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An encyclopedia of philosophy articles written by professional philosophers.

New York: B. While the idea has been much debated especially among scholars of contemporary families the idea that cultural practices change much more slowly than technology and organizations has become a key starting observation for students of social change.

Olson, Mancur. The logic of collective action. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. This work provides the first introduction to the free rider problem as it applies to social movement activity and collective action generally. The free rider problem is one of several keys for understanding why protest and rebellion are not more widespread in the face of injustice and discrimination.

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Smelser, Neil. Theory of collective behavior. New York: Free Press. One of the first earlys attempts to explain collective behavior from a primarily functionalist perspective. Describes social change as resulting from the culmination of social contradictions addressed by social movements in a value-added fashion. Tilly, Charles. From mobilization to revolution. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. One of the first postwar attempts to develop a comprehensive theory of collective action that incorporates violence and repression in the analysis. Tilly attempts to explain every type of collective action from political protests to revolutions, and the book contains an extensive data analysis of strikes in Western countries.

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For example, some people become craftworkers, producing tools , weapons , and jewelry. The production of goods encourages trade. This trade helps to create inequality, as some families acquire more goods than others do. These families often gain power through their increased wealth. The passing on of property from one generation to another helps to centralize wealth and power. Over time emerge hereditary chieftainships, the typical form of government in pastoral societies. Fruits and vegetables grown in garden plots that have been cleared from the jungle or forest provide the main source of food in a horticultural society.

These societies have a level of technology and complexity similar to pastoral societies. Some horticultural groups use the slash-and-burn method to raise crops. The wild vegetation is cut and burned, and ashes are used as fertilizers.


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Horticulturists use human labor and simple tools to cultivate the land for one or more seasons. When the land becomes barren, horticulturists clear a new plot and leave the old plot to revert to its natural state. They may return to the original land several years later and begin the process again. By rotating their garden plots, horticulturists can stay in one area for a fairly long period of time. This allows them to build semipermanent or permanent villages.

The size of a village's population depends on the amount of land available for farming; thus villages can range from as few as 30 people to as many as As with pastoral societies, surplus food leads to a more complex division of labor. Specialized roles in horticultural societies include craftspeople, shamans religious leaders , and traders. This role specialization allows people to create a wide variety of artifacts. As in pastoral societies, surplus food can lead to inequalities in wealth and power within horticultural political systems, developed because of the settled nature of horticultural life.

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Agrarian societies use agricultural technological advances to cultivate crops over a large area. Sociologists use the phrase agricultural revolution to refer to the technological changes that occurred as long as 8, years ago that led to cultivating crops and raising farm animals. Increases in food supplies then led to larger populations than in earlier communities. This meant a greater surplus, which resulted in towns that became centers of trade supporting various rulers, educators, craftspeople, merchants, and religious leaders who did not have to worry about locating nourishment.

Greater degrees of social stratification appeared in agrarian societies. For example, women previously had higher social status because they shared labor more equally with men. In hunting and gathering societies, women even gathered more food than men. However, as food stores improved and women took on lesser roles in providing food for the family, they increasingly became subordinate to men.

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As villages and towns expanded into neighboring areas, conflicts with other communities inevitably occurred. Farmers provided warriors with food in exchange for protection against invasion by enemies. A system of rulers with high social status also appeared. This nobility organized warriors to protect the society from invasion. Feudalism was a form of society based on ownership of land.

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Unlike today's farmers, vassals under feudalism were bound to cultivating their lord's land. In exchange for military protection, the lords exploited the peasants into providing food, crops, crafts, homage, and other services to the landowner. The estates of the realm system of feudalism was often multigenerational; the families of peasants may have cultivated their lord's land for generations. Between the 15th and 16th centuries, a new economic system emerged that began to replace feudalism. Capitalism is marked by open competition in a free market, in which the means of production are privately owned.

Europe's exploration of the Americas served as one impetus for the development of capitalism. The introduction of foreign metals, silks, and spices stimulated great commercial activity in European societies. Industrial societies rely heavily on machines powered by fuels for the production of goods.


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This produced further dramatic increases in efficiency. The increased efficiency of production of the industrial revolution produced an even greater surplus than before.

Now the surplus was not just agricultural goods, but also manufactured goods. This larger surplus caused all of the changes discussed earlier in the domestication revolution to become even more pronounced. Once again, the population boomed. Increased productivity made more goods available to everyone. However, inequality became even greater than before. The breakup of agricultural-based feudal societies caused many people to leave the land and seek employment in cities. This created a great surplus of labor and gave capitalists plenty of laborers who could be hired for extremely low wages.

Post-industrial societies are societies dominated by information, services, and high technology more than the production of goods. Advanced industrial societies are now seeing a shift toward an increase in service sectors over manufacturing and production. The United States is the first country to have over half of its work force employed in service industries. Service industries include government, research, education, health, sales, law, and banking. The term "society" is currently used to cover both a number of political and scientific connotations as well as a variety of associations.

The development of the Western world has brought with it the emerging concepts of Western culture , politics, and ideas, often referred to simply as "Western society". The cultures and lifestyles of all of these stem from Western Europe. They all enjoy relatively strong economies and stable governments, allow freedom of religion, have chosen democracy as a form of governance, favor capitalism and international trade, are heavily influenced by Judeo-Christian values , and have some form of political and military alliance or cooperation.

Although the concept of information society has been under discussion since the s, in the modern world it is almost always applied to the manner in which information technologies have impacted society and culture. It therefore covers the effects of computers and telecommunications on the home, the workplace, schools, government, and various communities and organizations, as well as the emergence of new social forms in cyberspace. One of the European Union 's areas of interest is the information society. Here policies are directed towards promoting an open and competitive digital economy , research into information and communication technologies , as well as their application to improve social inclusion , public services , and quality of life.

The International Telecommunications Union 's World Summit on the Information Society in Geneva and Tunis and has led to a number of policy and application areas where action is envisaged. As access to electronic information resources increased at the beginning of the 21st century, special attention was extended from the information society to the knowledge society.

An analysis by the Irish government stated, "The capacity to manipulate, store and transmit large quantities of information cheaply has increased at a staggering rate over recent years. The digitisation of information and the associated pervasiveness of the Internet are facilitating a new intensity in the application of knowledge to economic activity, to the extent that it has become the predominant factor in the creation of wealth.

As much as 70 to 80 percent of economic growth is now said to be due to new and better knowledge. People of many nations united by common political and cultural traditions, beliefs, or values are sometimes also said to form a society such as Judeo-Christian, Eastern, and Western.

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When used in this context, the term is employed as a means of contrasting two or more "societies" whose members represent alternative conflicting and competing worldviews. Some academic , professional, and scientific associations describe themselves as societies for example, the American Mathematical Society , the American Society of Civil Engineers , or the Royal Society.

In some countries, e. In the United Kingdom , partnerships are not called societies, but co-operatives or mutuals are often known as societies such as friendly societies and building societies. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 20 September Art, for Hegel, is not only distinct but self-distinguishing of and from nature-it happens in and through the latter. It liberates us from being merely natural creatures, and it does so by a dynamic of a cut or break-even though this It liberates us from being merely natural creatures, and it does so by a dynamic of a cut or break-even though this liberation is achieved only through natural sensuousness, and hence, keeps us tethered to nature in some particular way.

Inspired by Todd McGowan's emphasis on the central role of contradiction in Hegel's philosophy, this paper considers the possibility to applying the dialectic between art and nature as it is unfolded in Hegel's Aesthetic to a more insidious constellation-namely, what Marxists came to refer to as second nature: the world of commodities, in which man-made things appear to those who produce them as a naturalised and repressive opposite, a pseudo nature, an alienated solidified history. While there exists a diversity of opinion regarding the utility and ethics of sabotage in this manner, the individuals and movements fighting for the earth share an ever-present mantra of loss, and a sincere desire to stop the leviathan of change headed toward an obviously worse future.

This chapter explores these radical tendencies through a focus on Earth First! The proceeding discussion explores the notion of defense as it relates to the ecological crisis, and how this predicament is experienced and actualized in the lives of the population living in resistance.

This article introduces the first part of the New Paradigms in Contemporary Romanian Literary Studies collective work that Revista Transilvania has set to publish in order to get a better picture on contemporary local literary research This article introduces the first part of the New Paradigms in Contemporary Romanian Literary Studies collective work that Revista Transilvania has set to publish in order to get a better picture on contemporary local literary research. Emanuel Modoc. Marx et la philosophie : le "decalage". Following philosopher When viewed through the lens of machine theory, the reduction of refugees to calculable formula and neatly arranged data packets cannot be seen as an isolated, purely discursive matter.

It is part of a large machinic assemblage in which economic, judicial, social and technological components work together, producing material, immobilizing, de-subjectifying, as well as oftentimes lethal consequences for the human beings involved. Related Topics. Art History. Follow Following. Contemporary Art. Art Theory. Visual Studies. Visual Culture. Cultural Theory. History of Art. Historiography in Art History. Visual Arts. Ads help cover our server costs.