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Write a review. British troops removed illegal Jewish immigranS from the schooner "Negev" at Haifa and after a struggle forced them aboard the ferry "Emperor Haywood" for deportation to Cyprus. The British administration revealed that Lt. Sir Evelyn Barker, retiring British commander in Palestine, had confirmed the death sentences of three Irgun members on February 12 before leaving for England.
A fourth, Haim Gorovetzky, received a life sentence because of his youth. MacMillian arrived in Jerusalem on February 13 to succeed Gen. The Sabbath was the setting for sporadic outbreaks of violence which included the murder of an Arab in Jaffa and of a Jew in B'nai B'rak, the kidnapping of a Jew in Petah Tikvah and the burning of a Jewish club in Haifa.
A Jew, suspected of being an informer, was murdered by Jewish underground members.. The British Army pay corps was dynamited in Jerusalem and one soldier killed. British military units captured most of the Jews whose motor ship "Susanne" ran the British blockade and was beached north of Gaza on this date. A British naval escort brought the "Ben Hecht," the Hebrew Committee of National Liberation's first known immigrant ship, into Haifa, and its passengers were shipped to Cyprus. The British arrested the crew, which included 18 US. Jewish underground members blew up part of an oil pipeline in Haifa and a section of the rail line near Beer Yakou.
British authorities ended marshal law which had kept , Jews under house arrest for 16 days and tied up most economic activity.. A military court sentenced Moshe Barazani to be hanged for possessing a hand grenade. Underground leaflets admitted the murder of Michael Shnell on Mount Carmel as an informer. British officials announced the arrest of five known underground members, and the discovery near Petah Tikvah of the body of Leon Meshiah, a Jew presumably slain as a suspected informer. The Irgun blew up the Iraq Petroleum Co. A British army officer was killed by Jewish underground membesr when they ambushed a party of horsemen near the Ramle camp.
Units of the British Royal Navy, answering an SOS, took the disabled " Moledeth" with 1, illegal Jewish refugees on board under tow some 50 miles outside Palestinian waters. Jewish underground members dynamited the British-owned Shell-Mex oil tanks in Haifa, starting a fire that destroyed a quarter-mile of the waterfront. The Haganah admitted the bombing. A court in Jerusalem sentenced Daniel Azulai and Meyer Feinstein, members of the Irgun , to death for the October 30 attack on the Jerusalem railroad station.
Jewish undergroud members killed a British constable in revenge for the Cohen death.. Guela Cohen, Stern Gang illegal broadcaster, escaped from a British military hospital.. A British naval unit boarded the refugee ship "Guardian" and seized it along with 2, passengers after a gun battle in which two immigrants were killed and 14 wounded.. Jewish communities were kept under strict curfew for several hours. Soon after the deaths were announced, a time bomb was found in the Colonial Office in London but was defused.. Macmillan confirmed death sentences for two more convicted underground members, Meier Ben Feinstein and Moshe Ben Barazani, but reduced Daniel Azulai's sentence to life imprisonment.
Irgun's reprisals for the Gruner execution were an attack on a field dressing station near Nethanaya where one sentry was killed, an attack on an armored car in Tel Aviv where one bystander was killed and harmless shots at British troops in Haifa. A series of bombings by Jewish underground members in retaliation for the hanging of Gruner injured 12 British soldiers.. Meir Feinstein and Moshe Barazani killed themselves in prison a few hours before they were scheduled to be hanged.
They blew themselves up with bombs smuggled to them in hollowed-out oranges. A troop train arriving from Cairo was bombed outside Rehovoth with five soldiers and three civilians killed and 39 persons injured. He blamed contributions from American Jews to the Jewish Palestinians as aiding the underground groups there and cited the toll since August 1, killed, wounded, Jews convicted, 28 sentenced to death, four executed, 33 slain in battles.
Viscount Samuel urged increased immigration. The Irgun proclaimed its own "military courts" to "try" British troops and policemen who resisted them. A Stern Gang squad drove a stolen post office truck loaded with explosives into the Sarona police compound and detonated it, killing five British policemen. The murder of Deputy Police Superintendent A. Conquest climaxed a week of bloodshed. The walls of Acre prison were blasted open by an Irgun bomb squad and Jewish and Arab prisoners escaped after a gun battle in which 15 Jews and 1 Arab were killed, 32 including six British guards were injured and 23 escapists were recaptured.
The Palestine Govemment promised no extra punishment if the escapees still at large will surrender. The Political Action Committee for Palestine ran a series of advertisements in New York newspapers seeking funds to buy parachutes for young European Jews planning to crash the Palestine irnmigration barrier by air.
A Jew was ambushed and shot to death by an Arab group near Tel Aviv, and three Jewish owned Tel Aviv shops whose owners refused to contribute money to Jewish underground groups were burned down. The British authorities announced that Jewish political prisoners were held in Kenya, East Africa, 20 in Latrun and 34 in Bethlehem.. The Stern Gang killed two British lieutenants and injured seven other persons with two derailments and three badge demolitions..
The 1, ton Haganah freighter "Trade Winds" was seized by the Royal Navy off the Lebanon coast and escorted into Haifa, and over 1, illegal immigrants were disembarked pending transfer to Cyprus. The British government protested to the United States government against American fund-raising drives for Jewish underground groups.
The ad said, "We are out to raise millions for you. Some 40, Arab and Jewish workers united the same day in a one day strike against all establishments operated by the British War Ministry.. A British naval party boarded the immigrant ship "Mordei Haghettoath" off South Palestine and took control of its 1, passengers. Two British soldiers were convicted in Jerusalem of abandoning a jeep and army mail under attack.. Fawzi el-Kawukji who spent the war years in Germany after leading the Arab revolt in Palestine, told reporters in Damascus that an unfavorable decision by the UN inquiry group would be the signal for war against the Jews in Palestine.
Jewish underground members blew up a water main and a shed in the Haifa oil dock areas and made three attacks on railway lines in the Lydda and Haifa areas.. The Haganah ship "Yehuda Halevy" arrived under British naval escort with illegal Jewish immigrants; they were immediately transferred to Cyprus.. The Stern Gang sent letter bombs to high British governmental officials. Eight letter bombs containing powdered explosives were discovered in London. President Truman asked all persons in the US to refrain from helping Jewish underground groups.
New York Secretary General of the UN, Trygve Lie has forwarded a request to all countries a request by the British that they guard their fronties against departure of illegal immigrants bound for Palestine. Haganah disclosed that one of its men was killed by a booby trap which foiled an Irgun plot to blow up British Military Headquartes in Tel Aviv. The Stern Gang opened fire on British soldiers waiting in line outside a Tel Aviv theater, killing three and wounding two.
Another Briton is killed and several wounded in a Haifa hotel. This action was claimed by Jewish underground members to be in retaliation for British brutality and the alleged slaying of a missing 16 year old Jew, Alexander Rubowitz while he was being held in an Army barracks on May 6. New York. The UN Committee votes to condemn the acts as "flagrant disregard" of the UN appeal for an interim truce as Stern Gang wounded four more Bdtish soldiers on a beach at Herzlia.
Major Roy Alexander Farran surrendered voluntarily after his escape from custody in Jerusalem on June He had been arrested in connection with the Rubowitz case. Adem Altman, president of the United Zionist Revisionists, told a party rally in Jerusalem that the Revisionists would settle for nothing less than an unpartitioned free Jewish state in Palestine and Trans-Jordan. Irgun announced in Jerusalem that two British sergeants kidnaped in Nathanaya are being held in Tel Aviv and have been sentenced to death by Irgun courtmartial.
The British imposed mastial law and placed the 15, inhabitants of Netanya under house arrest. They made 68 arrests and sentenced 21 persons to 6 months each in the Latrun detention camp. The Irgun in five mine operations against military traffic to and from Nathanya killed one Briton and injured Steamer Exodus repelled by forces from shores of Palestine, formerly the "President Warfield" was escorted into Haifa by British naval units after a battle, William Bernstein and two immigrants were killed and more than 30 injured.
Rioting, quickly suppressed, broke out among the passengess of the Exodus when they learned they were to be resumed to France. Before officially admitting that 4, passengers of the Exodus who had been transferred to three British ships, were being sent not to Cyprus but back to France, the Palestine Government took the precaution of first placing Jesusalem's 90, Jews under nightly house arrest. Haganah sank the British tansport "Empire Lifeguard" in Haifa harbor as it was discharging Jewish immigrants who had officiallyy been admitted to Palestine under quota.
Sixty-five immigrants were killed and 40 were wounded. The British were able to refloat the ship.. Jewish underground members blew up the Iraqi Petroleum Co. Carmel radar station.. Two small Haganah ships loaded with 1, Jews from North Africa were intercepted by British naval units off Palestine and brought into Haifa.
The illegal immigrants were transshipped aboard British transports and taken to Cyprus.. The British authorities hanged three Irgunists in Acre prison despite appeals from Jewish leaders. The 4, Exodus illegal immigrants who sailed from Sete, France, July 11 for Palestine only to be shipped back by the British aboard three transports, refused to debark as the vessels anchored off Port de Douc, France. Only a few who were aboard went ashore.
The French government informed the refugees that they do not have to debark but will be welcomed if they do. Irgun members announced that they have handed two British sergeants, Marvyn Paice and Clifford Martin, whom they had held as hostages since duly 12, for "crimes against the Jewish community. Two more British soldiers were killed by a land mine near Hadera. British troops attacked the Jewish colony of Pardes Hanna in revenge for the murders.. The bodies of the two murdered Bdtish sergeants were found hanging from eucalyptus trees one and a half miles from Netanya about AM.
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A booby trap blew Martin's body to bits when it was cut down. Enraged British troops stormed into Tel Aviv, wrecked shops, attacked pedestrians and sprayed a bus with gunfire killing five Jews: two men, two women and a boy.. Thirty-three Jews are injured in an anti-British riot at Tel Aviv during the funeral procession of five civilians killed by British soldiers on July In Jerusalem a Jewish underground attack on the British security zone in Rehavia was repulsed with one attacker killed and two captured.. The body of an unidentified Jew was found on a road near Tel Aviv.
He was believed to have been kidnapped by men in British uniforms two weeks ago. Total casualties in Palestine since mid-July: 25 persons slain, wounded. The dead include 15 Britons, two Jewish underground membmers, eight civilians. An Irgun leader in Paris states that his organization has sentenced high British military and civilian offficials in Palestine to death "in absentia" and will hang them upon capture..
A mine derailed a Cairo-Haifa troop train north of Lydda, killing the engineer, and Irgunist claimed the incident was part of its campaign to disrupt all the Palestine rail traffic. Arab-Jewish clashes have brought death to 12 Arabs and 13 Jews and heavy property destruction this week in the regions of Jewish Tel Aviv and Arab Jaffa. Strife was renewed on august 10 when Arabs killed four Jews in a Tel Aviv cafe, in reprisal for the deaths of two Arabs in a Haganah raid in Fega two months ago.
Haganah responded to the Arab actions by bombing a house in an Arab orange grove near Tel Aviv, killing eleven Arabs, including a woman and four children. The shops of five Jewish merchants in Tel Aviv were destroyed by the Irgun because the owners refused to give money to that organization. Hamburg, Germany.
In a bitter three hour fight aboard the "Runnymede Park," British troops completed a two-day forced debarkation of 4, Exodus illegal Jewish refugees from three ships in Hamburg, Germany. First ashore yesterday were the "Ocean Vigour's" 1,; a few put up token resistance and five passengers sustained minor injuries. Early today, the "Empire Rival's" 1, passengers debarked peaceably after a home made bomb was found in the ship's hold. Washington D. Secretary of State George C. Marshall disclosed that the US had urged Britain to reconsider sending the "Exodus" group to Germany, but Britain replied tht there were no facilities for housing them elsewhere because the French did not want them and there were a number of vacant detention camps in Germany.
A terrorist bomb damaged the US. Similar bombings occurred at the Polish consulate general last night and at the Swedish consulate on September Jewish underground members killed two British policemen in Jerusalem and two soldiers in Tel Aviv to raise the total casualties in three days of violence to 10 Britons and five Jews killed, and 33 Britons and five Jews wounded. The outbreaks began after British troops killed three girls and two boys in a raid on a farmhouse arsenal near Raanana on November The underground retaliated yesterday by throwing hand grenades and firing a machine gun into the Ritz Cafe in Jerusalem.
About European Jews landed near Netanya from a small schooner and escaped before the British could intercept them. A larger vessel, the "Kadimah," was seized and brought to Haifa where Jews were transshipped to a British transport for Cyprus.. Zionists strongly protested this as they said it would denude Palestine of its assets.
There was no comment from the administration to these charges. The Arab League announced on December 1 that premiers and foreign ministers of seven Arab states would meet in Cairo next week to plan strategy against partition. In Palestine: Jerusalem and the Jaffa Tel Aviv boundary zone were centers of week-long strife which began when seven Jews were killed throughout Palestine on November 30 and the mayor of Nablus, Arab nationalist center, proclaimed jihad or a holy war.
British High Commissioner Sir Alan Cunningham warned the Arab Higher Command on December 1 that Britain was determined to keep order so long as it held its mandate, and police stopped Arab agitators from raising crowds in Jerusalem.. Arabs looted and burned a three block Jewish business district in Jerusalem on December 2, the first day of a three day Arab general strike during which 20 Jews and 15 Arabs were killed. When British troops failed to intervene, Haganah came into the open for the first time in eight years to restrain large scale Jewish retaliation and also guard Jewish districts.
Some Haganah men were arrested for possessing weapons.
The curfew was extended to outlying roads on December 3 to stop stonings of Jewish traffic and keep rural Arabs out of the capital. On December 2, Haganah claimed to have mobilized 10, men in the intercity trouble zone, and the Arab Legion of Trans-Jordan reported on this date that it had reinforced Jaffa. Seven Jews were killed in Jaffa-Tel Aviv on this date. There were lesser attacks in Haifa this week. On the same day Arabs attacked the Jewish part of Aleppo. On the Jaffa-Tel Aviv boundary, which also is under around-the clock curfew, the week's heaviest battle was a six-hour clash between Haganah and Arabs on December 3 in which seven Jews and five Arabs were killed and 75 persons injured.
The United States Department of State announced on December 5, that they were placing an embargo on all American arms shipments to the Middle East. On December 5, British military reinforcements were sent to Aden after four days of Arab-Jewish fighting in which 50 Jews and 25 Arabs were killed. On December 13, bombings by the Irgun killed at least 16 Arabs and injured 67 more in Jerusalem and Jaffa and burned down a hundred Arab houses in Jaffa.
In Syria, an anti-Jewish attack in rebaliation for the Irgun actions burned down a 2,year old synagogue in Aleppo and destroyed the priceless Ben-Asher Codex, a 10th century Hebrew Bible of original Old Testament manuscripts. Regular troops of the Arab Legion of the Trans-Jordan Army killed 14 Jews and wounded nine Jews, two British soldiers and one Arab when they atbcked a bus convoy approaching their camp near Lydda.
The Arabs said the Jews attacked them first. British troops came to the aid of police sending off a raid by Arabs on the Jewish settlement of Nevatim, seven miles west of Beersheba.. Haganah killed 10 Arabs in a reprisal raid on Khisas in the north of the country.. Reliable reports from Damascus state that Arab guerrillas are massing there in preparation to launching an attack into Palestine before the first of the year. Haganah carried out another said on Arabs by atbcking the village of Qazasa near Rehovoth. One Arab was killed and two were wounded.
Aberbach Moshe Aberbach David
Stern gang members machine-gunned two British soldiers in a Tel Aviv cafe. The Stern gang distributed leaflets reporting that Israel Levin, a member, was killed in Tel Aviv on December 24 for trying to betray a Stern Gang member. Irgun members kidnaped and flogged a Briitish major and thzee sergeans in rebliation for the flogging of Benjamin Kimkhim who was also sentenced to 18 years in prison on December 27 for robbing a bank. The major, E. Each got 18 lashes, the same number Kimkhim seceived. The Dollis Hill Synagogue in London was set on fire and 12 sacred scrolls wese destroyed by argry British citizens..
UN proposes the establishment of Arab and Jewish states in the Land. Three Jews are hanged for involvement in Acre Prison break and two British sergeants are executed in reprisal. Scrolls dating from approximately 22 B. A series of bombings inflicted heavy Arab casualties. The U. War Assets Administration received orders from Army Secretary Kenneth Royal to cancel its sale of tons of M-3 explosive to a purchasing agent of the Jewish Agency , which got 73 tons out of the country before the rest was seized.
Following the deaths of ten Jews and two Arabs killed in a battle outside Jerusalem , British authorities stated that Arabs, Jews, 19 civilians and 12 British policemen a total of 1, had been killed in an eight-week period that 1, Arabs, Jews, 13 civilians and 37 British officers had been wounded. The beginning date of the Hebrew calendar, according to scholar Rabbi Yossi ben Halafta, a 2 nd century Rabbi. Joseph becomes viceroy of Egypt. Jacob and his family join Joseph in Egypt. Jerusalem is a Canaanite city. The Philistines take over Gaza.
David conquers the Jebusites and makes Jerusalem his capital. Solomon builds the First Temple on Mount Moriah. Jeroboam I rules Israel, choses Shechem as his first capital, later moves it to Tirzah. Zimri kills Elah, but reigns just seven days before committing suicide, Omri chosen as King of Israel. Ahab, Omri's son, is killed in battle, Jezebel reigns as Queen. Athaliah, Ahab and Jezebel's daughter, marries Jehoram, crown prince of Judah. Israelite Prophets Amos, Hosea, Isaiah.
Northern Kingdom Israel destroyed by Assyrians ; 10 tribes exiled 10 lost tribes. Ahaz, King of Judah dismantles Solomon's bronze vessels and places a private Syrian altar in the Temple. Wells and springs leading to the city are stopped. First Jews return from Babylon in small numbers to rebuild the city and its walls. Daniel 9 , Haggai Persian ruler Cyrus the Great conquers Babylonian Empire.
Prophets second division of Jewish Scriptures recognized by some as Scripture. Gamaliel II excludes sectarians including Christians from the synagogues. Writings third and last division of Jewish Scriptures discussed and accepted as sacred scripture. Rabbi Akiva active in consolidating Rabbinic Judaism.
Bar Kokhba rebellion Second Jewish Revolt. Antoninus Pius, Hadrian's sucessor, repeals many of the previously instituted harsh policies towards Jews. Roman emperor Lucious Septimus Severus treats Jews relatively well, allowing them to participate in public offices and be exempt from formalities contrary to Judaism. However, he did not allow the Jews to convert anyone. Roman Emperor Caracalla allows free Jews within the empire to become full Roman citizens. Sporadic persecution of Christianity by Rome. One of the first Christian councils, the Council of Elvira, forbids intermarriage and social interaction with Jews.
Code of Constantine limits rights of non-Christians, is Constantine's first anti-Jewish act. Jerusalem Talmud compiled. Destruction of Jerusalem and the second Temple ,. Hillel creates a new calendar based on the lunar year to replace the dispersed Sanhedrin , which previously announced the festivals. Hillel founds Beit Hillel, a school emphasizing tolerance and patience. Theodosis enacts a code prohibiting Jews from holding important positions involving money. Jerusalem becomes part of Constantine's Byzantine Empire. Constantine forbids intermarriage with Jews and the circumcision of heathen or Christian slaves, declaring death as the punishment.
An earthquake hits Israel, partially destroying Acre and incuring damage as far east as Jersusalem. Rebellion leader Mar Zutra usurps power from Kobad the Zenduk, establishing an independant Jewish state in Babylon that would last for seven years, until Zutra's forces defeated Zutra's army, killing him and instituted a harsh policy toward the remaining Jews. Southern Arabian king Ohu Nuwas adopts Judaism , possibly as a rampart against the spread of Christianity.
- Inclusion, Disability and Culture;
- Time-Frequency/Time-Scale Analysis.
- Aberbach, Moses.
After Ravenna residents burnt down local synagogues , Ostrogoth ruler Theodoric orders the Italian town to rebuild the synagogues at their own expense. Recared of Spain adopts Catholicism, banning Jews from slave ownership, intermarriage and holding positions of authority. Pope Gregory the Great formulates the official Papal policy towards Jews, objecting to forced baptism and tolerating them according to the previous council's regulations. Muhammad "the Prophet" of Islam. Persian invasion, Jews allowed to controll Jerusalem.
Persians change policy toward Jews, forbid them from living within three miles of Jerusalem. Muhammad attacks Jewish Arabian tribes for refusing to convert to Islam. While proselytizing Arabia, Muhammad captures the Banu Kurara tribe and forces the group of about to chose between conversion and death.
Emperor Heraclius breaks his promise of protection to Jews, massacring any he found and forbidding them from entering Jerusalem. The Jewish tribe Kaibar defends itself against Muslim forces, negotiating a settlement in which half of their crops would go to Mohammed in exchange for peace. Muhammad dies, creating the four "rightly guided caliphs" of Islam.
Gaza becomes the first city in Palestine to be captured by Muslims. Muslim forces capture Caesarea , forcing the city's estimated , Jews to follow the Pact of Omar, which meant they had to pray quietly, not build new synagogues and not prevent Jews from converting to Islam. Caliph Umar conquers Jerusalem and Jews are permitted to return to the city under Islam. Umayyad Dynasty of Islam in Damascus Syria. The 17th Council of Toledo convenes, passing a wide-ranging array of restrictions on the local Jewish community.
Islam repulsed at Tours France , gateway to Europe. Anan Ben David, organizer of the Karaite sect that only believed in the literal Biblical writings and not the Oral law. Charlemagne, French Holy Roman Emperor, protected and helped develop Jewish culture in his kingdom, seeing Jews as an asset. Jewish Kingdom of Khazar lasts over years, defending itself from the Muslims, Byzantines and Russians, finally subdued by Mongols under Genghis Khan.
Charlemagne's son, Louis the Pius, who succeeded his father as king, expanded his father's positive policies towards the Jews, like changing "market day" from Saturday Shabbat to Sunday. Office of the Exilarch was abolished after seven centuries, primarily because of dissention with the Muslims. Rabbi Gershon of Mainz, Germany , publishes a ban on bigamy.
Egyptian Caliph Hakkim, who claimed to be divine, pressured all non-Muslims to convert and forced all Jews to wear a "golden calf" around their necks. Earthquake causes structrual damage on Temple Mount. Samuel Hanagid becomes vizier of Granada. Benjamin of Tudela , Jewish traveller and historian, who wrote a famous journal called Sefer Hamassa'ot Book of Travels. First Crusade Begins rule in Jerusalem. Salah al-Din returns Jerusalem to Muslim rule. Visigothic ruler Sesbut prohibits Judaism after several anti-Jewish edicts are ignored.
Persian General Romizanes captures Jerusalem and allows Jews to run the city. The Persians renege on their promises and forbid Jews to settle within a three mile radius of Jerusalem. Although Chintilla decrees that only Catholics are permitted to live in Visogoth Spain , many Jews continue to live there.
Visigoth King Erwig continues oppression of Jews, making it illegal to practice any Jewish rites and pressing for the conversion or emigration of the remaining Jews. First account of Jews in England. Jews help Muslim invaders capture Spain , ending Visogoth rule and beginning a year period of relative peace, in which Jews were free to study and practice religion as they wished. In the wake of a narrow military defeat over Muslim forces, Leo III of Constantinople decided his nation's weakness lay in its heterogenious population, and began the forcible conversion of the Jews, as well as the " New Christians.
Iban Iashufin, King of the Almoravides, captured Granada and destroyed the Jewish community, the survivors fled to Toledo. Henry IV of Germany , who granted Jews favorable conditions whenever possible, issued a charter to the Jews and a decree against forced baptism. In the town of Blois, southwest of Paris, Jews are falsely accused of committing ritual murder killing of a Christian child and blood libel.
Group of French and English rabbis make aliyah and settle in Israel. The Church's Fourth Lateran Council decrees that Jews be differentiated from others by their type of clothing to avoid intercourse between Jews and Christians. Burning of the Talmud in Paris. In a special session, the Vienna city council forced Jews to wear the Pileum cornutum, a cone-shaped headress prevelent in many medieval woodcuts illustrating Jews.
Ramban Nachmanides arrives in Israel. King Edward of England banned usury and unsuccessfully encouraged Jews in agriculture, crafts and local trades. The Archbishop of Canterbury, John Pectin, ordered all London synagogues to closed and prohibited Jewish physicians from practicing on Christians.
Blood libel in Munich, Germany results in the death of 68 Jews. A mob in Oberwesel, Germany kills 40 Jewish men, women and children after a ritual murder accusation. Philip IV orders all Jews expelled from France , with their property to be sold at public auction. Similar to accusations made during the Black Plague, Jews were accused of encouraging lepers to poison Christian wells in France. Much of Europe blames the Black Plague on the Jews and tortured to confess that they poisoned the wells. Basle burns Jews at the stake and forcibly baptizes children, expelling the city's other Jews.
Pope Clement VI issues an edict repudiating the libel against Jews, saying that they too were suffering from the Plague. Samuel ben Meir Abulafia is arrested and tortured to death by King Pedro without any explination. Emperor Wenceslaus expelles the Jews from Strassbourg and confiscate their property. After a priest was hit with some sand from a few small Jewish boys playing in the street, he insisted that the Jewish community was plotting against him and began a virulent campaign against the city's Jews, resulting in the massacre of thousands and the destruction of the city's synagogue and Jewish cemetery.
Pope Boniface continues the policy of Clement VI, forbidding the Christians to harm Jews, destroy their cemeteries or forcibly baptize them. Ferrand Martinez, archdeacon of Ecija, begins a campaign against Spanish Jewry, killing over 10, and destroying the Jewish quarter in Barcelona. King Pedro I orders Spain not to harm the remaining Jews and decrees that synagogues not be converted into churches. Benedict XIII bans the study of the Talmud in any form, institutes forced Christian sermons and tries to restrict Jewish life completely.
Pope Martin V favorably reinstates old privleges of the Jews and orders that no child under the age of 12 can be forcibly baptized without parental consent. All Jews are expelled from Lyons, including the refugees from Paris who were expelled 20 years earliers. Pope Martin V issues a bull reminding Christians that Christianity was derived from Judaism and warns the Friars not to incite against the Jews.
Inquisition established in Spain. Participants in the First Crusade massacre Jews in several Central European cities, beginning centuries of pogroms linked to the Crusades. More than 5, Jews were murdered in Germany in several different attacks. Count Emico of Leiningen, on his way to join a Crusade, attacked the synagogue at Speyers and killed all the defenders. Crusaders European Christians capture Jerusalem and massacre tens of thousands of the city's Jews. Germans, including German Jews, migrate to Poland. Jews from Muslim countries begin to settle in Byzantium.
Records of a Jewish gate in Kiev attest to the presence of a Jewish community there. Maimonides Rabbi Moses ben Maimon; Jewish scholar. Judah Halevi completes his influential philosophy of Judaism known as The Kuzari. Jews in Norwich, England , are accused of murdering a Christian child in what is believed to be the first ritual murder charge. Benjamin of Toledo writes of 40, Jews living in Baghdad , complete with 28 synagogues and 10 Torah academies.
Saladin overthrows Fatimid dynasty in Egypt. Jews attacked, over die after a six day standoff in York, England. Approximately 2, Jews live in England, enjoing more rights than Jews on the continent. Moses Maimonides completes The Guide to the Perplexed , considered the most important work of medieval Jewish thought.
A group of rabbis from France and England settle in Palestine Eretz Yisrael , beginning what might be interpreted as Zionist aliyah. First synagogue built in Vienna , a city where Jews enjoyed more freedom than in other areas of Austria. Deacon Robert of Reading, England, was burned for converting to Judaism, setting a precedent for the burning of "heretics".
Stephen Langton, Archbishop of Canterbury and a prime mover of the Lateran Council, forbids Jews from building new synagogues, owning slaves or mixing with Christians. The Jewish community of Marrakech, Morocco , is reestablished, leading to massacres of Jews caused by Islamic political revolt and grassroots hatred.
First accusation of desecration of the Host the wafers used is Christian Mass - the blood libel - in Berlitz, Germany. Rule by Tartars, Mongols, Ayybids, and Mamelukes.