Leaves opposite, petiolate, lanceolate, pinkish to dark green, with translucent, aromatic glands, have a pungent odour when young. Inflorescence occurs as racemose panicles and bears buds that take on the form of nails before blossoming. Flowers red with 4 concave, overlapping petals that drop off as soon as the flower opens; stamens numerous; 4 calyx lobes. Fruit dark red, fleshy drupe. Buds readily exude oil when pressed or scratched with a fingernail 7. Flower bud mm long, bright reddish-brown to dark brown; lower part the hypanthium solid, cylindrical, somewhat flattened, 4-sided, tapering towards the base and bearing at the apex 4 thick, triangular, divergent sepals, alternating with 4 rounded, fragile, unexpanded, membranous, imbricated petals forming a pale, nearly spherical head that encloses numerous stamens, curved inward and inserted on a small disc, and a stiff, slender, erect, single style arising from a depression in the centre.
Externally wrinkled; internally, hypanthium contains in its upper portion a 2-celled inferior ovary with numerous ovules attached to the axile placenta; has very large outer zone with numerous shining, oval oil glands near the periphery, numerous vascular bundles in the centre and a dark, lacunose layer abutting on the central zone and columella 1.
Odour: characteristic, strongly aromatic; taste: pungent, spicy, followed by slight numbness 1 , 3 , 5. Hypanthium epidermis of small, thick-walled isodiametric cells with very thick cuticle, with stomata with no special subsidiary cells. Lacunous layer formed of thin-walled parenchyma. The columella consists of a parenchymatous strand with numerous closely arranged, small vascular bundles.
Sepals, with epidermis resembling that of hypanthium and having numerous stomata on outer surface; mesophyll with rounded or stellate cells, numerous ovoid oil glands and clusters of calcium oxalate crystals, and traversed by a few slender vascular bundles. Petals, with epidermis formed of cells with straight, thin walls; stomata, absent; mesophyll, undifferentiated, containing oil glands and cells with clusters of calcium oxalate crystals, and traversed by small vascular bundles.
Edible Medicinal And Non-Medicinal Plants
Stamens, with filaments having a central vascular strand and oil glands beneath the epidermis; connective tissue, with a large oil gland in the apex of anther walls, with fibrous layer and minute clusters of calcium oxalate crystals along the line of dehiscence. Style, with epidermis similar to that of hypanthium, and consisting of small collenchyma cells, with clusters of calcium oxalate crystals, radially elongated oil glands, and traversed by 2 narrow vascular strands 1.
Tests for specific microorganisms and microbial contamination limits are as described in the WHO guidelines on quality control methods for medicinal plants The recommended maximum limit of aldrin and dieldrin is not more than 0. For other pesticides, see the European pharmacopoeia 5 , and the WHO guidelines on quality control methods for medicinal plants 11 and pesticide residues For maximum limits and analysis of heavy metals, consult the WHO guidelines on quality control methods for medicinal plants Where applicable, consult the WHO guidelines on quality control methods for medicinal plants 11 for the analysis of radioactive isotopes.
Chemical, water-soluble extractive and alcohol extractive tests to be established in accordance with national requirements. The structures of the major constituents are presented below. External or local applications for the treatment of toothache, and minor infections of the mouth and skin 7 , 14 , Also used as an antiseptic for dressing of minor wounds, and, in the form of lozenges, for sore throats and coughs associated with the common cold 7. The juice of the flower bud inhibited the growth in vitro of Mycobacterium tuberculosis minimal inhibitory concentration [MIC] An aqueous extract of the flower buds inhibited the growth in vitro of Bacillus subtilis A chloroform extract of the flower buds inhibited the growth in vitro of Cladosporium werneckii Eugenol, one of the active constituents of the flower buds, inhibited the growth in vitro of Staphylococcus aureus , Propionibacterium acnes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa , with an MIC of 0.
In other studies, eugenol had a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity in vitro, inhibiting the growth of Clostridium sporogenes , Enterobacter aerogenes , Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Proteus vulgaris , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Salmonella pullorum , Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus faecalis and Comamonas terrigena at various concentrations 26 , Eugenol also had a broad spectrum of antifungal activity in vitro, inhibiting the growth of Alternaria alternata , Aspergillus fumigatus , Aspergillus niger , Aspergillus flavus , Cladosporium werneckii , Cladosporium cucumerinum , Colletotrichum capsici , Helminthosporium oryzae , Microsporum canis , Penicillium expansum , Phytophthora parasitica , Rhizopus nodosus , Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T.
A hot aqueous extract of the flower buds suppressed the replication of HSV-1, measles virus and poliovirus-1 in Vero cells in vitro at a concentration of 0. Eugenol at a concentration of 0. Eugeniin isolated from the flower buds exhibited anti-HSV-1 activity in mice A methanol extract of the flower buds inhibited interleukin-8 production induced by lipopolysaccharide in rat macrophages in vitro at a concentration of 0.
Topical application of eugenol to mice and rats at a dose of 0.
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Topical application of eugenol inhibited carrageenaninduced footpad oedema in rats and reversed passive Arthus reaction in rabbits Eugenol also inhibited the biosynthesis of prostaglandin and thromboxane in various biological systems 27 , 44 , and both eugenol and isoeugenol inhibited platelet aggregation IC 50 1.
A petroleum ether or ethylene chloride extract of the flower buds exhibited strong antioxidant activity in vitro at a concentration of 0. The antioxidant activity of eugenol has been demonstrated in a wide range of in vitro systems The essential oil had spasmolytic activity in vitro on isolated guinea-pig trachea and intestine 60, Local application of eugenol reduced the carcinogenic activity of benzopyrene No information available on general precautions or precautions concerning drug interactions; drug and laboratory test interactions; teratogenic and nonteratogenic effects in pregnancy; nursing mothers; or paediatric use.
Flos Caryophylli should not be administered during pregnancy or lactation or to children without medical supervision. Allergic contact dermatitis has been reported in patients who were regularly exposed to Flos Caryophylli or who already had dermatitis of the fingertips Store in a well-closed container, protected from light 1 , 5. African pharmacopoeia. I English ed. Beijing, Chemical Industry Press, The Japanese pharmacopoeia , 13th ed.
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Tokyo, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Blaschek W et al. Hagers Handbuch der pharmazeutischen Praxis. Folgeband 2: Drogen A-K , 5th ed. Berlin, Springer-Verlag, Farnsworth NR, ed. Quality control methods for medicinal plant materials. Geneva, World Health Organization, Guidelines for predicting dietary intake of pesticide residues , 2nd rev. Leung AY, Foster S. Encyclopedia of common natural ingredients used in food, drugs, and cosmetics , 2nd ed.
Blumenthal M et al. The complete German Commission E monographs. Perez C, Anesini C. Antibacterial activity of alimentary plants against Staphylococcus aureus growth.
31 editions of this work
American Journal of Chinese Medicine , , Fitzpatrick FK. Plant substances active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Antibiotics and Chemotherapy , , Phenolic spice constituents sporostatic to Bacillus subtilis. Journal of Food Science , , Antimicrobial effect of spices on the growth of Yersinia enterocolitica. Journal of Herbs, Spices and Medicinal Plants , , Ungsurungsie M et al.
Mutagenicity screening of popular Thai spices. Food and Chemical Toxicology , , Sharma A et al. Microbiological status and antifungal properties of irradiated spices. Journal of Agricultural Food and Chemistry , , Antifungal activity of plant extracts used in therapy.
Study of 40 plant extracts against 9 fungi species. Himejima A, Kubo I. Antimicrobial agents from Licaria puchuri-major and their synergistic effects with polygodial. Journal of Natural Products , , Kubo I et al. Naturally occurring anti-acne agents. Antibacterial activity of French tarragon Artemisia dracunculus L.
Journal of Horticultural Science , , Laekeman GM et al. Eugenol, a valuable compound for in vitro experimental research and worthwhile for further in vivo investigation. Phytotherapy Research , , Garg SC, Siddiqui N. Antifungal activity of some essential oil isolates. Pharmazie , , Rahalison L et al. Antifungal tests in phytochemical investigations: comparison of bioautographic methods using phytopathogenic and human pathogenic fungi.
Planta Medica , , Thompson DP. Fungitoxic activity of essential oil components on food storage fungi. Mycologia , , Takechi M, Tanaka Y. Purification and characterization of antiviral substance from the bud Syzygium aromatica. Kurokawa M et al. Efficacy of traditional herbal medicines in combination with acyclovir against herpes simplex 1 infection in vitro and in vivo. Antiviral Research , , Antiviral traditional medicines against herpes simplex virus HSV-1 , poliovirus, and measles virus in vitro and their therapeutic efficacy for HSV-1 infection in mice.
Prophylactic efficacy of traditional herbal medicines against recurrent herpes simplex virus type 1 infection from latently infected ganglia in mice. Journal of Dermatological Sciences , , Lembke A, Deininger R.
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Phytotherapie, Grundlagen-Klinik-Praxis. Stuttgart, Hippokrates Verlag, Purification and characterization of eugenin as an anti-herpes virus compound from Geum japonicum and Syzygium aromaticum. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics , , Yasukawa K et al. Inhibitory effect of edible plant extracts on O tetradecanoylphorbolacetate-induced ear oedema in mice. Lee GI et al. Inhibitory effects of oriental herbal medicines on IL-8 induction in lipopolysaccharide-activated rat macrophages.
Bennett A et al. The biological activity of eugenol, a major constituent of nutmeg Myristica fragrans : studies on prostaglandins, the intestine and other tissues. Studies on anti-inflammatory activity of spice principles and dietary N-2 polyunsaturated acids on carrageenan-induced inflammation in rats.
Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism , , Saeed SA et al. Eugenol: a dual inhibitor of platelet-activating factor and arachidonic acid metabolism. Phytomedicine , , Sharma JN et al. Suppressive effects of eugenol and ginger oil on arthritic rats. Pharmacology , , Pongprayoon U. Pharmacognostic studies on the Thai medicinal plant Ipomoea pes-caprae L.
Pak bung ta lae. Acta Pharmaceutica Nordica , , Pongprayoon U et al. Compounds inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis isolated from Ipomoea pes-caprae. Inhibition of ethyl phenylpropiolate-induced rat-ear oedema by compounds isolated from Ipomoea pes-caprae L.
Dewhirst FE. Fragaria x ananassa. Malus spectabilis. Malus x domestica. Mespilus germanica. Prunus armeniaca. Prunus avium. Prunus domestica. Prunus domestica subsp. Prunus dulcis. Prunus persica var. Prunus salicina. Pseudocydonia sinensis. Pyrus bretschneideri. Pyrus communis. Pyrus pyrifolia. Purus ussuriensis. Rubus fruticosus aggr. Rubus idaeus. Rubus occidentalis. Rubus x loganobaccus. Sorbus domestica. Aegle marmelos. Citrus amblycarpa. Citrus australasica. Citrus australis. Citrus garrawayi. Citurs hystrix.
Citrus inodora. Citrus japonica 'Marumi'. Citrus japonica 'Meiwa'. Citrus japonica 'Nagami'. Citrus japonica 'Polyandra'. Citrus latifolia. Citrus maxima. Citrus medica. Citrus medica var. Citrus reticulate. Citrus reticulata Satsuma Group. Citrus reticulata 'Shiranui'. Citrus wintersii. Citrus x aurantiifolia. Citrus x aurantium Grapefruit Group. Citrus x aurantium Sour Orange Group. Citrus x aurantium Sweet Orange Group. Citrus x aurantium Tangelo Group. Citrus x aurantium Tangor Group. Citrus x floridana. Citrus x jambhiri. Citrus x limon. Citrus x macrocarpa.
Clausena lansium. Limonia acidissima. Merrillia caloxylon.
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