At any moment the conspiracy may be discovered, and my friends put on trial, for high treason, sentenced to death, and their properties confiscated. I, at first, decided to return to Panama to share their fate. But I am hesitating. If my friends are shot, I prefer to devote my life to avenging them on the man who will have been the cause of their deaths.
While Amador spoke I had a clear vision of the entire drama. I understood instantly who was the man whose foolish and imaginary assurances had made the poor doctor fall into the deadly pit. Tell me what your hopes, what your chances were; what method you intended to employ. Tell me all that calmly, methodically, precisely. From the explanations given by Amador it appeared that Colombia, exhausted by three years of civil war, had not sent new soldiers to Panama. Her garrison of five hundred men had been there for many years had become permeated with the Panama spiritand had no more any sentiment of devotion for Colombia.
Amador added that, with six million dollars' subsidy, he could buy arms, ammunitions, and ships, sink the Colombian flotilla, and have the immediate support of the local garrison. I dismissed Amador with soothing words though I considered his ideas as totally chimerical. The time necessary to get the arms and the ships must be counted by months. During that time Colombia would certainly renew her garrison and send her wiry, loyal Indian fighters to the Isthmus to consolidate her tyranny.
Perhaps I shall find for you a way out of the difficulty. At any rate, our communications must henceforth be sub rosa. When I 'phone to you I shall call myself 'Jones. I shook his hand and, having recovered his balance of mind, he went, happy to have grasped a hand both friendly and firm, that of a man on whom, long before, he had looked as on his highest commanding officer.
As soon as he had gone, I saw that Chance had brought to me the precious seed of the whole revolutionary movement against Colombia and her anti-canal policy. The seed was actually without any value, it was practically crushed and destroyed. There was no practical idea, but there was a spontaneous aggregation of energies and wills to fight the Germano-Colombian conspiracy of Bogota. These energies could be used with a rational plan. If I was to encourage these men to act I had to find out first of all what were the dispositions of President Roosevelt in regard to Panama.
I had not, up to that time, had any relations with him. He had formerly been a most sincere and firm believer in Nicaragua. He had not been submitted to the pro-Panama influence of Hanna, as Hanna was not his personal friend. Did there not from the personal antagonism which separated themalso result an antagonism as to the political ideas? To Hanna had been due the victory of Panama in Congress. Did not that fact predispose Roosevelt still to adhere to his old allegiance to the Nicaragua Canal?
In one word, was not President Roosevelt happy to see the failure of the Colombian treaty? That was the question! Of course the very first thing to be done was to discover the President's state of mind on the subject. An unexpected incident furnished me, within seven days of my arrival in New York, the most positive knowledge of the intentions of the President. I was informed about this all-important and secret question as if I had been present at one of the cabinet meetings of the White House.
Best of Colombia, Panama & Costa Rica Tour
And nobody had betrayed any confidence, and no improper question had passed from my lips. This is a little but weighty chapter of the liberation of the Isthmus. Like many others of the same history it would seem to belong to the domain of fiction, yet it is simple reality. I hastened to pay him a visit, in order to learn what he thought about my suggestion of building the Canal on the strength of the treaty of , with New Granada, conferring to the United States the right of way across the Isthmus of Panama.
This solution which I had developed, in the Matin article on September 2nd, was, of course, the most desirable, in my opinion. It rendered unnecessary the hazards of a revolution and opened an easy and certain way to success. My eminent friend was not very enthusiastic about the solution. He said, however, that in the course of a conversation, one of his colleagues at the University had expressed similar ideas before him.
I asked him who this colleague was, and expressed a desire to meet him. The conversation showed that his ideas on this momentous subject were almost identical with mine. The Professor at a given moment said that he had been surprised recently to see his own theory exposed in a French paper. I pulled from my pocket the folded copy of the Matin of the 2nd of September. Bassett Moore, recognizing the paper by its peculiar shade, before I had unfolded it, exclaimed: "That is the paper.
Bassett Moore having had cognizance of the Matin, which, in spite of its great circulation in Paris, was difficult then to obtain in America. Seeing the Professor so well disposed, I saw a magnificent opportunity to use his authority for the benefit of the Panama cause.
Why do you not write a letter or an article to the Sun? The attitude of Bassett Moore suddenly became embarrassed. As I pressed him more and more, and demonstrated that he had a civic duty to accomplish, and that he ought not to shirk it, he eventually surrendered, and said:.
I formulated these views, and the conditions in which I formulated them make it impossible for me to adopt a public attitude at the present stage of affairs. I had nothing more to say. I felt that I had touched a very delicate spot and I withdrew in order to learn who Mr. Bassett Moore was and what could be the reasons which obliged him to keep secret his important theory. Bassett Moore," said he, "is the closest friend of President Roosevelt. They are generally considered to have joined their influences to unchain the Cuban war.
They have remained very close friends ever since, and President Roosevelt is generally considered as sharing Bassett Moore's diplomatic views and always taking his advice on important matters. It is obvious, on the other hand, that his reserved attitude is due to the fact of his having submitted to the President a report that must remain secret until use is made of it.
On that day Mr. Roosevelt gave a party at Oyster Bay to some friends. On their return a terrific storm practically drenched every one of them and their names were given by the newspapers. Bassett Moore was among them. The date of September 16th entirely corresponded with the arrival, some days earlier, of the paper I had sent on the 2nd of the same month, to President Roosevelt's summer residence at Oyster Bay. This information was casting a brilliant light on the whole mysterious question of Mr. Roosevelt's dispositions. He was listening to the advice of exerting coercion on Colombia, on the strength of the treaty of This fact clearly demonstrated that the mind and the will of the President were set on Panama.
No fear of a turn toward Nicaragua was visible. One question remained to be cleared. Of the two ways openedcoercion of Colombia by the United States or revolution of Panama by Amadorwhich was the practical one? All my inclinations were for the former, but without a single exception all my friends declared that the coercion of Colombia would never be carried out. Do not forget that Congress, in passing the Spooner Bill, has stated that the Nicaragua Canal would be finally adopted in case of a failure to obtain the concession from Colombia.
To coerce Colombia would be considered a formal breach of the Spooner Law. Do not forget that the Nicaragua solution is by an enormous margin the more popular of the two. No president would dare to risk being accused of breaking a law to favour an unpopular project when the presidential elections are in sight, and when he has to be submitted to election.
That would be the doom of the Republican party. This argumentation was convincing and left Panama but one chance of survival: the Revolution, and it was a slender chance! I decided henceforth to concentrate on that one object all my power of observation and of action.
I left for Washington early in October, but nobody I knew in political life had returned from the country, and I came back without any information. On the 9th of October I returned to the American capital. I found at his office Mr. Frank B. I spoke to him of the Matin in which I had recently acquired an important proprietary interest. Do you know Mr. Roosevelt personally? The quick answer was that the President was disposed to receive me that same day at 12 o'clock. I was, as may be understood, very happy to avail myself of this opportunity to talk over the delicate Panama question with the President himself, and to observe his attitude, and take the necessary soundings.
I was received with the characteristic open-heartedness which won for this remarkable man so many friends. We conversed about the Matin. I was awaiting an opportunity to bring up the Panama subject. Loomis having cited the publication of the famous bordereau in the Dreyfus affair, as being among the great achievements of Le Matin, I jumped at the opportunity. The bridge was found; I crossed it.
President," I said, "Captain Dreyfus has not been the only victim of detestable political passions. Panama is another. Well, what do you think is going to be the outcome of the present situation? It was then or never. I could with a proper answer learn exactly what the President had in mind. I remained silent for a moment, and then I pronounced the following four wordsin a slow, decided manner:. Then he turned instinctively toward Mr. Loomis, who had remained standing, impassive, and said in a low tone, as if speaking to himself: "A revolution? Would it be possible? But if it became a reality, what would become of the plan we had thought of?
I had an intense desire to say to him: "Mr. President, the plan that you had thought of is coercion of Colombia, based on the treaty of , as interpreted by Prof. Bassett Moore. I have supported this idea in an article in the Matin and added to it the doctrine of the Expropriation of Sovereignty for reason of International utility. Of course I remained mute, and I concealed my joy at hearing the interrogation which had escaped from the mouth of the President. He quickly recovered himself, and asked:. As you know, the revolutionary spirit is endemic on the Isthmus.
There is almost a certainty of seeing an endemic disease spread violently when the circumstances favourable to its development have reached their maximum. Colombia has decreed the ruin of the people of the Isthmus. They will not let things go any further without protesting according to their fashion. Their fashion is: Revolution. I have, furthermore, certain special indications that corroborate these general considerations.
The conversation ended there. I had no desire to speak further, and the President on his side did not care to hear more. I left the private office of the President, being finally in possession of all the elements necessary for action. I had, at last, the direct confirmation of the deduction which thus far I had drawn solely from pure reasoning: "The President of the United States is holding firm for Panama. If a revolution were to generate new conditions favourable to the acquisition of the Canal Zone by the United States, President Roosevelt would immediately seize the opportunity.
I was henceforth certain of this capital point, as certain as if a solemn contract had been signed between us. No word had been pronounced, no concealed meaning had been attached to any sentence which could constitute a tie between us. His liberty was as complete as my own. I left Washington, having extracted the first and most essential of the unknown quantities from the problem confronting me. I had the basic thought of the American Government, as to the application of the Spooner Law, without having said anything or heard anything in confidence or under the guarantee of secrecy.
I had the first unknown quantity: the dispositions of the President. It remained for me to discover the second one: How could a revolution be made successfully at Panama without the financial cooperation of the United States, and without the express promise of her military support?
The intense satisfaction I felt after finding the complete solution on the first equation led me to discover also what still remained concealed. In trying to reduce this demand of Amador, the light suddenly flashed across my mind during the railway journey back to New York. To buy ships, which would be equipped for war in order to sink Colombia's ships, and to prevent the transportation of her troops. But toward what places were these military movements to be feared? Was it in the Isthmus itself? By no means, because the treaty of gave to the United States the right, and imposed upon her the duty, of turning any belligerents away from the line of transit.
All this costly war machinery would, therefore, be useful solely to protect the insurrection in the western part of the Panama province, near the frontier of. Costa Rica. The Isthmus, properly speaking, was separated from this western portion by immense virgin forests, while toward the east it was separated from Colombia by an impassable wilderness. What was the use of uniting, in the same revolutionary movement, these two groups of territory so distant and so distinct? Why be hampered by the irrational conception of the Department of Panama?
Why not give, as territorial limits to the new Republicat all events at the outsetthe watersheds of the Chagres and of the Rio Grande? The more I reflected on this new idea, the more clearly did I behold the solution of all the difficulties. In the basins of these two rivers, the common watershed of which passed by the summit of Culebra, there were no inhabitants who did not live within gunshot of the line of communication between the oceans. The duty of the United States was precisely to exclude all fighting within gunshot of the line of the railroad.
I had myself seen the United States, in , performing her duty and preventing any fighting in this zone. It may be recalled that in a revolutionary army, commanded by General Aizpuru, had seized Panama. The town once taken, the American troops had entered Panama to prevent disorder. But when it was seen that the Revolutionary Government was maintaining order, the American forces were withdrawn, and they confined themselves to garrisoning the railroad and its wharf, the sole means of communication with the Pacific Ocean.
Some days later two ships laden with Government troops tried to land at the wharf. General Reyes, who commanded the Colombian troops, was invited to withdraw, and the landing was forbidden by the American officer in command, Commodore MacCalla. I had seen with my own eyes, therefore, in , the Revolutionists protected from the aggression of the Government troops by the American military authorities. It was after the election of President Cleveland, when the Democratic party was in power. At that time the thought of making an American canal at Panama did not exist even in embryo.
The prohibition of fighting, within gunshot of the line of transit, had always been, without any exception, the principle enforced by the United States, with the consent and sometimes at the request of Colombia. It was a formal and direct consequence of the stipulations of the treaty of In the preceding year, , the same principle had been reenforced at the very moment of the difficult negotiations with M.
Concha, for the grant of the Canal concession to the United States. In September, , Commodore MacLean had forbidden all transportation of troops on the railroad. General Quintero, commander of the Colombian troops, and General Herrera, commander of the Revolutionary troops, had received the same notification. It was at a moment when the greatest care had to be observed not to hurt Colombian feelings. How could it be doubted that the American forces would not act in the same manner one year later, at a time when Colombia had taken a decidedly hostile attitude?
No hesitation was possible. The solution had been found! The mysterious problem was solved! The final unknown quantity had been at last discovered and I had resolved the equation, as the French mathematicians say, in the most elegant manner. It was no longer necessary to spend enormous sums for a useless navy. It was no longer necessary to present the impossible request for protection by American forces outside of the line of transit.
Such a thing was indispensable to an insurrection covering the whole province of Panama, but it was eliminated entirely if the insurrection was limited to the Isthmus proper. If a revolution was started from Colon to Panama the American forces were automatically, and without any anterior understanding, obliged to intervene. Their intervention would consist in forbidding any armed force to come within gunshot of the line of transit.
All the villages, all the houses, all the inhabitants within that zone, would immediately enjoy all necessary protection. Would itor would it notbe immediately recognized? To this question no answer could be given. But of the two political entitiesthe great protecting Power and the small protected Powerwhich had the greater interest to end such a ridiculous situation? It was evidently the United States, and furthermore she had the greatest interest in settling the Panama Canal question.
The more I thought of this new idea, the more simple, clear, decisive, it seemed to me. I had not been wrong when I had faith in the eventual solution of a problem which at first glance seemed unsolvable. Before completely exposing these new ideas to Amador I thought it necessary to question him again as to the means of carrying out the revolution.
As all the information which he furnished to me was in harmony with my new conception, I disclosed my plan to himon the evening of Tuesday the 13th of October. His attitude was sullen. Evidently his mind had for some months been accustomed to brooding over the idea of a contract with the United States such as novelists imagine. He saw himself associated with the President and the Secretary of State of the powerful Republic, and disposing of her millions for a common enterprise. In spite of my efforts to make him comprehend the truth, he was certainly persuaded that such a plan as the one to which he was listening had been conceived at Washington, in the White House, and not in my own mind on the return journey to New York.
A special circumstance certainly confirmed him in his conviction. On the day following the revolution we shall have to pay the arrears to the troops. There are men. I shall probably be able to borrow it of a New York bank. He certainly saw there the shadow of one of those mysterious treasures of the American Secret Funds which exist in fiction but nowhere else.
We all of us at Panama own more or less property in the rest of the province. The idea of cutting the province in two, when one part of it would remain to Colombia, while the Isthmus itself would be an independent republic, is unacceptable. It would discourage everybody. I arose, growing impatient. You came on the 23rd of September, in despair, to ask me for support. To-day, October 13th, I offer it you. If you refuse it, well and good. I have nothing more to say. On the following day I was awakened early in the morning by two discreet knocks at the door, which I opened.
It was Amador. I understand. Pardon me. I shall obey. Well, there is nothing more to be said, as you at last understand. I am invited by his niece, Mrs. Sherman MacCallum. I will perhaps find how to complete the cycle of my information. Prepare yourself to leave by the next boat, Tuesday, October 20th, for the Isthmus. On my return from Washington I will give you a precise programme of action. Now leave me, so that I can prepare it at leisure. I wanted to be free from his presence to prepare a rational and mature plan, which I did not want to leave him the time to discuss in detail.
I intended, in going to Washington, not only to have time for quiet thought, but also to find an opportunity of becoming acquainted with Mr. I had met this eminent man once only, at the house of Mr. Bigelow, but I had not had the chance of speaking to him. The opportunity arrived. I had gone to call on Mr. Loomis, in the State Department. Hay, whose office was next to Mr. Loomis's, entered to ask for some information. Loomis introduced me. Hay, with much courtesy, once the first greetings had been exchanged, invited me to his own office.
The subject of our conversation was, at first, our common friendship for Mr. John Bigelow. Our talk had scarcely begun when the usher entered and gave a card to the Secretary of State. I noticed a certain embarrassment on his features. I intervened:. Secretary of State, I should be sorry if my unexpected presence were to interrupt your audiences. Please let me withdraw, and we will find a more convenient time to continue this conversation.
Hay; "I want to talk with you on a subject which is giving me grave preoccupation: Panama. You certainly are better informed than ourselves. On the other hand, I have to-day to receive the ambassadors, and it is difficult not to fulfil this other duty. It will take about one hour.
Hay, "let me send you word to fix an appointment, so that we may converse without fear of interruption. Soon after I had reached my hotel a card from Mr. Hay was handed to me. He invited me to go and see himnot at the State Department but at his own house at three o'clock in the afternoon. Such were the circumstances which permitted me to become acquainted for the first time with this many-sided and extremely able man. I had always imagined him as severe and cold, a sort of "Iron Chancellor" of America. It was the impression given by his photographs and policy. How different he was when he had doffed his outside armour!
The constant desire of this delicate and refined mind was to obtain by political action the improvement of the moral and physical condition of man. He considered the United States as consecrated above all to this great task. In serving his country, as he did, with all the energy of his heart and mind, I doubt if he ever dissociated in his thoughts her interests from those of humanity. He saw, in the opening of the Panama Canal, the greatest service which could be rendered to the human family. As his ideas coincided rigorously with my own on this subject a strong and reciprocal sympathy was soon established between us.
Together we deplored the blindness of Colombia. I told him what efforts I had made to show her the truth and how they had been baffled. You must take your measures, if you do not want to be taken yourself by surprise. Hay, "that is unfortunately the most probable hypothesis. But we shall not be caught napping. Orders have been given to naval forces on the Pacific to sail toward the Isthmians.
Our conversation then took a more general turn; we spoke of the facility with which in these countries political discontent takes a violent form. Hay, a charming novel, 'Captain Macklin! It is the history of a West Point cadet who leaves the military academy to become a soldier of fortune in Central America. He enlists under the orders of a general, a former officer of the French army, who commands a revolutionary army in Honduras. The young, ambitious American, and the old French officerwho as head of the army displays in all his acts the generous disinterestedness of his race are both charming types of searchers after the Ideal.
Read this volume, take it with you," concluded Mr. Hay, "it will interest you," and he handed it to me. I carried away with me from this interview an emotion, the recollection of which will never be erased from my heart. I felt I had had the privilege of approaching one of the most noble characters it has ever been given me to know. The course of events was only to engrave this first impression more deeply on my mind. I have never ceased to have for the character of Mr. Hay an almost religious admiration.
I read "Captain Macklin" with an interest which may be easily understood. The chivalrous figure of the old French warrior, who is the hero of the history, corresponded perfectly to the description given by Mr. At the head of his half-wild army, in the virgin forest, he pursued undeviatingly the high aim of justice and progress.
I could not help thinking that Mr. Hay, in giving me this volume, had meant to make a subtle allusion to my own efforts in the cause of justice and progress. Perhaps he wished to go even further? Did he not intend thus to make me understand that he had the presentiment of the personal part I was playing, and which I had not revealed to him? Did he not wish to tell me symbolically that he had understood that the revolution in preparation for the victory of the Idea was taking shape under my direction?
Never did I undertake to clear up this delicate mystery, but I always acted as if "Captain Macklin" had been the subtle symbol, the password, exchanged between Mr. Hay and myself. This password explained that which concern for our honour prevented us both from expressing verbally.
The interview with Mr. Hay would have removed my last hesitations if hesitation had been any longer possible. The Secretary of State had not feared to say that Washington expected a revolution in Panama, and that the United States had taken military precautions. They were probably the consequence of the formal assertion of opinion I had made to President Roosevelt, an assertion which the rumours current in the press entirely corroborated.
It only remained for me to act. The United States would have a sufficient military force in the neighbourhood of the Canal if the revolution broke out. I felt no doubt as to the only question which could burden my conscience: the security of the men who were to risk their lives on my word. What would be the destiny of the new republic? There was but little interest in trying to determine that in advance. This chapter could be left to the eventualities of the future. As soon as I had become thoroughly convinced by a succession of repeated proofs, that my friends would be protected against the crushing load of the Colombian forces, my mind was free to prepare the events.
When passing through Baltimore at in the evening I sent a telegram to Amador saying that Jones expected him on the following morning at At the stated hour Doctor Amador knocked at the door of room No. During my sojourn in Washington I had meditated over the precise plan of action, and I had written the necessary documents.
As I was well acquainted with the hesitating temperament of Spanish-Americans, I had made it a point to have ready for Amador, before the day of sailing, all that he needed for immediate action. I had prepared the Proclamation of Independence; a methodical plan of the military operations, including arrangements for the defence of the Isthmus to be effected within the three first days; and, finally, a cipher code allowing Amador and myself to correspond secretly.
The Constitution of Cuba, which had just been drawn up by men of high legal talent, was to be the model for the Panama Constitution. It only remained to design the flag of the new republic. I had realized during my journey back from Washington that nobody was better fitted than I rapidly to conduct the diplomatic negotiations, as no one knew better the ground at once in Washington, Panama, and Bogota. I had for several years thoroughly studied the situation in Washington.
I had secured there important posts of observation which could easily be turned into centres of diplomatic action. Be satisfied with my assertions. There is no more time for discussing their genesis. The fight will be in Washington; I assume responsibility for it. I take also the responsibility of obtaining for you, from a bankor of myself furnishing you the one hundred thousand dollars which are necessary to you. But my political and financial cooperation will begin only after you have completed what is incumbent upon you: the conquest of your liberty.
This is your own work. If you do not feel yourself capable of establishing, without external aid, a new government in the Isthmus proper, remain quiet and do nothing. If you believe yourself capable, follow your free judgment. When you have done your work, when you have conquered and acquired your liberty, then will begin my part; I shall work for you and with you, so that liberty may be preserved to you.
You will do with them whatever you deem wise. They are the programme of military operations, the Declaration of Independence, a base for the Constitution of the new Republic, and finally a code with which to correspond with me. This part I sincerely believe nobody is better fitted to play than myself. I venture to say this, because nobody knows better than I the final aim, which is the completion of the Canal and the best way to attain it.
It will, therefore, be necessary to entrust me with the diplomatic representation of the new Republic at Washington. The flame suddenly died out when I touched upon the question of diplomatic representation. This sudden change revealed to me that he had thought of some other person for filling this important post. He triedhesitatinglyto raise objections! The amour-propre of the Isthmians, he said, would be hurt by the choice of a foreigner for their first representative abroad.
It commands us to assemble every element that may help to ensure final success. A battle royal will be fought at Washington; let him wage it who is best equipped to win the victory. Absolute liberty of decision and of action must be provided for him who commands. But this is only my advice. If it is not acceptable to you, to your friends, follow your personal inclinations.
In such a case, you may still count on me to do everything within my power to help you, but at the same time I must tell you that I will not accept any responsibility, if you do not follow the line ensuring the maximum quantity of favourable chances. Amador had listened to me with a distressed air. I am going to-morrow to join my family at Highland Falls on the Hudson, at the Bigelows', and I shall find there the agile and discreet fingers that will make the new flag.
We separated. I hastened to go and buy at the nearest shop the silk necessary for making the new Standard of this Republic, whose birth was to be the signal of the resurrection of the slaughtered enterprise, and later on the prime cause of the deadly defeat of its murderer. I spent the rest of the day correcting and revising the documents I had prepared for Doctor Amador. He came back in the afternoon, still preoccupied by the question of the plenipotentiary at Washington. Evidently his mind could not adapt itself to the argument I had developed.
He was powerless to dispute its forcible logic, but he could not overcome the pressure of the secret ambition of himself being this plenipotentiary. I inexorably maintained the necessary line of action. I could not admit that personal interest should interfere to lessen in any degree, however small, the chances of success of this difficult enterprise. I left on the following day, Sunday, early in the morning, for Highland Falls on the Hudson, to join my wife and children, who were enjoying there the delightful hospitality of the Bigelow family.
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Bunau-Varilla remained in her rooms in the greatest secrecy the whole day making the flag of liberation. Besides my wife, I took as a confidant my son, Etienne, then thirteen years old, in whose mind I desired to leave a trace of these dramatic moments. It only remained to have a copy of all the documents made by a typist. A young woman totally ignorant of Spanish, and who acted in the capacity of secretary in the Bigelow family, came to New York for the purpose. She executed the work far from indiscreet eyes, in the then empty residence of the Bigelows at Gramercy Park.
On Monday, when I came back, I soon managed to get everything ready. Amador came to admire the flag, which he found perfect. Its design was the same as that of the American flag with these exceptions: for the white was substituted the yellow which characterizes the Spanish and Colombian flags, and instead of white stars distributed over the blue jack were placed two yellow suns united by a band of the same colour. These sups represented the two continents as the stars in the American flag represent the states of the Union.
I knew that this flag would be modified; and it was. But in Central America people are much quicker at modifying than at creating, and not a moment had to be lost after Amador's arrival on the Isthmus. After having taken cognizance of both letter and spirit of the instructions that I had handed him, Amador said: "Fifteen days will be necessary after my arrival in order to carry out the movement.
It would be much simpler to say right away you are going to abandon everything. You leave to-morrow, the 20th of October; you arrive on the 27th. Within two days you could act. Conference after conference will be necessary! What is possible to-day may be impossible to-morrow. You must act as soon as you arrive. Success will be the reward of rapidity and decision, as is always the case. If you have not accomplished the revolution on that day, or before, I shall consider myself free of all responsibility for further events. Amador left me, saying he would be back on the day following at nine in the morning.
He was to stop on his way to the wharf in order to take with him what I had prepared for the liberation of his country. Before his return I prepared the cablegram that he was to send me in clear language, once the Republic was proclaimed. It was the summing up of our conditions, and drew the line definitely where Amador's action finished and mine began. It was conceived in these terms:.
The Government has just been formed by popular acclamation. Its authority extends from Colon inclusive to Panama inclusive. I request you to accept the mission of Minister Plenipotentiary in order to obtain the recognition of the Republic and signature of Canal Treaty. You have full powers to appoint a banker for the Republic at New York, and to open credit for immediate urgent expenses.
From the moment I receive this telegram my responsibility will begin. It will then be my duty immediately to send you one hundred thousand dollars and within forty-eight hours to see that protection is extended to you. The only dangerous period for you will be from the moment the revolution begins to forty-eight hours after the telegram is handed to me.
Amador left me to embark, after solemnly affirming his complete agreement with me as to the conditions thus stipulated. Some minutes later he reopened the door. He is now Governor of Panama. His sympathies are certainly with us. Must I disclose everything to him? Consider my situation if I say nothing to him. He is my lifelong friend; he is my guest at this moment; he eats at my table. I am in great perplexity. I had now to think of placing myself in a condition to keep my promise with regard to the resources needed for the first days of the new Republic.
I had seven days ahead of me. My first idea had been to disclose the situation to Mr. Pierpont Morgan or to Mr. Isaac Seligman, with whom I was in personal relations. I had written to both of these gentlemen to ask for an appointment without saying for what purpose. When the moment arrived I saw obstacles which I had not at first perceived.
Was it likely that the representatives of such huge interests would run the risk of engaging in so dangerous an adventure? If the revolution was to fail the moral responsibility would be enormous for them. If it succeeded the profit would be insignificant. Would any banker ever be tempted where the alternatives were of such a nature? An operation of that class could be acceptable only to a second-rate bank. But in such a case a commission would be demanded from the new Republic which would be in proportion to the risk, that is to say, very great.
It would, later on, be considered as extortionate and usurious. On the other hand, in such a case, what could prevent the bank from making an easy speculation in Panama securities? A revolutionary movement ending successfully would necessarily about treble the quotation in these securities. What would appear to me a contemptible speculation could not fail to be considered by a second-class banker as absolutely legitimate.
And besides, if I raised the question of this eventual loan, I must necessarily disclose the secret plan. Who could guarantee that the secret would be kept? Who could guarantee that on the same evening a telegram would not be sent to Bogota, and that Colombian troops would not be hurried to the Isthmus and land at the same time as Amador? All these considerations made it absolutely impracticable to contract a loan with third parties in the name of the new Republic.
I was bound by honour. I had no other alternative but to provide the funds from my personal means, and to run the risk myself of losing this important sum. It was the only way. My resolution was made on the evening of Wednesday, the 21st of October. This branch office was accustomed to make cable transfers for me during my sojourns in America, when I needed money for travelling expenses.
One cannot but admire the extraordinary elasticity of the financial mechanism of our days. I delivered my two cablegrams at the telegraph office on Thursday at 1 A. I was awakened at 8 o'clock by a servant, who brought the first answer. At 11 o'clock the second one arrived. All was settled. The hundred thousand dollars had been sent to the branch office " B", where I could dispose of them at will. I had but to give the order for transferring them by cable to New York, which order was given the Sunday following. I was ready. This question once settled, and everything, therefore, being accomplished by Thursday morning, the 22nd of October, I had nothing more to do but await events.
I need not say with what anxiety every morning and evening I opened the newspapers. The fate of the Panama Canal depended upon the movements of the Colombian troops concentrated at Carthagena. Barranquilla [a Colombian port on the Atlantic, close to Carthagena] announces that General Tovar who was expected to leave soon [for the Isthmus] may not do so before the beginning of November. He has received the order to make a report on the condition of the artillery of the forts at Barranquilla, Puerto, Colombia, Carthagena, and the harbours of the Atlantic.
On the other hand, on the previous day, October 25th, the New York Sun had published a telegram from Philadelphia, which had for me an extreme significance. It announced that the cruiser Dixie had sailed with sealed orders, taking with her marines. Three days later the papers printed a despatch from Washington which was published among others in the New York Times on the 28th of October, announcing that the Dixie was to arrive at Guantanamo, Cuba. The despatch added that, in case of a revolution in the Isthmus, the Dixie would be sent to Colon.
Another paper said that the marines would be landed on the Isthmus to maintain order along the line of inter-oceanic communication. The same despatch announced that another cruiser, the Nashville, was at Kingston, Jamaica. Evidently the movements of Amador had been watched, and his departure for the Isthmus after his conference with me had raised suspicions of an early explosion of the revolution after the Colombian Congress had closed its session.
The sending of the Dixie to Guantanamo showed the preoccupation of the American Government. It did not disguise this preoccupation in its communication to the press. Does not this simple fact in itself give the lie to the absurd and prejudiced story of a revolution organized by the United States Government?
At Washington they had probably associated in their minds the departure of Amador and the prediction I had formulated in my interview with President Roosevelt on the 9th of October and with Mr. Hay on the 16th as to the imminent peril of a revolution. The conclusion which must have been reached was that the departure of Amador after his interviews with me was the beginning of revolutionary operations. Hay had remembered my warning as to the danger of the United States being caught unaware by a sudden revolution.
He had certainly issued the orders to have troops ready as soon as Amador had left. The Nashville was mounting guard at Kingston for the obvious purpose of flying to the Isthmus at first call. The intentions of the American Government were luminously shown by the whole set of facts. Positively everything was working out with admirable precision and in accordance with my logical reasoning.
Amador had nothing more to do but to set fire to the fuse before the arrival of the Colombian troops, and Panama was saved. To be still more certain I went to spend the 27th at Washington. I heard nothing to give me a fresh indication. It was the very day that Amador was landing at Colon. On the 27th and 28th of October Amador gave no sign. There was nothing astonishing in that. I expected the great news on the 29th. Instead of receiving it, the following cablegram was handed to me at 9.
The address, "Tower, New York," was that of Al. Lindo, the friend of Amador, who had sent him to me to ask for my support as soon as arrived in September. He had undertaken to transmit the telegraphic secret correspondence between Amador and myself. But he was ignorant of their contents, which only the conventional code I had given to Amador could explain.
In that way the despatches could pass without attracting the attention of the Colombian authorities. I deciphered with stupefaction the first words:. None of the words which followed in the despatchUrge vapor Colonwas in the code. It was therefore necessary to take their meaning in Spanish. It was: "Press steamer Colon. The beginning of the despatch was perfectly clear. Amador announced the arrival within five daysthat is on the 2nd or 3rd of Novemberof Colombian soldiers on the Atlantic side. But what was the signification of the rest: "Press steamer Colon"?
Nothing in my instructions to Amador could explain the mystery. The fact that these words were in plain language established that they did not refer to anything previously agreed. Suddenly light dawned in my mind. I saw clearly the scene which had given birth to this curious and inexplicable message. Amador had left the Isthmus when everybody was under the sway of the illusions created by the foolish and unrealizable promises which the first delegates of the insurgents had said had been made to him in New York.
But it can get even better. Just imagine staying in these a-ma-zing winter chalets and lodges. Find out where you can book them! Chalet Zermat Peak, Switserland In at number 1 is this The many faces of Central and Southern Vietnam Vietnam is just one country, but it sure feels as many different ones.
If you are heading out to this Asian pearl, the north part should be in my opinion your main priority. I still long for those emerald karst mountains. However, if you have a bit more travel time, central and southern Vietnam are The highlights of Northern Vietnam Vietnam is hot. This long stretched south-east Asian country is on the rise for backpackers and travelers alike. Not so strange when you come to think of the perfectly spiced and easy-to-digest food goodies, bright rice paddies, staggering karst mountains and sandy beaches. Vietnam is the place Amsterdam in top 10 most popular cities We knew Amsterdam is a great city, and I guess many of you must agree because Amsterdam just kicked off Hong Kong out of the top 10 most popular cities in the world.
Guest blogger Jill is going to tell you exactly where to have July 3, The perfect accommodation. Must-see galleries, socially-conscious eateries, stylish coffee shops, and trendy blocks are popping up more and more, and Angelinos seeking novel streets to meander This historical region is called Cappadocia and is located in south central Turkey. Ibiza keeps on attracting sun seekers from all over the world which can make the island a bit busy at times.
Sa Trinxa Adventure awaits and it may be closer to home than you think. Actually, for Dutchies not even a two-hour car ride. Sleep in a giant Air-Bubble on top of an Amsterdam rooftop Sleeping under the stars and feeling on top of the world is now something within your reach, in Amsterdam! Floor 17, — the rooftop terrace of the Ramada Hotel, has invested in a very special hotel room this month. A giant Air-Bubble is situated on top of the hotel with an impressive view of Amsterdam.
And people will probably say it a million times more. But after spending three weeks on this island, I am convinced Budapest is the capital of Hungary and is also known as The Pearl of the Danube — a title the city rightfully carries with pride. Buda and Pest used to be two separate cities and were divided by the Danube. The two were Desa Seni, total bliss at this healthy yoga retreat in Bali Yoga, meditations, massages, healthy food, a beautiful swimming pool, private sleeping cabins, an overwhelming tropical garden and super friendly staff.
After a super busy Reflections, crystal-white salt, never ending views, ice scraped mountains, wildlife, and this all above km height. Men make decisions for their women when they get married: How many children they get, when they can visit a friend, the approval for a medicine….
We marched on the streets in Sucre Bolivia with around 50 women who all have something in common; they are humiliated and scarred for life. Women from different backgrounds But I also know that you need at least two months to fully explore every corner. Reality is that a lot of short-term travelers Leaving my cozy bed at Das PostHotel — Zillerseasons to get ready for the untouched slopes and a heavenly white view. Hire a A big blanket of snow covers the January 22, We love it. A picture really says a thousands words and these 5 Instagram accounts really prove that.
We discovered some new amazing travel Instagram accounts this year that we think you will love. January 17, We love to explore and wander, but I travel best when I can look something up quickly. There are more travel apps out there than ever and these are by far the best free travel apps Is this the coolest slide in the world?
Sometimes we just need to feel like a little kid again and what better than a super long slide! But what if you combine this with an amazing backdrop in Switzerland? This mountain coaster, as they call it, can be found in the Tourists flee and sea mist covers the land in shadows. Not the best season to visit Scotland, or so you November 23, Planning a Winterbreak? Winter is coming. Once the leaves begin to color and fall to the ground and my summer tan is definitely gone as far as I had one to begin with , so are my desires for crystal clear oceans and coconuts.
The winter child in me has awoken. Bring me the snow, the freezing cold and In the winter you have the chance to Ballyfin Demense Coming in at nummer one is this amazing Life goes pretty fast down here and catches up with you, especially in a big city. So when I say that sometimes you need to get away from it all, What to do when you have a stopover in Toronto Considering a transfer in Toronto?
Here are some tips if you have a stopover in Toronto. Have lunch at the CN tower The Stay in a traveling Hotel at special locations Are you looking for an unique and unusual special place to stay? She designed traveling hotel to house guests Check Out Bari, Italy! From spectacular gems, top-notch cuisine to historic castles. This town is full of energy and great atmosphere.
Bari is a big port city on the Adriatic coast; the capital of the Italian region of Puglia.
I stayed Walking tall and blond in China I am 1. The women in the Netherlands are among the tallest women in the world. I totally belong to that category. I wanna share a little bit of my world with you, the world through the eyes of a tall blond woman. A lot of The Poke Bowl, how does this trend affect our planet?
Recently I have seen a few trends, hypes that are clearly turning a blind eye to our environment and we must ask ourselves the question, is it all worth it? Take this new trend; The Poke Bowl. September 9, On the other days I plan in a few meetings and they could be anywhere throughout my home town. For this reason you can find me and my laptop in several I was 13 when we met, way too young to understand raw beauty. We spend one day together but there was not really a spark. Three years later we bumped into each other again and got a little touchy feely over the course My amazing trip through North West Norway This year has been great for crossing off my bucketlist destinations.
I was going to see the famous Fjords and amazing nature I had been waiting I was on a press trip in Norway last week and while we waited for a ferry, one of the tourist board members jumped out of the bus because she saw a Why Hamburg is the new Berlin The titel of this blogpost might seem to be a little overconfident but when I was invited by Germany Tourism to visit Hamburg I was very exited.
I have been to many German destinations but Hamburg was still on my list. But this city is not trying to Its most distinguishing mark are probably its old-timers. But, Cuba is much more than that. Colombia: many faces, one country!
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My sister inspired me to travel to Colombia. A country with so many faces. But there is so much more to this Favela painting artists take their latest project to the Netherlands Back in the boys of Favela Painting started a movement back in Rio when they decided to give the favela area some color. Besides brightening up the buildings, they also employed local youth to paint the buildings and houses for a few reasons; give them something they can be proud of and take Our mission was to network, Into the Wild Algarve, Portugal!
Sometimes things are just meant to happen, just as our recent trip to Portugal. Back in March we talked to Sophia van Sorgen check out her health blog! And she connected us to Dave and Sonja, a couple from Amsterdam that decided the city was not for them. So they sold their house, quit their The travel life that every wanderer dreams about!
This super hot and young couple started posting on Instagram around four years ago. I wear high heels on some rare occasions. One of those tomboy things is, that I love motor racing. Gosh, how we envy those amazing surfer girls.
Pirate maps were the most valuable treasure of all
With little time to prepare ourselves for a bikini fit body, we jumped The first time I fell in love with the island of Bali must have been in when I lived here for my studies. Ever since, this magical place has found a little spot in my heart and will never leave! I found so many new hotspots! These are the best non-touristy spots in Havana, Cuba Havana is guaranteed to instantly charm you with its untamed way of life; the way you can walk down the street and not see another European face; or how the local merchants will barter with you over the price of an onion just for fun.
June 7, Top 5 Secret Spots in Amsterdam I love discovering places in my hometown that are a little under the radar. But then again, I like these places because they are quiet and not over popular. For this reason I had to think twice before writing this article. But we started this blog not to keep the best things for ourselves but The Ultimate Australian Surf Roadtrip! The Valencia Guide ! With no time for preparations and any planning we flew over to the Spanish coastal city. Valencia is not a overcrowded city and you will enjoy the peaceful alleys around town.
In and around Bern, Switzerland Europe has so much to offer and one of my favourite countries has to be Switzerland. Green hills, snowy mountains, waterfalls and wonderful towns. It was time to see if those Instagram images would live up to my expectations. For this roadtrip I needed a car that would have enough power to drive No way! My list is growing by the year as many countries are opening their doors to tourism, making it easier to travel to. Akumal is a beautiful little town situated in the middle of Playa del Carmen and Tulum in Mexico! The only problem with this lovely little Blooming Beach is open!
A few months ago I had a great experience at Blooming hotel in Bergen, Netherlands. The hotel is situated near the village of Bergen and owns eleven hectares of dunes. I slept there twice and both experiences were very good so I was happy to discover that they have opened a beach club recently! Backpacking with a 10 week old baby! Time to explore!
Discover Prague Our hotel was only a short walk from the center so we walked almost everywhere. Sometimes we even walked for 2 hours Ghent and Bruges. This village was nothing special other than it is perfect for what we were planning: Visit Restaurant Jala, Langkawi After checking out the skyscrapers in the capital of Malaysia — Kuala Lumpur, local food tasting at the Filipino night market in Kota Kinabalu, a snorkeling trip in Manukan and an exciting jungle trekking in Kuching it was time to relax for a while!
How to get there We traveled from Penang to Langkawi by Several terrorist attacks changed the face of this European capital and time stood still. I was in Brussels a few days before it happened so it felt very close. The people of Brussels that so warmly invited me to enjoy their city and taste Borneo is An absolute treat for nature lovers A Glampacker? I was a true backpacker and I loved it. But during my trip to Greece last March 9, The most beautiful honeymoon suites in the world Yes I do!
More friends around me are getting married. They are so excited, but they also need to make a million decisions. Next to the wedding dress, the wedding location and the honeymoon destination definitely need to stand out! A honeymoon is one of the important milestones of a marriage. Where to spend your February 29, The night that the best movies in the world are crowned with a little statue named Oscar. The big winner was of course the impressive movie The Revenant. Shame on us but this was a great opportunity to find out what you can do in Luxembourg in 24 hours!
Are you looking for a good place to enjoy nature in Europe? Then Luxembourg is This train station runs for just one girl. Pretty cool. Your very own train. Well, kind of! Only 36 people live in her neighborhood but she is the only one of her age that goes to school every day. Borneo is third largest island on earth, a tropical paradise with crystal clear waters, white sandy beaches, the oldest and most bio-diverse rain forest, impressive wildlife and an abundance of natural wonders.
January 30, This must have been a difficult task as The Netherlands has so many amazing hotels on offer. They did Will this be the best hostel in Amsterdam? Amsterdam will be a new hostel richer this coming spring.
The Generator Hostel group is renown for their cool and high standard hostels like the ones in Berlin Mitte, Barcelona and London. They have three openings Meaning; from El Nido to Coron in Palawan. The most famous one around is the TAO tour. January 18, Everybody is talking about it today and so are we! The bluest sea ever I have January 7, Some beaches are greater than other but these beaches have something extra special in common. They all have amazing colors! You will arrive at the capital of the Philippines, Manila. And tell them to turn the meter on! The line might be a These were our best travel moments of Looking back to a great travel year!
We love to explore, discover, wander and travel the world! The beauty, the warmth of people, delicious food, dazzling sunsets, stunning white sandy beaches, street art, festivals, jungle, impressive architecture and hospitality are December 29, I explored a new adventure in only 30 minutes away from KK city. Kota Kinabalu is famous for its incredible richness of tropical rain forests where you will see and find proboscis Monkeys, orangutans, plants, rivers, waterfalls, hot springs, caves and The most beautiful Christmas Trees in the world!
Did you buy your Christmas tree already in November, or did you buy your tree on the 1st of December, or do you even wait for Christmas Eve? If you are like me, you will start thinking about This is her story. The boats, the fear and the thousands of people coming to Europe seeking a future.
The world woke up when a little boys body lays face down on a beach in Turkey. This is when social media started talking November 30, Or maybe you hate festivals. At Our Habitas you become part of a community. No major line-up, no commercial bullshit. Habitas is an LA Well, we can add one more to this list. City Hub. I was at the opening and asked manager Pieter Van Tilburg a few questions. So grab your pen and add these dates into your diary!
Sixteen years I needed to for fill my dream. Australia had been on my bucketlist forever and I wanted to do it alone. My, Myself and my backpack. Many of you who are reading this I am not exaggerating right? Planning to go to Ibiza next year? September 7, I fell in love straight away. Ibiza has everything you need for the perfect summer holiday; Sunshine, palm trees, white sandy beaches, August 31, Top 5 reasons why you should live in Barcelona Europe has a lot of amazing cities but Barcelona seems to attract a lot of foreigners that try to build a life over here.
I give you 5 reasons why you should live in Barcelona. Both islands are very different in many ways but nevertheless extremely beautiful in their own right. Naxos is the larges island of the Greek Cyclades but much more authentic and laid back than party island Mykonos. July 29, I took the boat and went to Terschelling. Terschelling is an island just North of the Netherlands. From Amsterdam it takes about 3,5 hours to get there 1,5 hours by car and 2 hours by boat, depending on which ferry you take. Most visitors rent Look no further and check out the Greek Ionian Islands.
May 28, Watching the news lately, it might seem a bit grim these days. Pack your bags, wander, explore and enjoy this world as much as you can Night Night We wanted Wander-Lust Festival Guide ! The festival season has officially began and we love it!