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There are sometimes instances where you need to traverse the DOM and gain access to a specific element, or group of elements, but due to certain restrictions, you may not have direct access to the elements via a CSS class name or ID in the HTML code. This might be because of user-generated content produced through a rich text editor, or dynamic content pulled from a database.

As long as you have a map of the general template that contains the element you want to target, you can access that element and manipulate it the same way you would an element that has a class name or ID.

Using the HTML code above, if we wanted to target all the anchor tags on the page, we could collect them and manipulate them like this:. If we wanted to target only the anchor tags in the footer, however, we would target them based on their context, or surrounding elements, like this:. The first line grabs a reference to the footer element.

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Then we loop through them and do what we want with them. Thus, they are accessible even though they are not grouped via class names. We could also limit our anchor tag search to include only tags that have the href attribute set, so as to avoid finding any in-page links. We do this by using the getAttribute method:. The inline style could have been generated through a content management system, so you may not have the ability to edit it directly. Object-oriented JavaScript implements namespace-like principles due to the fact that properties and methods are declared inside of objects, thus there are less likely to be conflicts.

A conflict could arise, however, through object names. You can prevent all conflicts by creating a unique namespace. This object can be whatever you want it to be. Then our namespace function becomes a method of the MY. I chose these for demonstration purposes. The showStatistics function is exactly the same as in the example earlier that utilizes an object literal to pass in the values. But in this case, the entire function, including the object literal, is encapsulated inside my. You can create powerful JavaScript applications if you use a combination of a JavaScript library and raw JavaScript code.

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You can implement your favorite JavaScript library and take advantage of its simplified Ajax calls, DOM methods, and normalization of browser differences. Thus, you can have the advantages of the library, while still creating custom scripts that are specific to your project.

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Finally, this is a technique to use in situations that require dozens of lines of HTML code being generated dynamically via JavaScript. Take the following example:. But if this line of code were any longer it would be extremely difficult to read and maintain in the. Here is the same code as above, but implementing a much more organized method of displaying the HTML:. We've driven over 4 million leads for clients in the last five years. Share this article: Return to top. Closures to Extend Variable Scope Closures in JavaScript are a fairly straightforward concept, and have been discussed online in a number of in-depth articles.

9. JS Advanced Objects

Object Literals to Pass Optional Arguments Here is a handy coding tip to keep in mind when dealing with functions that can accept a large number of optional arguments. Pellentesque habitant morbi tristique senectus et netus et malesuada fames ac turpis egestas. Vestibulum tortor quam, feugiat vitae, ultricies eget, tempor sit amet, ante. Donec eu libero sit amet quam egestas semper.

Learn JavaScript: Tutorials for Beginners, Intermediate and Advanced Programmers

Aenean ultricies mi vitae est. Mauris placerat eleifend leo. Randore March 25, , am 3. Dereje1 March 25, , am 4.

JavaScript and namespaces

Randore March 25, , am 5. Anyways thank you all. Randore March 29, , am 6. Finally solved the problem, here is the updated code. Why I cannot pass the test? I wrote the same code as yours. Thanks in advance!

6 Advanced JavaScript Techniques You Should Know

Randore June 18, , pm 8. Thanks for your reply!

Advanced Javascript - Learn Web Development Now

Here is a part of the code. Randore June 19, , am Hey, this is working fine, I just re-checked the challenge. You can also try destructing the state.