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Bioremediation

Seller Inventory n. Applied Bioremediation and Phytoremediation Soil Biology. Publisher: Springer , This specific ISBN edition is currently not available. View all copies of this ISBN edition:. Buy New Learn more about this copy. Other Popular Editions of the Same Title. Search for all books with this author and title. Customers who bought this item also bought. Stock Image. Applied Bioremediation and Phytoremediation Ajay Singh. Published by Springer Seller Rating:. Applied Bioremediation and Phytoremediation Singh, Ajay.

New Paperback Quantity Available: KG, Germany New Hardcover Quantity Available: New Hardcover Quantity Available: 1. Under ideal conditions, the biodegradation rates of the low- to moderate-weight aliphatic , alicyclic , and aromatic compounds can be very high. As the molecular weight of the compound increases, so does the resistance to biodegradation.

Common approaches for providing oxygen above the water table include landfarming , composting and bioventing. During landfarming, contaminated soils, sediments, or sludges are incorporated into the soil surface and periodically turned over tilled using conventional agricultural equipment to aerate the mixture.

Bioremediation - microbewiki

Composting accelerates pollutant biodegradation by mixing the waste to be treated with a bulking agent, forming into piles, and periodically mixed to increase oxygen transfer. Bioventing is a process that increases the oxygen or air flow into the unsaturated zone of the soil which increases the rate of natural in situ degradation of the targeted hydrocarbon contaminant. Approaches for oxygen addition below the water table include recirculating aerated water through the treatment zone, addition of pure oxygen or peroxides, and air sparging.

Recirculation systems typically consist of a combination of injection wells or galleries and one or more recovery wells where the extracted groundwater is treated, oxygenated, amended with nutrients and reinjected. Greater amounts of oxygen can be provided by contacting the water with pure oxygen or addition of hydrogen peroxide H 2 O 2 to the water.

In some cases, slurries of solid calcium or magnesium peroxide are injected under pressure through soil borings. These solid peroxides react with water releasing H 2 O 2 which then decomposes releasing oxygen. Air sparging involves the injection of air under pressure below the water table. The air injection pressure must be great enough to overcome the hydrostatic pressure of the water and resistance to air flow through the soil. Similarly, reduction of sulfate to sulfide sulfidogenesis can be used to precipitate certain metals e. The choice of substrate and the method of injection depend on the contaminant type and distribution in the aquifer, hydrogeology, and remediation objectives.

Substrate can be added using conventional well installations, by direct-push technology, or by excavation and backfill such as permeable reactive barriers PRB or biowalls.


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Slow-release products composed of edible oils or solid substrates tend to stay in place for an extended treatment period. Soluble substrates or soluble fermentation products of slow-release substrates can potentially migrate via advection and diffusion, providing broader but shorter-lived treatment zones. The added organic substrates are first fermented to hydrogen H 2 and volatile fatty acids VFAs. The VFAs, including acetate, lactate, propionate and butyrate, provide carbon and energy for bacterial metabolism.

Heavy metals including cadmium, chromium, lead and uranium are elements so they cannot be biodegraded. However, bioremediation processes can potentially be used to reduce the mobility of these material in the subsurface, reducing the potential for human and environmental exposure. The mobility of certain metals including chromium Cr and uranium U varies depending on the oxidation state of the material. In the event of biostimulation, adding nutrients that are limited to make the environment more suitable for bioremediation, nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, oxygen, and carbon may be added to the system to improve effectiveness of the treatment.

Many biological processes are sensitive to pH and function most efficiently in near neutral conditions. Low pH can interfere with pH homeostasis or increase the solubility of toxic metals.

ISBN 13: 9783540210207

Microorganisms can expend cellular energy to maintain homeostasis or cytoplasmic conditions may change in response to external changes in pH. Some anaerobes have adapted to low pH conditions through alterations in carbon and electron flow, cellular morphology, membrane structure, and protein synthesis. Bioremediation can be used to completely mineralize organic pollutants, to partially transform the pollutants, or alter their mobility. Heavy metals and radionuclides are elements that cannot be biodegraded, but can be bio-transformed to less mobile forms. Also, for biodegradation to occur, there must be a microbial population with the metabolic capacity to degrade the pollutant, an environment with the right growing conditions for the microbes, and the right amount of nutrients and contaminants.

The use of genetic engineering to create organisms specifically designed for bioremediation is under preliminary research. Bioremediation has now been used successfully to remediate many petroleum-contaminated sites. However, there are as yet no commercial technologies commonly used to reme diate the most recalcitrant contaminants.

Applied Bioremediation and Phytoremediation (Soil Biology)

Nevertheless, bioremediation is a rapidly advancing field and new bio-based remedial technologies are continuing to emerge. Get A Copy. Hardcover , pages. More Details Original Title. Other Editions 2. Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up.

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