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The speech and language profile associated with Down syndrome

Speech and Language: Advances in Basic Research and Practice, Volume 9 is a collection of contributions that discuss a broad range of topics on speech and language processes and pathologies. This volume contains seven contributions covering a wide array of topics on speech and language. It covers topics on speech development and production in normal and hearing-impaired speakers; integrated speech and language instruction for the hearing-impaired adolescent; and laryngectomee rehabilitation.

Also discussed are subjects on sensory and motor changes during development and aging; the phonetic structure of errors in the perception of fluent speech; and the multiple meanings of phoneme and their confusions. Book Speech and Language: Advances in Basic Research and Practice, Volume 10 is a compendium of articles that discuss a wide range of topics on speech and language processes and pathologies.

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This volume contains seven papers presenting a broad range of topics on speech and language. The book provides various articles discussing topics on the articulatory and perceptual characteristics associated with apraxia of speech; prevention of communicative disorders in cleft palate infants; and the relationship between normal phonological acquisition and clinical intervention.

Topics on the role of auditory timing in the diagnosis and treatment of speech and language disorders; categorical perception; and the theoretical and clinical implications of speakers' abilities to control the output of their speech mechanism are presented as well. Speech and Language: Advances in Basic Research and Practice, Volume 11 contains articles that discuss a wide range of topics on speech and language processes and pathologies.

This volume is comprised of six contributions on a wide variety of topics on speech and language.

Evidence-based practice briefs

The book begins with an examination of approaches to aphasia diagnostics from both a medical and nonmedical perspective. Subsequent chapters cover topics on acoustic-phonetic descriptions of speech production in speakers with cleft palate and other velopharyngeal disorders; the role of infant vocalizations as they relate to subsequent speech and language development; pitch phenomena and applications in electrolarynx speech; and practical applications of neuroanatomy.

The final chapter presents the employment of studies of temporal coordination to understand the development of motor control in speech and to provide a basis for testing theories on the development of speech as a motor skill. Book 1. Speech and Language: Volume 1, Advances in Basic Research and Practice is a compendium of papers that discusses the processes and pathologies of, as well as applies theories and clinical issues to, speech and language. Some papers discuss perception of speech in early infancy, the problems faced by speech clinicians, and the anatomy of the perioral motor system.

Based on data compiled on the infant's perception of speech sounds, one paper notes that human infants discriminate depending on fine temporal and frequency changes in a complex auditory array. Infants also show perceptual constraints while listening to speech characterized as adult- like; they are also predisposed to perceive certain speech-sound categories such as vowel and fricative categories.

One paper examines the suggestion of Kent that "acoustic characteristics of children's speech The compendium is well suited for linguists, ethnologists, psychologists, and researchers whose works involve linguistics, language learning, communications, and syntax. Book 2. Speech and Language: Volume 2, Advances in Basic Research and Practice is a compendium of papers that discusses the processes and pathologies of speech and language, such as functional articulation disorders, lexical development, and a group therapy for treating stuttering.

Some papers deal with vocal fold vibrations, childhood homonymy, framework for conversational speech behaviors, and vibrotactile testing. This instrument focuses on the assessment of the sensory system auditory perception, visual perception, tactile perception, gustatory and olfactory perception, proprioceptive system and vestibular system. Every child has a unique sensory-motor profile. Social interaction and social skills—subtest aimed at greeting, addressing another person, changing communication roles and rules of communication. Motor imitation—this subtest cannot be assessed on the basis of visual diagrams but is of vital importance to speech-language intervention.

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The subtest assesses the ability of motor imitation of the upper and lower extremities with an object, without an object and oromotor imitation. Facial expression—facial expressions, direction of eye movements, movements of the head, body and hands in various situations:. The number of points scored suggests the seriousness of a problem in a particular area. This chapter discusses partial outcomes of a research study aimed at children with ASD and children with typical development, specifically the results of assessment performed by means of the newly developed material—specifically the main part including model situations by means of visual diagrams.

The assessment capacity of the developed diagnostic material is illustrated using the partial results based on a comparison of the performance of 10 children of a typical population and 10 children with ASD of school age and older preschool age.

Speech and Language, Volume 8 - 1st Edition

The relative age variance reflects the broad age structure of children in establishments for children with ASD and a degree of heterogeneity of the research sample. Originally, the research was supposed to include only preschool children, which eventually turned out to be impossible due to the development of pragmatic skills and the ability of children to explain their performance. The intention was also to monitor a relatively usual structure of the sample of children that speech-language therapists encounter; these are older preschool children but mainly school-aged children.

The test assessment tool was developed using original illustrations demonstrating pragmatic-oriented communication situations based on everyday life and usual social interactions in relation to the narrowest social group. As it was mentioned above, the visual diagram tasks always include two pictures representing opposite adequate and inadequate pragmatic communication situation.

The child is instructed to choose one of the two pictures that represent the correct alternative of the communication situation. The task included a total of ten pairs of pictures related to the following assessment categories: 1. There are more acceptable answers to the question which picture is correct, e. The testing time usually does not exceed 15 min. The testing time depends on the needs of every individual. In the other parts, the communication situations were assessed adequately by choosing the correct answer.

The worst result was scored by client C3, who had 4 incorrect answers C3. An absolutely error-free result was achieved by four children. The worst results were achieved by client K5A; this was a girl with child autism aged 6 years and 6 months. An absolutely error-free result was achieved by half of the children, although their diagnosis involved impaired social interaction and communication, apparently in the pragmatic area. The research assumption was that children with typical development will achieve better results than children with autism spectrum disorders. The results suggest that the difference between the compared groups of children is negligible.

To verify the initial hypotheses, the Mann-Whitney U test was selected for larger groups group size 9—20 :. There is no statistically significant difference between the two groups of children. The purpose of the material is not only to react to the absence of a method of diagnosing communication pragmatics in terms of speech-language therapy but also to make speech-language therapy more efficient and to show professionals how speech-language therapy aimed at persons with ASD should be developed, which individual peculiarities should be considered and which potential barriers pose a threat.

We are aware of the possible limitation of the visual schemes graphic illustrative demonstration form of the presentation of the social communication pragmatic real-life situation. Moreover, to find out and discuss the possible limits of using such visually symbolic schemes was also one of the primary goals of our research, because finally, we would like to create a material which can bring the speech and language therapist the partial picture of the child ability to work and benefit from such type of material during the intervention.

Also we can consider that both, the pro-inclusive, as well as traditional special education systems are full of illustrated textbooks, books and picture didactic materials, so educators or speech and language therapists should know how children with ASD are able to benefit from such graphic demonstrations. Similarly we can mention that intervention in terms of developing communication competence strategies in ASD primarily use AAC, any mostly visually presented picture as pictograms, PECS etc. The research findings proved that such AAC-based strategies using visual picture—based communication during speech therapy have even moderate positive effect on functional and social communication but must be individualised and multimodal [ 31 ].

Regarding the limitations mentioned above, we suggest that the combination of assessment using, for example, visual schemes should be accompanied with other ways of evaluating pragmatic communication in natural settings see for example [ 23 ; 27 ]. However, a qualitative analysis of partial results suggests that in each group of children, incorrect responses were indicated in different areas of pragmatic communication skills. A paradoxical fact is the overall better result of children with ASD.

This might however be explained by more frequent training of communication situations shown on pictures. This finding is similar to previous studies for example [ 32 ]. In general, the formal, standardised assessment is problematic as the performance of the child misses the advantage of the natural setting observation analysis. The other explanation could be a much more intensive focus on linguistic than nonlinguistic context of the pragmatic situation and the verbal instruction given by the evaluator during testing.

Finally, the development and stronger engagement of the cognitive aspect of the pragmatic language information may have some significant effect on the children performance. In our opinion, these results support the trends aiming at changes in ASD classification in the 11th Revision of the International Classification of Diseases by the World Health Organization. The document better reflects the differences in communication, communication functionality and pragmatics in children with ASD and is therefore better applicable in speech-language therapy for the purposes of planning the communication procedure and development of functional communication or its compensatory function.

This preliminary research suggests that the assessment of communication pragmatics should not be carried out only according to quantitative indicators. It should rather involve a combination of performance testing and a detailed qualitative description with a subsequent analysis or confrontation with the results of process assessment of the course of testing and comments or behaviour of the child during the testing procedure.

We believe that the assessment should include or be primarily based on the developed audio-visual recordings that would be used for an analysis of communication behaviour. At the same time, however, it should be mentioned that this procedure has some limitations. The preliminary research also suggests that the testing procedure is affected by the preparation taken before testing. Some recommendations need to be observed prior to the testing procedure or observation.

It is for example advised to take a comprehensive family history, which should include information about the interests of the child, favourite activities, songs, films, food, pets, family members, etc. It is also necessary to establish a positive relationship with the client based on trust. In the course of assessment, adequate facial expressions and verbal praise should be used. The activities should be appropriate to the age of the child; adequate child motivation should be used. Each question should be repeated twice or three times, and time of 3—5 s should be provided for a response.

We also address the question of the efficiency of a rhythmic training on Panying Rong.

Trading Relations, Acoustic Cue Integration, and Context Effects in Speech Perception

Preview Abstract Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the relation of tongue—jaw coupling to phonetic distinctiveness of vowels in persons at different stages i. Classification of Infant Vocalizations by Untrained Listeners. Heather L. Ramsdell-Hudock , Anne S. Warlaumont , Lindsey E. Preview Abstract Purpose To better enable communication among researchers, clinicians, and caregivers, we aimed to assess how untrained listeners classify early infant vocalization types in comparison to terms currently used by researchers and clinicians.

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  3. Speech and language : advances in basic research and practice. Volume 9.
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Method Listeners Preview Abstract Purpose The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between types of speech errors produced by children with speech sound disorders SSD and children with typical speech and language development TD and phonological awareness PA skills. Preview Abstract Purpose Degraded speech intelligibility in background noise is a common complaint of listeners with hearing loss. The purpose of the current study is to explore whether 2nd formant F2 enhancement improves speech perception in noise for older listeners Preview Abstract Purpose The primary aim of the current study was to examine the developing phonological awareness of 4- to 5-year-old children who stutter CWS in relation to eventual recovery CWS-eRec or persistance CWS-ePer in stuttering, accounting for the Preview Abstract Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there were indications of restrictions to voice function in our group of gender-diverse people assigned female at birth GD people AFAB and whether the participants would benefit from Katherine L.

Marks , Jonathan Z. Lin , Annie B. Fox , Laura E. Preview Abstract Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of nonmodal phonation on estimates of subglottal pressure Ps derived from the magnitude of a neck-surface accelerometer ACC signal and to confirm previous findings regarding the impact of Research Note Research Note 20 September Preview Abstract Purpose Subjective speech intelligibility assessment is often preferred over more objective approaches that rely on transcript scoring.

This is, in part, because of the intensive manual labor associated with extracting objective metrics from transcribed Dianne F.

Charles Coward: Private Practice SLP

Newbury , Jenny L. Preview Abstract Purpose Children with poor language tend to have worse psychosocial outcomes compared to their typically developing peers. The most common explanations for such adversities focus on developmental psychological processes whereby poor language triggers Michelle I. Brown , David Trembath , Marleen F. Preview Abstract Purpose This pilot study explored the effectiveness of an early storybook reading ESR intervention for parents with babies with hearing loss HL for improving a parents' book selection skills, b parent—child eye contact, and c parent—child turn Preisser , Elizabeth R.

Preview Abstract Purpose This study investigated vocabulary growth from 18 to 24 months of age in young children with repaired cleft palate CP , children with otitis media, and typically developing TD children. In addition, the contributions of factors such as hearing Preview Abstract Purpose We investigated the relationships between text reading comprehension and oral idiom comprehension in adolescents. We also examined the more specific relationships between inference in text comprehension and inference in idiom comprehension.