These cannot be used for planning as they cannot predict effect of changes in emissions. Eulerian approach has been used to predict air pollutant concentrations in urban areas. The space domain geographical area or air volume , are divided into "small" squares two-dimensional or volumes three-dimensional , i.

Thus Eulerian models are sometimes called "grid models". Equidistant grids are normally used in air pollution modeling. Then the spatial derivatives involved in the system of Partial Differential Equations are discretized on the grid chosen. The transport, diffusion, transformation, and deposition of pollutant emissions in each cell are described by a set of mathematical expressions in a fixed coordinate system.

Chemical transformations can also be included. Long range transport, air quality over entire air shed, that is, large scale simulations are mostly done using Eulerian models. Reynolds , Shir and Shieh applied Eulerian model for ozone and for SO 2 concentration simulation in urban areas, and Egan and Carmichael for regional scale sulfur. Holmes and Morawska used Eulerian model to calculate the transport and dispersion over long distances. Lagrangian Model approach is based on calculation of wind trajectories and on the transportation of air parcels along these trajectories.

In the source oriented models the trajectories are calculated forward in time from the release of a pollutant-containing air parcel by a source forward trajectories from a fixed source until it reaches a receptor site. And in receptor oriented models the trajectories are calculated backward in time from the arrival of an air parcel at a receptor of interest backward trajectories from a fixed receptor.

Numerical treatment of both backward and forward trajectories is the same. The choice of use of either method depends on specific case. As the air parcel moves it receives the emissions from ground sources, chemical transformations, dry and wet depositions take place. If the models provide average time-varying concentration estimates along the box trajectory then Lagrangian box models have been used for photochemical modeling.

The major shortcoming of the approach is the assumption that wind speed and direction are constant throughout the Physical Boundary Layer. As compared to the Eulerian box models the Lagrangian box models can save computational cost as they perform computations of chemical and photochemical reactions on a smaller number of moving cells instead of at each fixed grid cell of Eulerian models.

These models assume pollutants to be evenly distributed within the boundary layer and simplified exchange within the troposphere is considered. Box models are based on the conservation of mass. The receptor is considered as a box into which pollutants are emitted and undergo chemical and physical processes. Input to the model is simple meteorology. Emissions and the movement of pollutants in and out of the box is allowed.

The air mass is considered as well mixed and concentrations to be uniform throughout. Advantage of the box model is simple meteorology input and detailed chemical reaction schemes, detailed aerosol dynamics treatment.

### 1. Introduction

However, following inputs of the initial conditions a box model simulates the formation of pollutants within the box without providing any information on the local concentrations of the pollutants. Box models are not suitable to model the particle concentrations within a local environment, as it does not provide any information on the local concentrations, where concentrations and particle dynamics are highly influenced by local changes to the wind field and emissions.

Receptor modeling approach is the apportionment of the contribution of each source, or group of sources, to the measured concentrations without considering the dispersion pattern of the pollutants. The starting point of Receptor models is the observed ambient concentrations at receptors and it aims to apportion the observed concentrations among various source types based on the known source profile i.

Where C ik is the measured concentration of the k th species in the i th sample, a ik is the concentration from the j th source contributing to the i th sample, and f jk is the k th species fraction from the j th source. The Chemical Mass Balance CMB Receptor Model used by Friedlander, uses the chemical and physical characteristics of gases and particulate at source receptor to both identify the presence of and to quantify source contributions of pollutants measured at the receptor.

Hopke , christened this approach as receptor modelling. The CMB model obtains a least square solution to a set of linear equation, expressing each receptor concentration of a chemical species as a linear sum product of source profile species and source contributions. The output to the model consists of the amount contributed by each source type to each chemical species.

The model calculates the contribution from each source and uncertainties of those values. CMB model applied to the VOC emissions in the city of Delhi and Mumbai Figure 4 shows that emissions from petrol pumps and vehicles at traffic intersection dominate. The data in PMF are weighted by the inverse of the measurement errors for each observation.

Factors in PMF are constrained to be nonnegative. PMF incorporates error estimates of the data to solve matrix factorization as a constrained, weighted least-squares problem Miller et al. If n sources exist, the data space can be reduced to a n-1 dimensional space. An assumption that for each source, some data points termed as edge points exist for which the contribution of the source is not present or small compared to the other sources.

UNMIX algorithm identifies these points and fits a hyperplane through them; this hyperplane is called an edge. If n sources exist, then the intersection of n-1 of these edges defines a point that has only one contributing source. Thus, this point gives the source composition. In this way, compositions of the n sources are determined which are used to calculate the source contributions Henry, Resolving the Navier-Stokes equation using finite difference and finite volume methods in three dimensions provides a solution to conservation of mass and momentum.

Computational fluid dynamic CFD models use this approach to analyse flows in urban areas. In numerous situation of planning and assessment and for the near-sources region, obstacle-resolved modeling approaches are required.

## Air Pollution Modeling and its Application XXIV | Douw G. Steyn | Springer

Large Eddy Simulations LES models explicitly resolve the largest eddies, and parameterize the effect of the sub grid features. Galmarini et al. Using CFD models good agreement in overall wind flow was reported by field Gidhagen et al. They also reported large differences in velocities and turbulence levels for identical inputs. The Gaussian Plume Model is one of the earliest models still widely used to calculate the maximum ground level impact of plumes and the distance of maximum impact from the source.

These models are extensively used to assess the impacts of existing and proposed sources of air pollution on local and urban air quality. An advantage of Gaussian modeling systems is that they can treat a large number of emission sources, dispersion situations, and a receptor grid network, which is sufficiently dense spatially of the order of tens of meters. Figure 5 shows a buoyant Gaussian air pollutant dispersion plume.

The spatial dynamics of pollution dispersion is described by the following type of equation in a Gaussian model:. From the above equation, the concentration in any point x, y, z in the model domain, from a constant emission rate source, in steady state can be calculated. Plume rise equations have been developed by Briggs The effective stack height physical stack height plus plume rise depends on exit velocity of gas, stack diameter, average ambient velocity, stack gas temperature and stability of atmosphere. L,et al, This study has resulted in estimating the air assimilative capacity of the region and delineating developmental plans accordingly.

Integrated air quality modelling systems are tools that help in understanding impacts from aerosols and gas-phase compounds emitted from urban sources on the urban, regional, and global climate. Numerical weather prediction NWP models with increased resolution helps to visualize a more realistic reproduction of urban air flows and air pollution processes. Integrated models thus link urban air pollution, tropospheric chemistry, and climate.

Urban air quality and population exposure in the context of global to regional to urban transport and climate change is proposed to be assessed by integrating urbanized NWP and Atmospheric Chemistry ACT models Baklanov et al. Baklanov and R. Meteorology governs the transport and transformations of anthropogenic and biogenic pollutants, drives urban air quality and emergency preparedness models; meteorological and pollution components have complex and combined effects on human health e. Sokolov, C. Schlosser, S. Dutkiewicz, S. Paltsev, D. Jacoby, R.

Prinn, C. Forest, J. Reilly, C. Wang, B.

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Melillo and J. All of these models have uncertainties associated with them. Chemical transport models, such as Gaussian plume models and gridded photochemical models, begin with pollutant emissions estimates and meteorological observations and use chemical and physical principles to predict ambient pollutant concentrations.

Since these models require temporally and spatially resolved data and can be computationally intensive, they can only be used for well-characterized regions and over select time periods. Eulerian grid models are not suitable to assess individual source impacts, unless the emissions from the individual source are a significant fraction of the domain total emissions.

This limitation. Schematic of coupling between the atmospheric model which also includes linkages to the air chemistry and ocean models and the land model components of the IGSM2, also shown are the linkages between the biogeophysical CLM and biogeochemical TEM subcomponents. The blue shaded boxes indicate those quantities that are calculated by the atmospheric model of the IGSM2.

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## Air pollution modeling and its application VIII /

Reviews 0. Updating Results. University of Santiago, Aveiro, Portugal. Institute for Tropospheric Research, Leipzig, Germany. FAQ Policy. About this book Recent developments in air pollution modeling and its application are explored here in contributions by researchers at the forefront of their field. Show all. Pages Borrego, Carlos et al. Steven et al.

Wyat et al. Pages Hogrefe, Christian et al. Will Pollution Reduce Precipitation? Pages Flossmann, Andrea I.