The Coptic community in the West played a role in increasing Western interest in Egyptian church life. If the interest in a Coptic Encyclopedia in English had not existed and if the project of the Coptic Encyclopedia had not received support in the Coptic migrant community in North America, the idea of producing an English Coptic Encyclopedia would have never materialized. The production of this Encyclopedia is therefore strongly linked to the growth of the Coptic migrant community in the West.
In no period of Coptic history have as many Copts migrated to the west as during the Papacy of Pope Shenouda. In , the Claremont Graduate University CGU School of Religion acquired the right to develop an updated and continuously expanding and evolving web-based version of the Coptic Encyclopedia. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The Coptic encyclopedia. To create and sustain a civilization, individuals must make a commitment to community goals and efforts; they must dream and plan, believe and sacrifice.
As they spread across the world, the Copts carried with them a wealth of Coptic art, music, architecture, language, literature, tradition, and spirituality. These treasures are being preserved and promoted by the immigrants and the second generation in various locales: homes, churches, community centers, and universities via programs of Coptic studies.
As is clear from several of the chapters in this book, the majority of Coptic civilization forms, such as art, music, language, literature and architecture, are sustained by and manifested within the Coptic Orthodox Church. Therefore, besides its spiritual mission, the church has become the medium through which many aspects of Coptic civilization are transmitted to the Diaspora. View on amzn. The history of contemporary Egypt is most starkly marked by two revolutions: the army revolution in and the populist revolution in Throughout the nearly two thousand years of Christianity in Egypt, the ecclesiastical hierarchy Throughout the nearly two thousand years of Christianity in Egypt, the ecclesiastical hierarchy and the Coptic people have often been subject to forces of discrimination and persecution by both Christian and non-Christian governments.
Modern history is no exception. Copts are, however, much more than an oppressed Christian minority. As this volume illustrates, they are inheritors and preservers of an ancient civilization, builders of a modern nation, and defenders of Christian orthodoxy. The popes of this era—Pope Yusab II —56 , Pope Kyrillos VI —71 , and Pope Shenouda III — —played a significant role in recent Coptic history, as have the activities and faith of the Coptic people, the modernization of Egypt, the rapid expansion of the Coptic Diaspora, and the spread of globalization and ecumenism.
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Within this historical context, certain topics are addressed including the problematic personal status law, the evolution of Ethiopian—Coptic relations, ecumenical progress in and outside Egypt, and the development of the Coptic world and Coptic media. Other topics germane to this era, such as spirituality, monasticism, liturgical and linguistic revivalism, theological developments, music, and art, are covered in their respective chapters.
Coptology Papers. In recent decades, Coptic Egyptian immigrants have steadily adopted new homelands throughout the world, most significantly in Europe, North America, and Australia. Their efforts perpetuate their religious and cultural identity and connect Their efforts perpetuate their religious and cultural identity and connect diaspora communities and experiences to the mother church as well as to the realities of marginalization and persecution of their co-religionists in Egypt.
However, relatively little research has been carried out on the virtual or digital presences of diaspora Copts, all the more significant in the wake of the so-called Arab Spring. Focusing on religious identity, this article fills a lacuna by analyzing three case studies of electronic identity mediation and preservation in the Coptic diaspora: 1 the online ecclesiastical-pastoral and educational presence of Bishop Suriel of Melbourne, 2 the spiritual-social-cultural mission of the Los Angeles-based Coptic television station LogosTV, and 3 the global collaborative academic project of the digital Claremont Coptic Encyclopedia.
These are part of an emerging electronic Coptic diaspora e-diaspora —a form of borderless territoriality—that functions to compensate for the loss of territorial and socio-religious-cultural-political control in Egypt and provide Copts with virtual territorial gains and borderless space for community and consciousness raising.
Doi: View on doi. From the earliest days of the Coptic Orthodox Church to the election of Pope Tawadros II, the methods of selecting Coptic patriarchs have been multifarious and in some aspects unique in the history of Christendom. Existing scholarship on the traditions of Coptic patriarchal selection often includes generalizations in place of rigorous statistical analysis. This study remedies the deficiency through historical and quantifiable analysis of the methods of patriarchal selection over the nearly two thousand-year history of the Coptic Orthodox Church.
The following eight methods of selection were identified in order of frequency: consensus among clergy and laity, election by the presbyters of Alexandria, appointment by predecessor, election by laity acting alone, casting of lots among final nominees, governmental interference, divine appointment or vision, and election by bishops acting alone. Despite the variety of methods — and despite the social and political trials of the Copts — a democratic thrust has continued to exert itself, with the most recent patriarchal election being no exception.
The study also includes critical examination of the current patriarchal election law, decreed in Egypt in , which formalized casting of lots among the top three elected candidates. More Info: Vol. View on poj.
Coptic Studies - Ancient Near East and Egypt - Research Guides at UCLA Library
The present state of the Coptic Orthodox Church in America could not have been imagined fifty years ago. As an integral part of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Egypt, the young archdiocese in America evolved from non-existence to a As an integral part of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Egypt, the young archdiocese in America evolved from non-existence to a formidable parishes, two monasteries, three seminaries and many benevolent, educational and media organisations.
Waves of immigration from Egypt brought not only Copts, but also a wealth of Coptic art, music, architecture, literature and spirituality. These treasures are being preserved and promoted by the immigrants and the second generation; in the homes, churches and community centers; and also at American universities via programs of Coptic studies. This article covers the above topics and discusses a few of the challenges that come with immigration and assimilation, especially when the community desires to maintain the depth and versatility of an ancient religious culture.
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Over the last 40 years, Iris Habib el-Masry has earned high distinction as a Coptic Church historian. While her Arabic language publications are among the most widely quoted in the historical literature of the Coptic Church While her Arabic language publications are among the most widely quoted in the historical literature of the Coptic Church , her impressive work as a theologian, politician, psychologist, educator, and philanthropist is not as widely known.
This article presents an introduction to her contributions to certain areas of politics and theology, while exploring in more detail unique features of her writing that may offer a framework for Coptic feminine theology. A Tribute to Dr. Boulos Ayad Ayad published more than books, chapters, monographs and articles on topics as varied Boulos Ayad Ayad published more than books, chapters, monographs and articles on topics as varied as Ancient Egypt, Nubia and Sudan, Coptic Archaeology, the Jewish antiquities in the Nile Valley, and the ancient Semitic languages and their relationship to the ancient Egyptian languages.
He explored, for example, the elements in Coptic life and worship that were influenced by ancient Egyptian music, art, architecture, spirituality, wisdom literature, science and technology. More Info: Volume 30, Number 2, pp.
- Emerging Partnerships: Current Research in Language and Literacy.
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A Christian Appeal to Islam more. Because Egyptians are deeply rooted in religion, religion must be the foundation of any lasting political, social or legal structure.
Catalog Record: The Coptic encyclopedia | HathiTrust Digital Library
Providing a theological justification for human rights is very persuasive to the masses. Even the Even the Muslim moderates, liberals and modernists must seek to understand human rights theologically. Revelation positively molds the structures built on reason, natural law and human rights. View on religion-online.
Origin of the Copts
E-parthenos is a hymn sung in the Coptic Orthodox Church during Christmas liturgy. The lyric was introduced to the Coptic Church by Pope This episode represents also an aspect of Coptic civilization in the diaspora. St Kyrel Choir is primarily composed of first and second generation Copts in Europe. Arguably, this activity is partly motivated by a desire to maintain and nourish cultural identity.
View on youtu. On 22 April , St. As such, the publication of this book marks a major success for the field of Coptic Studies at large and the broader recognition of the beloved reformer. The book also includes an extensive collection of rare photographs and documents from the Coptic Orthodox Patriarchal Archives in Cairo. View on en. Bishop Suriel Receives Ph. The page dissertation was on the recently canonized Coptic It formed the basis of a page book St Vladimir's Seminary Press, on the life and legacy of the reformer who in founded the Sunday School Movement in the Coptic Church and was head of the Coptic Seminary in Cairo from Bishop Suriel serves as a bridge builder between the Coptic experiences and identities in Egypt and the Diaspora, and his attainment of the PhD degree at a prestigious Roman Catholic university on Habib Girgis is an important example.
Bishop Suriel has graciously given to my LogosTV Coptic Civilization program two interviews on the life and influence of this famous educator. They are posted at the two attached links. I published my first I published my first translation of that article in Watani International. Then this improved translation in Watani International, 25 August , in celebration of the canonization of St Habib Girgis on 20 June Archdeacon Habib Girgis labored hard to make the Copts conscious of their heritage. He awakened their self-consciousness through establishing or promoting several movements in which the revival of patristic theology was a He awakened their self-consciousness through establishing or promoting several movements in which the revival of patristic theology was a primary component.
For example, in his 17 volumes of al-Karma magazine , St Habib published for the first time the treasures of patristic literature available to him at the Patriarchal Library. Two of those students, Fr. Menassa Youhanna and Fr. Marcos Daoud wrote and translated volumes filled with patristic theology.
About this collection
Later generations continued the march. Theology , Patristics , and Coptic Studies. There is a renaissance of Coptic studies occurring at Claremont Graduate University CGU , where Coptology has been through phases of development since the s. The current phase was put into action in through a collaborative The current phase was put into action in through a collaborative vision and efforts by the university administration, faculty, Coptology professor Gawdat Gabra, and St Shenouda the Archimandrite Coptic Society.
In fact, the goal of establishing a world center for Coptic studies at CGU is a realizable dream.
The center would encompass high caliber academic studies in Coptic civilization, history, literature, music, Christian Arabic literature, art, art history, archeology, theology, patristics, hagiography, daily life documents, monasticism, architecture, Coptic role in political life, and sociology.
Coptologist Dr. Ernest W. Soon after, he was heavily involved in the translation of the Nag Hammadi Codices In the years , Dr. In , Dr. Tune donated his extensive personal research library to the IAC. This voluminous Tune collection, later moved to a larger home at CST Library, contains materials covering the languages, literatures, history and archeology of the Nile Valley cultures from the early Hellenistic period through the early medieval period of Coptic and Nubian Christianity.
Life of Antony by Saint Athanasius more. It was translated to Latin and Coptic immediately after. This article discusses three points: 1 How the Copts may benefit today from this masterpiece of This article discusses three points: 1 How the Copts may benefit today from this masterpiece of Christian literature which changed lives around the world. The Coptic and by extension its English translation uses the closest vocabulary that St. Antony employed in his native language, as he primarily spoke and wrote in Coptic in his sermons and communications. View on cistercianpublications.
For many years, she acted as In this interview, Professor Behlmer speaks among other things about the motivation driving her mission in Coptology, the MA program in Coptic Studies at Macquarie University which she directed for several years, why the study of St. Shenouda has escalated so much worldwide in the 21st century, and the Coptic collection in the Museo Egizio, Turin, Italy. Al Haj Abdel Nasser Hussein d. In the s, he worked in the area of the monasteries of Wadi al Natrun In the s, he worked in the area of the monasteries of Wadi al Natrun and befriended the monks there.
This article summarizes the exchanges of feelings and thoughts between the two men and seeks to describe meaningful Muslim-Christian relations that existed in Egypt then. More Info: Watani International, 22 January , p. The Library has The Library has extensive collections in the arts and humanities including books, periodicals, audio visual media, and oversized pieces. It has group study rooms and a Multi-media preview room.
As passionate believers in education, the Attallahs generously gifted to learning institutions. Minorities include: Coptic Catholicism, Protestantism. A Copt refers to a native Egyptian Christian. The word "Coptic" was originally used in Classical Arabic to refer to Egyptians in general, but it has undergone semantic shift over the centuries to mean more specifically Egyptian Christian after the bulk of the Egyptian population converted to Islam. Thus Ethiopian and Eritrean Christians and Nubians before their conversion to Islam were traditionally referred to as Copts, though this has been falling out of use since their Tewahedo Churches were granted their own patriarchs.
The remaining around , are divided between the Coptic Catholic and the Coptic Protestant churches. The Greek term for "Egypt" has a long history. It goes back to the Mycenaean language an early form of Greek where the word a 3 -ku-pi-ti-jo lit. As the chief temple precinct of the capital of Egypt, the name was applied to the entire city of Memphis and ultimately to the country as a whole.
Bohairic (from the Coptic Encyclopedia)
References to Copts in the Coptic language are both Greek and Coptic in origin. The etymological meaning of the word therefore pertains to all people of Egyptian origins, not only those who profess Coptic Orthodoxy. After the bulk of the Egyptian population converted to Islam , the word Copt came to be associated with Egyptians who retained their Christianity.
In the twentieth century, some Egyptian nationalists and intellectuals began using the term Copts in the historical sense. The Copts are one of the oldest Christian communities in the Middle East. Although integrated in the larger Egyptian nation, the Copts have survived as a distinct religious community forming today between 10 and 20 percent of the native population.
They pride themselves on the apostolicity of the Egyptian Church whose founder was the first in an unbroken chain of patriarchs. According to ancient tradition, Christianity was introduced to the Egyptians by Saint Mark the Evangelist in Alexandria , shortly after the ascension of Christ and during the reign of the Roman emperor Nero. From Alexandria, Christianity spread throughout Egypt within half a century of Saint Mark's arrival, as is clear from a fragment of the Gospel of John , written in Coptic, which was found in Upper Egypt and can be dated to the first half of the second century, and the New Testament writings found in Oxyrhynchus , in Middle Egypt, which date around the year C.
In the second century, Christianity began to spread to the rural areas, and scriptures were translated into the local language, today known as the Coptic language which was called the Egyptian language at the time. By the beginning of the third century C. The Church of Alexandria is therefore the oldest church in Africa.
The Egyptians contributed immensely to the formation of worldwide Christianity. To name a few examples, the Catechetical School of Alexandria was the oldest catechetical school in the world. Founded around C. However, the scope of this school was not limited to theological subjects; science, mathematics and humanities were also taught there. Another major contribution made by the Egyptians to Christianity was the creation and organization of monasticism.
By the end of the fifth century, there were hundreds of monasteries, and thousands of cells and caves scattered throughout the Egyptian desert. Worldwide Christian monasticism stems, either directly or indirectly, from the Egyptian example. Countless pilgrims have visited the Egyptian Desert Fathers to emulate their spiritual, disciplined lives.
The Egyptians also played a major role in the first three Ecumenical councils. Thus, the Council of Nicaea C. In addition, the most prominent figure of the council was the future Pope of Alexandria Athanasius , who played the major role in the formulation of the Nicene Creed , recited today in all Christian churches of different denominations.
One of the council's decisions was to entrust the Pope of Alexandria with calculating and annually announcing the exact date of Easter to the rest of the Christian churches. The Council of Constantinople C. Undoubtedly, the fact that the first three Ecumenical councils in the history of Christianity were headed by Egyptian patriarchs attested to the major contributions that the See of Alexandria has contributed to the establishment of early Christian theology and dogma.
In C. Those who accepted the terms of the Council became known as Chalcedonians or Melkites. Those who did not abide by the Council's terms were labeled non-Chalcedonians or Monophysites and later Jacobites after Jacob Baradaeus.