary, at an early stage to call the attention of the international community; and 4 attempt to prevent conflicts by playing the role of an intermediary between the parties concerned.

The Government of Japan will strongly advocate the establishment of such a conflict prevention system and engage in discussions with other countries on this proposal. During the Gulf Crisis, Japan, not being a member of the Security Council, did not have opportunities to assert itself sufficiently in the resolutions which were adopted in the Security Council. Amid the formation of a new international order, it has become very important for Japan to be seated in the Security Council which assumes a very significant responsibility and plays an important role in the maintenance of international peace and security.

Since Japan joined the United Nations in , Japan was elected six times as a non-permanent member of the Security Council. Japan is now campaigning to run as a candidate for the election of non-permanent members of the Security Council to be held in the 46th General Assembly of the United Nations in If Japan is elected, it will assume the position for the seventh time the term is two years from January to December , a record achieved by no other country.

As Japan's position in the international community rises, expectations for Japan's appropriate role in the United Nations are growing. Japan has consistently taken the position of attaching importance to the United Nations since joining the organization. In particular, it has recently become a national consensus that Japan should actively make contributions to the United Nations activities It is considered that the so-called former enemy-state clauses Note which still remain in the U.

International Relations: An Introduction