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Asia Pac. Ministry of Agriculture. Statistik pertanian [Agriculture statistics ]. Ministry of Industry. Indonesia industry performance statistics. Accessed 6 February from. Morey, P. Dairy industry development in Indonesia.

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International Finance Corporation. Morrison, A. Oxford Development Studies, , 39 — 58 Crossref. Rasiah, R. Technological capabilities of automotive firms in Indonesia and Malaysia. Asian Economic Paper, 8, Scott-Kemmis, D. Asian Journal of Technology Innovation 15 2. Usahawan No. Sunarharum, W. Viotti, E. National learning systems: A new approach on technological change in late industrializing economies and evidences from the cases of Brazil and South Korea.

Change, 9, Watanabe, C. Tokyo Institute of Technology. Whitfield, L. Journal of Development Studies, 48 3 , Xie, W. Powered by OJS. User Username Password Remember me. Open Journal Systems. Journal Help. Notifications View Subscribe. Flag Counter. Abstract Increasing public awareness of the importance of milk consumption and the increasing population of Indonesia make milk as an economic commodity that has a strategic value. Full Text: PDF. References Amsden, A. Crossref Bell, M. The company, which claims to have 60 per cent of the new deal bookings in digital cloud and cyber security, has started seeing a shift from the proof of concept PoC stage for digital technology-based services.

IT services players across the global such as Accenture, IBM, Tata Consultancy Services, Infosys , Cognizant, Wipro witness an increasing demand for service delivery using technologies such as cloud computing, artificial intelligence, machine learning. This has resulted in sharp fall in the traditional software maintenance business. Accenture, analyst widely say, has been aggressive in acquiring skills in new areas through acquisitions. Rowland, chief financial officer. Going forward, the company, said Nanterme, would focus on three key pillars for digital transformation - Accenture interactive, Accenture Industry X.

These mean a strong focus on internet of things IoT , data analytics in manufacturing and use of artificial intelligence. Read more on Accenture. Digital Services. Follow us on. Download et app. Become a member. In China, although it has less inventive activity and fewer patent citations than Korea and India, its average patent citation is higher 7. The reference to other patents for the development of new knowledge in China did not gain relevance until the end of the 90s, yet it underwent steady development. With respect to Latin American countries, Argentina and Mexico can be seen to report a citation average per patent very similar to that of Korea and India, and, in the case of Brazil, it exceeds that of China.

The performance of this indicator is very erratic, which is related to a lower increase in its patents. Out of these three Latin American countries, Argentina showed a more stable average during the observed period.. Table 1. In the case of the three Latin American countries, technological knowledge to generate patented novelties in the pharmaceutical sector comes essentially from the United States See Table 2 in the case of pharmaceutical firms holders patents cited.

In a secondary way, the European Union has technological influence on Brazil and Mexico, and it is Japan that has technological influence on Argentina. Particularly, in the case of Mexico, if the geographic origin of cited patents is analyzed yearly, the participation index can be seen to be For its part, Korea has shown greater diversification in the geographic origin of its sources of technological knowledge.

The influence of the United States is represented by Other countries account for a fifth. As a result, the indexes of participation of Triad countries are more diversified and do not tend towards percent. Furthermore, China also demonstrates a diversification of sources of knowledge, but, contrary to Korea, 11 percent comes from its own country and In the case of India, there are a greater number of patent citations that come from the United States and Europe than from Korea.

In the three cases, the United States has greater influence on knowledge used as a basis for generating patents.. With regard to the measurement of the intensity of knowledge flows from industrialized countries toward the selected emerging countries, expressed as the probability that any inventor in an emerging country cite an invention created in industrialized countries, three situations can be observed: i when citation probability does not exist because the country did not register a patent that year; ii citation probability is 0 when the emerging country patented but it did not cite the patent of the industrialized country; and iii a citation probability greater than 0 indicates that there are knowledge flows that come from the selected industrialized countries..

As aforementioned, most countries did not have patent registration or citation until The new institutional framework proposed by TRIPs in developing countries has had a gradual influence on the new intellectual property culture, which exceeded the absent or lax patent systems in these countries within the pharmaceutical sector. It seems to have had an influence on the need to increase the systematic consultation of registered patents in order to create new molecules and processes, dependent on the development of technological abilities and the technological proximity of emerging countries to the industrialized ones..

The outcomes suggest that the probability of citing patents of the industrialized countries is associated in some cases to the beginning of patent reforms in emerging countries. Such is the case of Korea, where the patent laws reform took place in and, in Mexico in In India, reforms were not carried out until and China has not yet made its reform. Both countries, however, register a probability to cite patents especially from Japan. Mexico shows a greater tendency toward knowledge fl coming from the United States than from other countries.

The importance of the infl of the European Union and Japan can be seen after , the year in which a strong system of intellectual property was adopted. It must be emphasized that in such a scenario, the outcome depends not only on emerging country patent citation, but also on the whole universe of citable patents from industrialized countries. Figure 2 shows that Japanese patent citations are higher in several countries taking into account that the universe of citable patents from the United States increased at a greater rate than the sample of citable patents in Japan and the European Union..

Citation frequency ignores both the relative relevance of citation among countries, and geographic proximity, one of the reasons why a relative measure may be proposed. The relative frequency of patent citations was estimated in order to know the relative probability that country k cite more patents from country j than country i cite j.. Figures 3, 4 and 5 show the outcome of the relative citation frequency estimates, taking into account the three geographic sources of technological knowledge, namely, the United Status, the European Union and Japan.

In all three cases, it was found that pathways were not clearly defined, whereas performance was rather cyclical, which is probably related to differences in technological development and industrial policies toward the sector in each country. Likewise, the erratic performance of patents and patent citation in Latin American countries affects the way this indicator behaves.. With regard to a comparison of patent citations made by emerging countries of American patents, it was found that Mexico is more likely to cite American patents than India, Korea and China, although this gap has been reduced since the end of the 90s.

Regarding the other two Latin American countries, Mexico claimed to have a greater supply of technological knowledge than Argentina and Brazil, but this has also been diminishing since the end of the 90s. As far as Asian countries are concerned, China cites relatively more US patents than Argentina, and Korea acts in a similar way with regard to Brazil.. Relative measurement of patent citation of European Union patents on the part of emerging countries shows that India and China tend to have a higher relative citation frequency than Argentina, while the advantage Korea once had over Brazil was reduced in the 90s.

At the turn of the century, ten years after the establishment of patent reforms, Mexico was more likely to cite European patents than Korea, India, China and Argentina. In recent years, from to , Mexico cited more Japanese patents than the other countries, with the exception of Korea.

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It made more Japanese patent citations than India, Brazil and China, although the gap between Korea and China has been gradually closing. Argentina, China, Korea and India relatively surpassed the Japanese citation frequency of Brazil, and India is closer to Japan, relatively surpassing Korea in citation frequency.. There are thus two vectors with 27 elements each.

1. Introduction

They are orthogonal if their internal product is zero. That is to say, when the multiplication produces 0, proximity is nil. That is, the closer to 0, the smaller the proximity. As a result, technological proximity is almost nil. When the indicator is country i an emerging country patents are in close proportion to that of country j an industrialized country.

There is then technological proximity regarding innovation efforts and institutional structure. Therefore, it is more probable that i cite j , although they may not necessarily be in geographic proximity.. Technological proximity from emerging countries to the United States is lower due to the fact that the universe of citable patents is much greater than that from the European Union and Japan.

Even though Mexico is the country with greater geographic proximity, there is not necessarily greater technological closeness.

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On the other hand, technological proximity of East Asian countries to industrialized ones, particularly from the European Union, can be explained by several reasons, including the direct foreign investment of industrialized countries in emerging countries, technology transfer, and their corresponding externalities.. They must also seek to import non-incorporated or soft technologies license and technical assistance agreements, tacit knowledge transfer.

In addition, it can facilitate adaptation of imported technologies to local markets Caves and Ukesa, ; Katrak, ; and Arora, Nevertheless, in the case of Brazil, it can be assumed that such expenditure might be higher than that of Mexico, given that in recent years Brazil has allocated 1 percent of its GDP to science and technology, while Mexico earmarks only 0. In addition, the Brazilian government has supported a policy aimed at encouraging generic drugs, which demands an initial research and development infrastructure..

In comparison, China has deployed a very dynamic technological development policy in order to encourage a favorable environment for imitation and innovation in this industry. China's strength in developing technological abilities and the growing potential of the Chinese market has been added to the initial advantage of multinational corporations in producing low-cost drugs. Figure 7. Research and Development Expenditure in Pharmaceutical Industry, - Millions of dollars of log..

Although the Mexican holders of patents that cite patents are mostly companies, there are also patent citations from institutes and individuals. In Korea, businessmen's ownership of cited patents prevails, although an insignifi number corresponds to individuals and institutes. India shows a behavior similar to that of Korea.. With regard to lapsed time, the USPTO has requested cited patents in relation to the application year for the patents of the country that cites them.

This is the case of Korea. Supposedly, it is more common to cite the oldest patents, particularly when geographic distance is greater.

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So, in fact, 35 percent of the cited patents present a gap of between 5 and 9 years with regard to the patents that cite them; 26 percent from 2 to 4 years; 19 percent from 10 to 15 years; 4. This highlights the fact that in recent years there have been a greater number of cited patents with a year's difference in relation to the cited patent.

This means that the speed of knowledge diffusion is more dynamic but, at the same time, the fact that patents that go back many years continue to be cited suggests that, in some areas, there have not been very significant changes in knowledge or that there is a continuation of basic principles.. In the case of India, a third of the cited patents also originate between 5 and 9 years prior to the patent citing them.

Likewise, there are older cited patents; so, slightly over a fifth have a differential of between 10 and 15 years and 15 percent, of more than 15 years.


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Only 3 percent of the patents originated 1 year earlier and 0. In Mexico, companies carry out low inventive activity, which has been overcome, in some years, by institutes and individuals. Especially in the case of the latter two, there is no guarantee that inventions will reach an industrial scale and commercialization. In Korea, although individuals and institutes do carry out inventive activity, companies have greater importance.

Argentina demonstrates a similar pattern. In India, although inventive activity of companies has grown in recent years, the activity of institutes is more relevant, which suggests important financial support from the government. Pharmaceutical firms in Brazil initially engaged more extensively in patenting activity, but, given that since institutions have begun to patent, they now hold the leadership. Concerning China, institutions initially held the leadership in inventive activity, but as of , enterprises have strongly increased the number of patents.. In Mexico, the inventive activity of individuals in patents is small in relation to the number of inventors.

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It could be 1, 2 or 3, but they are not big teams and are very probably associated with graduate research. Neither companies nor Mexican institutes incorporate a large number of inventors. Patents that have been the outcome of the joint work of 5 to 10 inventors and of more then 10 inventors prevail. This suggests the existence of consolidated work teams.

In India, essentially work teams of between 2 and 4 inventors and between 5 and 10 inventors have generated patents..

In the three countries, inventors mostly are citizens of the country, although there are three cases of foreign researchers.. When knowledge begins to be obsolete in relation to an invention, it is less likely to be cited, and depending on language, geography, trade and other barriers, accessibility to the new invention increases..

Measurement of citation frequency and of relative citation frequency has allowed for an identification of the influence of geographic knowledge, which is decisive for inventive activity in the pharmaceutical industry in each country. In a comparable way, it has also enabled the determination of pathways followed by knowledge transfer among the selected countries.

Geographic proximity, language, and trade, are all factors that help to increase the odds of patent citation, although the obsolescence of patents may reduce their probability of being cited. Within this approach, we established a model for knowledge diffusion, reintroducing the proposal made by Jaffe and Trajtenberg :. CF iT , jt is the frequency of country i 's patents in year T , citing country j 's patents in year t..

Tprox iT , jt is the technology proximity index measuring the technological proximity of the citing country i 's patents in year T , and the cited country j 's patents in year t.. In addition to these three basic parameters, we also examined the way citation differs over both geographic areas and time by including a number of shift parameters, which are collectively denoted by:. We also allowed the rate of decay, 1, to differ across country pairs by including ij, which is similar to ij by construction.

The ij and ij parameters help us to break down this aggregate difference: how much more likely on average is it that Mexico will cite all industrialized countries EU, US and Japan and how much faster slower will Mexico cite all industrialized countries. The lack of observation is an element that does not favor the development of this model, which, in this case, is expressed by the fact that countries do not report the patents that are granted or cited over many years. Because knowledge diffusion cannot be estimated, we tried to explain it qualitatively..

This is the case of Mexico, where the indicator of technological proximity reveals that, with regard to the three industrialized countries, Mexico has virtually zero proximity, even though it registered a slight recovery in patent citations between and , which enhances technological proximity, although it remains below 0.