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11.1. Racial, Ethnic, and Minority Groups

Friedrich Nietzsche, The Greeks 'Greek philosophy seems to begin with a preposterous fancy, with the proposition that water is the origin and mother-womb of all things. Is it really necessary to stop there and become serious? Yes, and for three reasons: firstly, because the preposition does enunciate something about the origin of things; secondly, because it does so without figure and fable; thirdly and lastly, because it contained, although only in the chrysalis state, the idea :everything is one.

That which drove him Thales to this generalization was a metaphysical dogma, which had its origin in a mystic intuition and which together with the ever renewed endeavors to express it better, we find in all philosophies- the proposition: everything is one! Hendrik Lorentz, Theory of the Electron, 'I cannot but regard the ether, which can be the seat of an electromagnetic field with its energy and its vibrations, as endowed with a certain degree of substantiality, however different it may be from all ordinary matter.

Albert Einstein, , Leiden Lecture 'According to the general theory of relativity space without ether is unthinkable; for in such space there not only would be no propagation of light, but also no possibility of existence for standards of space and time. But this ether may not be thought of as endowed with the quality characteristic of matter, as consisting of parts 'particles' which may be tracked through time. Albert Einstein, Relativity, 'Physical objects are not in space, but these objects are spatially extended as fields.

In this way the concept 'empty space' loses its meaning. The field thus becomes an irreducible element of physical description, irreducible in the same sense as the concept of matter particles in the theory of Newton. The physical reality of space is represented by a field whose components are continuous functions of four independent variables - the co-ordinates of space and time.

Since the theory of general relativity implies the representation of physical reality by a continuous field, the concept of particles or material points cannot play a fundamental part, nor can the concept of motion. The particle can only appear as a limited region in space in which the field strength or the energy density are particularly high.

Albert Einstein, Ideas and Opinions, 'When forced to summarize the general theory of relativity in one sentence: Time and space and gravitation have no separate existence from matter. Particles are just schaumkommen appearances. The world is given to me only once, not one existing and one perceived. Subject and object are only one.

The barrier between them cannot be said to have broken down as a result of recent experience in the physical sciences, for this barrier does not exist. Let me say at the outset, that in this discourse, I am opposing not a few special statements of quantum mechanics held today s , I am opposing as it were the whole of it, I am opposing its basic views that have been shaped 25 years ago, when Max Born put forward his probability interpretation, which was accepted by almost everybody. I don't like it, and I'm sorry I ever had anything to do with it.

The fundamental element of the cosmos is Space. Space is the all-embracing principle of higher unity. Nothing can exist without Space. According to ancient Indian tradition the Universe reveals itself in two fundamental properties: as Motion and as that in which motion takes place, namely Space. This Space is called Akasa.. The principle of movement, however, is Prana, the breath of life, the all-powerful, all-pervading rhythm of the universe, Lama Anagarika Govinda, The word Brahman is derived from the Sanskrit root brih - to grow- and thus suggests a reality which is dynamic and alive.

The Upanishads refer to Brahman as 'this unformed, immortal, moving', thus associating it with motion even though it transcends all forms. This word comes from the root ri- to move. In its phenomenal aspect, the cosmic One is thus intrinsically dynamic, and the apprehension of its dynamic nature is basic to all schools of Eastern mysticism.

They all emphasize that the universe has to be grasped dynamically, as it moves, vibrates and dances. The Eastern mystics see the universe as an inseparable web, whose interconnections are dynamic and not static. The cosmic web is alive; it moves and grows and changes continually. David Bohm, Wholeness and the Implicate Order, 'The notion that all these fragments is separately existent is evidently an illusion, and this illusion cannot do other than lead to endless conflict and confusion. Indeed, the attempt to live according to the notion that the fragments are really separate is, in essence, what has led to the growing series of extremely urgent crises that is confronting us today.

Thus, as is now well known, this way of life has brought about pollution, destruction of the balance of nature, over-population, world-wide economic and political disorder and the creation of an overall environment that is neither physically nor mentally healthy for most of the people who live in it. Collecting in contemporary practice.

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Chapter Race and Ethnicity – Introduction to Sociology – 2nd Canadian Edition

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Guava and papaya reproduce very easily and demand limited labor. In the Nyanza province of Kenya, where guava is self-propagating, it is even disdained by farmers. The case of pineapple is different. This widely diffused crop is still attractive but demanding, and its long production cycle months is not compatible with the cash flow of a small farm.

In the region of study, it seems it has evolved to a specialty production, for small farmers who can afford reserving a commercial plot to this fruit. The observations of tobacco and soursop were limited to one or two plants in the home garden. The soursops were occasionally sold on local markets, whereas the tobacco was grown for gifts. Only one, the avocado, introduced in colonial times, is now a highly frequent crop that compares with those of the Renaissance package.

Another very common American plant introduced in modern times is sisal. This dual-purpose crop fence and fiber was certainly more frequent in the preceding farmer generation, but it is losing ground to cheap synthetic fibers. Thus, differences among social farmer groups are most visible in the distribution of the most ancient crops, which can be explained by the differential abandonment or adoption of crops.

For example, such factors may explain the lower crop diversity around Kampala, in relation with progressive urbanization, or to the northwest margin of the surveyed area, in relation with past conflicts and tensions on land tenure. Differential adoption of crops is particularly visible in the correlation between their distribution and ethnolinguistic or political borders see the cases of yam, jute, African nightshade, Ethiopian kale, cleome, amaranth.

The Ugandan and Kenyan groups to the east have not adopted these crops. Another particularly interesting case concerns the diffusion of the jackfruit tree from southeastern Uganda into the Nyanza province of Kenya. The contact between the Luhya and the adjacent Luo groups should be determinant for the continued diffusion of the jackfruit. Just as linguistic studies have brought key information on large scale crop diffusion, regional studies should be very useful in detecting preferential diffusion pathways among ethnolinguistic groups.

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Demythologizing (What Consumer Culture Theory Is Not)

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The Interconnected Society and the illusion of having a less asymmetrical relationship with power

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