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The Economic Development Handbook was created to help citizens, elected officials, policymakers and other stakeholders learn more about how North Carolina pursues jobs and business growth in the state. In addition, it details many of resources available to businesses and communities. She began her economic development career in as Vice President of the Wayne County Economic Development Commission in Goldsboro, rising to led that organization in and continuing her service as President after the organization was reconstituted as the Wayne County Development Alliance Inc.

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The organization named Joanna Economic Developer of the Year in Joanna is a graduate of Western Carolina University, where she earned a BS in geography planning. She and her husband Tim have two adult sons. Josh is a graduate of UNC Charlotte, where he majored in political science and religious studies. John and his wife, Autney, live in Raleigh with their two teenage children.

Ryan Wetherington joined the board in In September of that year he was named vice president at Armstrong Relocation in Charlotte. He also spent two years as director of marketing, public relations and research at the Lancaster County SC Economic Development Corporation and has held economic development and policy positions at the Charlotte Regional Partnership, the City of Wilmington and the Cape Fear Council of Governments.

An Eagle Scout, he lives is Charlotte with his wife, Keri, and their two children. While there, his leadership helped facilitate the arrival and expansion of numerous companies in Lenoir County, including Spirit AeroSystems, Sanderson Farms, West Pharmaceuticals and Moen.


Mark joined the economic development profession in after a year career in banking. In addition to numerous voluntary leadership roles, he is active in Westminster United Methodist Church and has coached little league baseball, soccer and basketball. Raul resides in Trinity. He is vice president of strategic development at Biltmore Farms LLC, where he crafts and executes strategies for attracting capital investment and jobs to Western North Carolina.

Ben previously served as executive director of the Economic Development Coalition of Asheville-Buncombe County and chief operations officer of the Asheville Chamber of Commerce. His professional background includes extensive regional economic development work in Mississippi. Ben holds a B. The system and its 58 campuses serve approximately , learners across their academic, technical, continuing education and customized training programs. Maureen began her economic development career in as director of business and industry services at Stanly Community College. Maureen serves as an officer of the North Myrtle Beach-based organization.

The couple lives in Monroe. The natural gas utility serves more than , customers across 96 North Carolina communities. She previously served in the U. Air Force. Julie chairs the board of NC Heroes Fund, a non-profit that assists active-duty military personnel and their families. She also serves on the board of directors of the Schiele Museum, a regional museum of natural history in Gastonia.

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She resides in Mount Holly. The public-private partnership promotes economic growth, innovation and sustainability in Burke County.

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  6. From until , he was director of the Stokes County Economic Development Commission, where he led efforts to expand broadband deployment, diversify regional agribusiness and provide digital marketing opportunities for small businesses. As senior development manager at the Caldwell County Economic Development Commission, Alan helped recruit the Google Data Center, as well as important projects in the biopharma, consumer foods and composites industries.

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    He worked in the furniture manufacturing and local banking earlier in his career. He and his wife, Kelly, live in Morganton. He is an Eagle Scout. He and his wife, Deborah, live in Whiteville. She was an officer and director of the organization prior to becoming assistant secretary of Commerce for rural economic development in September She served nine years as director of economic development in Ashe County and two of those years as county manager.

    She is a graduate of Berry College in Rome, Georgia where she studied language arts and political science, and she holds masters and doctoral degrees in public administration from the University of Georgia. She lives in Fleetwood. Randall is a cum laude graduate of Wake Forest University, where he studied psychology. He is also a graduate of Leadership North Carolina. Randall resides in Wilmington with his wife, Leigh, and their young son, Ace. Midgley, James. Livermore, Michelle. It was about 10 years ago that Jim Nageotte, who was then with Sage Publications, first proposed the idea of publishing a series of handbooks in the fields of social work and social policy.

    We were honored to respond to his invitation to produce The Handbook of Social Policy —the first in the new series. Following the handbook's publication in , a number of additional handbooks dealing with different social work and welfare issues have appeared. We are now delighted to be working with Kassie Graves and her colleagues at Sage on the revised and updated edition of The Handbook of Social Policy.

    We were also pleased to learn from her that the first edition has been widely used not only as a reference source but also as an advanced, graduate-level text and that there is demand for a new edition. We believe that the quality of the contributions, and the expertise of the authors who wrote for the first edition, was primarily responsible for the handbook's popularity. We are most fortunate that many of those who contributed to the first edition were willing to update their original chapters. They are acknowledged to be among the leading scholars working in the field of social policy today, and we are grateful for their participation.

    Many thanks to Kassie Graves for her confidence in this project and to her and Veronica Novak for their encouragement and support. Karen Taylor coped extremely well with a heavy demand to finish the copyediting. Many thanks also to Tracy Buyan, who saw the book through production. Thanks also to Carmel Schrire for her efforts to ensure that the book is properly marketed. We are sorry that Martin Tracy decided not to participate in the production of the second edition. He was adamant that retirement meant retirement and that he intended to avoid the demands of editing a major work such as The Handbook of Social Policy.

    We respect his determination to pursue his well-earned retirement goals and wish him the very best. His informal advice and support are also greatly appreciated. As with the first edition, we have enjoyed working on this project and have benefited from the extensive knowledge of the contributors. We hope that the book will be helpful to those who wish to have a broad overview of social policy and the many complex issues that affect the policy-making process, We also hope that it will stimulate further reflection and in-depth reading of the many interesting and important issues raised by the contributors.

    Social policy is a continuously evolving field requiring constant review, documentation, and analysis. We sincerely hope that The Handbook of Social Policy will prove to be a useful resource for students, administrators, social workers, and policy makers concerned with the well-being of all who live in the United States today. This book is about government social policies and the way they affect peoples' welfare. As will be shown in the next chapter, policies are courses of action adopted by formal organizations. They prescribe, govern, and routinize the activities of formal organizations.

    By prescribing courses of action, policies standardize decision making, enhance organizational efficiency, and help organizations achieve their goals.

    Policies are used in all types of organizations including commercial and industrial firms, nonprofit agencies, religious organizations, universities, and multinational corporations. They are used to prescribe the ways governmental agencies function and seek to achieve their goals. In addition, the government formulates and implements policies that affect the lives of citizens and their many activities. Policies formulated and implemented by governments are known as public policies.

    They are used by governments to deal with major issues that affect a country's social, economic, environmental, and political affairs. Governments throughout the world use policies to discharge their obligations and to carry out their many complex functions. Policies designed to maintain law and order, ensure national defense, promote economic development, protect the environment, foster communications, and control urban growth are just some examples of the way governments prescribe courses of action, routinize their activities, and meet their goals.

    In addition, they have adopted policies designed to enhance the welfare of their citizens. Policies designed to enhance peoples' welfare or well-being are known as social policies. These policies are concerned with many aspects of social welfare, including health, housing, education, income, and nutrition, to name but a few.

    Social policies have also been formulated to meet the needs of groups of people such as needy children, people with disabilities, low-income families, and elderly people. Some social policies govern particular social service programs while others operate in more complex ways through the tax system, directing resources toward particular groups of people. Although government social policies make an important contribution to the well-being of the country's citizens, the welfare of the population is not only determined by government policies. Many other activities and circumstances also affect social well-being, including the income people derive from employment; their educational achievements; the support they receive from family members, friends, and neighbors; the services provided by nonprofit and religious organizations; local events in the communities in which people live; the state of the economy; and a host of other factors.

    However, government social policies are particularly important because they are intended to improve the well-being of people today and they mobilize sizable resources to achieve this goal. This book is primarily concerned with social policy in the United States and with the complex system of services and programs provided by the federal, state, and county governments. Although social policies are developed and implemented at all levels of government, the role of the federal government is particularly important, and this book will pay special attention to its social policies, services, and programs.

    However, the role of the states and local governments will also be considered.

    The State Economic Handbook 2009

    Although the book deals with social policy in the United States, the editors and contributors are mindful of the fact that the government of the United States both influences social policies in other countries and is influenced by developments from abroad. In today's increasingly globalized world, the peoples of different nations are more closely linked together and are affected by international events.

    The idea that governments should formulate social policies with the specific intention of improving the well-being of their citizens is a relatively recent one. For most of human history, governments were primarily concerned with maintaining law and order and with national defense. Earlier generations would have been surprised by the now widely accepted idea that the federal and state governments should be involved in social welfare.

    It is only since the 19th century that the power and resources of the government have been used to raise the educational levels of the population, provide housing, subsidize the incomes of people with low incomes, seek to improve health through public medical services, and in other ways improve peoples' well-being. In earlier times, families and local communities, as well as the church and voluntary agencies, were primarily responsible for welfare. During the 20th century, largely because of the efforts of social reformers, trade unionists, and progressive politicians, government involvement increased rapidly, and the social services have expanded to consume a growing proportion of national income.

    Because the role of the government in social welfare is now so extensive, it is desirable that social policies should be subjected to academic scrutiny. Accordingly, the term social policy is used not only to refer to actual government social policies and programs but also to the academic study of these policies and programs. Social scientists have only been studying the social policies of government systematically for about 50 years but a good deal of information is now available about the way social policies are formulated [Page xii] and how these policies are implemented through the social services, legal regulations, the tax system, and the courts.

    They have also traced the history of social policy, studied the ideologies that influence social policy making, and assessed the impact of government welfare provision. The result is an evolving body of knowledge that has illuminated the many complex ways government policies affect the well-being of citizens.

    The social services are specifically intended to improve social welfare, and not surprisingly, they have been a primary focus of social policy scholarship. A good deal of academic effort has been devoted to documenting the major social services, tracing their historical evolution, describing their legislative basis, and reporting on their cost and coverage. The goals of the different social services have also been studied, particularly with reference to outcomes.

    Part IV of this book contains accounts of the major social services and the way they address social needs and enhance people's well-being in the United States today. Social policy scholarship has also been concerned with theoretical issues. Several typologies or models of different types of social welfare provision have been constructed. These models have also been used to classify the social welfare systems of different countries. In addition, social policy scholars have sought to explain reasons for the expansion of government social welfare provision in the 20th century, and a variety of interesting and plausible analyses have emerged.

    Explanatory accounts of the functions that social policies serve have also been offered. While some of these accounts contend that governments introduce social welfare programs to meet social needs and enhance well-being, others stress the political or economic functions of social policies. Part II of the book, which deals with the history of social policy in the United States, touches on many of these issues.

    Social policy scholars have been particularly interested in the values and ideologies that shape social policies. This stimulating area of inquiry has shown that social policy making is not based entirely on rational, technocratic decision-making techniques but is significantly influenced by values and ideological beliefs. These beliefs give expression to the value preferences of politicians, different interest groups, academic writers, and members of the public and permeate the policy-making process. As is shown in Part III of this book, many academic social policy scholars are interested in the way values and ideologies influence social policy decisions.

    Of course, many social policy scholars also express their own normative preferences by advocating for the adoption of one or another approach or by criticizing policies with which they disagree. This tendency has led to vigorous debates within the field and arguments for and against particular policy proposals.

    Normative social policy debates reveal that the field is a controversial one in which there are many disagreements about social policy issues. Indeed, the way social policy has been defined in this introduction to the handbook will not be universally accepted. Some social policy scholars will challenge the idea that governments introduce social policies to enhance the [Page xiii] welfare of citizens believing instead that governments represent sectional interests and are not much concerned with the general well-being of the population.

    Others take issue with the idea that governments should be responsible for social welfare programs. Some believe that government welfare programs are bureaucratic, wasteful, and economically harmful. They seek to curtail government involvement and encourage individuals and their families to take responsibility for their own welfare. Others believe that nonprofit organizations, faith-based organizations, and local community groups should assume a greater responsibility for people's welfare.

    Critics of conventional social policy interpretations make many valid points and temper the enthusiasm for government involvement that previously dominated social policy scholarship.

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    These critics have raised awareness of the limitations of government and of the rather naive belief that the government is composed of caring politicians, competent civil servants, and dedicated planners who use their political authority and technical skills to formulate policies that invariably improve the well-being of the population. But, although it is true that governments have adopted policies that have a negative impact on people's welfare, it is simplistic to claim that governments never act in the best interests of their citizens.

    Many examples of well-designed and effective social policies can be given. Indeed, Part II of this book reveals that many social policies were introduced because of the campaigns of social reformers who sought to address social wrongs and promote positive social change through government intervention. Social policy scholarship is challenged to disentangle the many different ways social policies affect people's welfare and to assess the outcomes of social policies.

    As will be appreciated, this is a complex and demanding task, but it is an interesting and rewarding one. As scholars study the social policy-making process, analyze the ideological and political dimensions of social policy, and assess the outcomes of social policies, a good deal of useful information that can improve social policy and enhance peoples' future welfare is being collected.

    The handbook has been compiled specifically for readers in the United States, and it is, therefore, primarily concerned with the social policies of the country's federal and state governments. However, many of the authors make references to other countries, and in the final section, a chapter by two distinguished scholars, examines American social policy in the international context by linking social policy in the United States to developments in other nations.

    It is divided into five parts. Part I , which deals with the nature of social policy, seeks to define social policy and to examine the wider social, economic, political, and cultural context in which social policies are formulated.


    It is also concerned with two technical aspects of social policy, namely, policy analysis and policy practice. Attention is given to the impact of social policy and the different ways the effects of social policies and programs are assessed. Part II examines the history of social policy in the United States from the colonial period up to the present. This part of the book covers more than three hundred years of social policy development and shows how changing social, political, and economic realities have contributed to a continuously evolving system of governmental social welfare that, at different times, has sought to expand the role of government in social welfare and, at other times, to retrench its role.

    The chapters in this part of the book seek to provide an historical overview that will acquaint readers with the most critical events in the history of American social policy and to show how its evolution has been affected by wider social, economic, political, and cultural forces as well as the efforts of campaigners to bring about progressive improvements in social conditions. Part III of the book is concerned with the political economy of social policy.

    Although the process of social policy making involves technical activities in which research, needs assessments, policy analysis, and other factors play an important role, it is also influenced by ideological beliefs. Indeed, many social policy writers claim that ideologies play a critically important role in social policy.

    Because of their importance, various competing political economy or normative approaches, as they are also known, will be examined. These approaches reflect different ideological preferences. After describing the institutional approach, which has long dominated social policy thinking, attention is given to the conservative approach, critical social policy, welfare pluralism, feminist perspectives, multicultural approaches, the developmental perspective, and, finally, the ecological approach.

    Part IV of the book covers the major social services. As was noted earlier, academic research into the social services is now well developed, and, today, many different aspects of social service provision in the United States have been documented and analyzed. Scholars have gathered a great deal of information about the legislative basis for social service provision, the administrative aspects of social service delivery, the costs of the social services, and their impact on different client groups and the population at large. The chapters in this part of the book seek to document these different aspects of social service provision and to highlight issues arising out of the study of various social services.

    The section covers the most familiar social services, such as child welfare, social security, and mental health, but it also includes chapters on urban development, education, and employment services, which are not always regarded as forming an integral part of social policy. The concluding part of the book contains two chapters. As mentioned earlier, one of these examines American social policy in international context. The last chapter, which is written jointly by the editors, speculates on the future of social policy.

    Although it is extremely difficult to predict future trends in social policy, factors that will in all likelihood shape social policy in the years to come will be discussed and, it is hoped, will help readers to discern the way social policy will evolve. Although the handbook seeks to provide an overview of the social policy field in the United States, given the complexity of the subject and the now substantial body of knowledge that has accumulated about the way government social policies affect peoples' well-being, this is a formidable task.

    The task is made more difficult by length constraints. The editors are only too aware that it has only been possible to provide an overview of very complex issues and that some topics may not have received the in-depth analysis they deserve. It is also the case that some issues, which are referred to in some of the chapters, would have benefited from separate, more detailed treatment. For example, the impact of the tax system on social welfare is mentioned in several chapters, but it could have been addressed in a chapter of its own.

    This is also true of the way social policy interacts with the nonprofit sector and the wider civil society. Despite these limitations, it is hoped that the book will meet the needs of readers who wish to familiarize themselves with the field of social policy in the United States today. It should also serve as a pointer for further reading. The authors have provided not only helpful summaries of their topics but also informative bibliographies that will facilitate the further, in-depth study of the field or of particular aspects of the field that may interest different readers.

    We hope that the handbook will satisfy the need for a comprehensive yet accessible introduction to a vast field of endeavor, one that has, over the years, made a significant difference to the lives and the well-being of the people of the United States. He has published widely on social development and international social welfare.