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Chlorine also has this property but is too toxic, corrosive and reactive to ever have been used as a refrigerant. All of these substances are also provided as a Gas not a vapor at the bar pressure in a gas cylinder because that pressure is above their critical pressure. All gases can potentially be used as a refrigerant around the temperatures at which they are liquid; for example nitrogen R and methane R50 are used as refrigerant at cryogenic temperatures.

Exceptionally carbon dioxide can be produced as a cold solid known as dry ice , which sublimes as it warms in ambient conditions, the properties of carbon dioxide are such that it cannot be liquid at a pressure below its triple point of 5. Acetylene is also supplied differently.

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Since it is so unstable and explosive, this is supplied as a gas dissolved in acetone within a packing mass in a cylinder. Acetylene is also the only other common industrial gas that sublimes at atmospheric pressure. The major industrial gases can be produced in bulk and delivered to customers by pipeline , but can also be packaged and transported. Most gases are sold in gas cylinders and some sold as liquid in appropriate containers e.

Dewars or as bulk liquid delivered by truck.

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The industry originally supplied gases in cylinders to avoid the need for local gas generation; but for large customers such as steelworks or oil refineries , a large gas production plant may be built nearby typically called an "on-site" facility to avoid using large numbers of cylinders manifolded together. Alternatively, an industrial gas company may supply the plant and equipment to produce the gas rather than the gas itself. An industrial gas company may also offer to act as plant operator under an operations and maintenance contract for a gases facility for a customer, since it usually has the experience of running such facilities for the production or handling of gases for itself.

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Some materials are dangerous to use as a gas; for example, fluorine is highly reactive and industrial chemistry requiring fluorine often uses hydrogen fluoride or hydrofluoric acid instead. Another approach to overcoming gas reactivity is to generate the gas as and when required, which is done, for example, with ozone. The delivery options are therefore local gas generation, pipelines , bulk transport truck , rail , ship , and packaged gases in gas cylinders or other containers.

Bulk liquid gases are often transferred to end user storage tanks. Gas cylinders and liquid gas containing vessels are often used by end users for their own small scale distribution systems. Toxic or flammable gas cylinders are often stored by end users in gas cabinets for protection from external fire or from any leak.

Industrial gas is a group of materials that are specifically manufactured for use in industry and are also gaseous at ambient temperature and pressure.

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They are chemicals which can be an elemental gas or a chemical compound that is either organic or inorganic , and tend to be low molecular weight molecules. They could also be a mixture of individual gases. They have value as a chemical; whether as a feedstock , in process enhancement, as a useful end product, or for a particular use; as opposed to having value as a "simple" fuel. However gases can also be known by their uses or industries that they serve, hence "welding gases" or " breathing gases ", etc. The major gases might also be termed "bulk gases" or "tonnage gases".

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In principle any gas or gas mixture sold by the "industrial gases industry" probably has some industrial use and might be termed an "industrial gas". In practice, "industrial gases" are likely to be a pure compound or a mixture of precise chemical composition , packaged or in small quantities, but with high purity or tailored to a specific use e. Lists of the more significant gases are listed in "The Gases" below. There are cases when a gas is not usually termed an "industrial gas"; principally where the gas is processed for later use of its energy rather than manufactured for use as a chemical substance or preparation.

The oil and gas industry is seen as distinct. So, whilst it is true that natural gas is a "gas" used in "industry" - often as a fuel, sometimes as a feedstock, and in this generic sense is an "industrial gas"; this term is not generally used by industrial enterprises for hydrocarbons produced by the petroleum industry directly from natural resources or in an oil refinery.

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Materials such as LPG and LNG are complex mixtures often without precise chemical composition that often also changes whilst stored. The petrochemical industry is also seen as distinct. So petrochemicals chemicals derived from petroleum such as ethylene are also generally not described as "industrial gases".

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  6. Sometimes the chemical industry is thought of as distinct from industrial gases; so materials such as ammonia and chlorine might be considered " chemicals " especially if supplied as a liquid instead of or sometimes as well as "industrial gases". Small scale gas supply of hand-carried containers is sometimes not considered to be industrial gas as the use is considered personal rather than industrial; and suppliers are not always gas specialists.

    These demarcations are based on perceived boundaries of these industries although in practice there is some overlap , and an exact scientific definition is difficult. To illustrate "overlap" between industries:. Manufactured fuel gas such as town gas would historically have been considered an industrial gas. Syngas is often considered to be a petrochemical; although its production is a core industrial gases technology. Similarly, projects harnessing Landfill gas or biogas , Waste-to-energy schemes, as well as Hydrogen Production all exhibit overlapping technologies.

    Any gas is likely to be considered an industrial gas if it is put in a gas cylinder except perhaps if it is used as a fuel. Propane would be considered an industrial gas when used as a refrigerant, but not when used as a refrigerant in LNG production, even though this is an overlapping technology. The known chemical elements which are, or can be obtained from natural resources and which are gaseous are hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, chlorine, plus the noble gases; and are collectively referred to by chemists as the "elemental gases". It is not scientifically proven if any synthetic elements with atomic number above are gases, although it has been suggested that elements and are gases.

    The elements which are stable two atom homonuclear molecules at standard temperature and pressure STP , are hydrogen H 2 , nitrogen N 2 and oxygen O 2 , plus the halogens fluorine F 2 and chlorine Cl 2. The noble gases are all monatomic. In the industrial gases industry the term "elemental gases" or sometimes less accurately "molecular gases" is used to distinguish these gases from molecules that are also chemical compounds.

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