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Skip to main content. Advertisement Hide. Authors Authors and affiliations S. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Ronald P. Google Scholar. Tenney Frank ed. Wickert ed. II, part 1 Weidmann, Berlin, pp.

Bryn Mawr Classical Review

Grimal and Th. Fisher ed. The survival in second-century A. Greek translation of older documents attest to the importance and long lasting impact of Achaemenid control e. In Persis the names and images of Anatolian subjects appears in royal monuments, attesting to their obedience to the Great King. The native Lycian dynasts left monuments on which we have testimony to intermarriage with and emulation of the Iranians.

The numismatic record is limited: Only the Hecatomnid satraps of Caria issued a continuous coinage. There were short-lived emissions of campaign coinages usually in Cilicia to pay troops used to reconquer Egypt. Filling out the historical record with numismatics is dangerous, however, since not all officers attested struck coins and not all coins extant were struck by attested officers. But throughout Achaemenid issues the hands and influence of native, primarily Greek, artisans can be detected.

The Achaemenid presence has been investigated unevently by archeologists attracted foremost to Hellenic sites. The satrapial capital at Dascylium has been identified, Sardis is being excavated, and there is continued interest in Caria and Lycia. Administrative landscape : Ethose. Local reflections are in Lycian monuments: native dynasts made it clear that through cooperation and mutual support they and their Iranian superior at Sardis ensured the establishment and continuation of good government.

The second strand held that great deeds proved one worthy of post and promotion. Serving the king was a matter of honor Xenophon, Hellenica 4.

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With these strands were woven the major characteristics of Achaemenid control which made little distinction between Iranians and non-Iranians ; on the one hand those which permitted the rational use of resources: decentralized government left local experts govern , replication in activities each officer was expected to maintain order in the area entrusted to him and so be able to forward tribute to superiors , continuity in administrative practice and personnel prevent unnecessary, deleterious changes; create miniature dynasties with which the central government could work easily ; on the other hand there arose great deeds and dangers: an undercurrent of competition and rivalry in the relations between officers Thucydides 8.

Achaemenid Anatolia was like a battlefield upon which the forces of good administration contended with the forces of maladministration. The warrior class, including the officers, were a multi-ethnic group well-documented families prove to be both Iranian and non-Iranian, e. Their responsibilities were to maintain order and forward tribute, but more important administrators were permitted wide-ranging discretionary powers and their deeds had impact over a larger region. The sources are too scanty and vague to permit detailing a precise administrative hierarchy; the true political value of honorific titles orosanga , Herodotus 8.

Subordinate to him were lesser officers: local nobles usually estate owners , city commanders, semi-obedient tribal chieftains, native dynasts. The service and status orientations of empire left much for promotion—and demotion. Extraordinary threats to imperial security were met by the appointment of extraordinary officers.

Roman Arbitration in the Greek Oikumene in the Third–Second Century BCE: Some Observations

The most visible was the karanos Xenophon, Hellenica 1. Monitoring the activities of rivalrous officers was not entrusted to a special class of administrators so Xenophon, Cyropaedia 8. The Great King relied on a variety of information sources; for the most part, officers policed themselves. Landed property. The creation of estates was the physical expression of the belief that an aim in administration was maintaining agricultural productivity through the protection of the land and its fertility.

The estates and owners were the building blocks of control: The Achaemenid presence was rurally-based and not uniform in depth. The creation of new estates and the settlement of Iranians: Strabo The crops grown and livestock raised were the raw materials of revenue and wealth; the cavalry commanded by the estate owner was the backbone of Achaemenid military power cf. Xenophon, Anabasis 4. Threats to peace.

Table of Contents

The characteristics of Achaemenid control engendered long-standing problems for administrators. Power was land-based, cavalry at its heart. Naval power depended primarily upon the utilization of fleets from Anatolian Greek city states or sources outside Anatolia. As a result, the coast could be raided, often with impunity, invaders pushing inland. Extreme care and foresight were requisites in setting priorities for the use of naval power in imperial defense.

Only Caria, in the fourth century B. The uneven, porous nature of Achaemenid control meant that many areas were frequently in disorder and deserving of constant police action e. The undercurrent of rivalry among officers led to irrational use of resources. The s and s B. Occasionally, even open warfare was tolerated by the Great King Xenophon, Anabasis 1.

Overall, the only beneficiaries were the less stable, tribally organized peoples of Anatolia, who both exploited and were exploited by the contending forces e. The Greeks, politically fragmented and scattered in numerous settlements in both Europe and Asia, possessed the characteristics of both an external enemy and a tribally organized people. Ready access to naval power enabled them to defy long-term effective control by land-based forces.

Provinces : Dascylium. Northeastern Anatolia contained the satrapy of Dascylium, centered on the homonymous estate near modern Ergili, an administrative center under the old Lydian kingdom Nicolaus of Damascus in Jacoby, Fragmente , p.

Strabo Achaemenid Dascylium was characterized by estates protected by cavalry Xenophon, Hellenica 3. The most important complex was the property of the Iranian satrapial family, the House of Pharnaces late fifth through fourth centuries B. Xenophon preserves an account of its wealth and productivity Hellenica 4. Hellenica oxyrhynchia Excavations at the site, though incomplete, have unearthed bullae from archives, reused masonry, and a series of stelae and plaques from funerary monuments.

The latter emphasize horsemanship and depict Zoroastrian prayer outside a tomb. The newest stele from the region records the names of previously unknown lower echelon officers. Wherever possible native Anatolians were brought into the administrative structure: Cyzicus, the urban center closest to Dascylium estate, provided diplomats Xenophon, Hellenica 4. Sparda Lydia. They maintained peaceful conditions needed for agriculture and trade.

Sparda was the kernel of the old Lydian kingdom Herodotus 1. The old royal capital, Sardis, became the satrapial center, and an Iranian satrap usually Achaemenid royalty: Herodotus 5. From the start, Achaemenid authorities attempted to utilize Lydian administrators. Greek sources note only failure Herodotus 1. This satrapy was the focal point of Achaemenid control in western Anatolia: Satrapial authority extended into Caria Thucydides 8. Iranian settlement concentrated around Sardis Strabo Dittenberger, Orientis Graeci Inscriptiones , p.

In addition, land and cities were granted to transplanted foreigners Thucydides 1. Excavations at Sardis reveal the persistence of native Lydian culture, increasing Hellenization, and the absence of forced Iranization. Iranian objects of personal adornment and tombs have surfaced the Pyramid Tomb; a mausoleum reminiscent of those of Lycian dynasts in form and decoration. The satrapy of Sparda shrank during the fourth century when Caria with responsibility for Lycia was granted as a satrapy to the native Hecatomnid family. This division was accompanied by an increasing depth and success in control.

Although unsuited for cavalry Xenophon, Hellenica 3.

Lecture—Recent Discoveries at Sardis: From the Bronze Age to the End of Antiquity

Initially the region was characterized by a series of local dynasts Herodotus 7. By the early fourth century the Carian family of Hecatomnus emerged as a competent force for Achaemenid control and he was appointed satrap in the s. Hecatomnus and his sons Strabo Although Hecatomnid activity, particularly under the eldest son, Mausollus, took a Hellenic form use of Greek artisans; Greek language for inscriptions and on coins , its ethos was Achaemenid. Run as a closely held family business, the satrapy enabled imperial authorities to deploy resources in the pacification of both Cyprus and Egypt.

Satrapial influence extended into Rhodes and Crete Labraunda no. Details of administration are preserved in Greek language inscriptions from urban centers and Carian sanctuaries. Local Carian groups were permitted a measure of self-government under satrapial view Dittenberger, Sylloge Inscriptionum , pp. The sanctuaries of Sinuri near Mylasa and of Zeus Lambrandeus were objects of Hecatomnid dedications and building. A remarkable number of documents preserve the names and deeds of these native political figures: coins minted at numerous, partially identified, sites and monuments, most of them funerary and at Xanthus, sometime center of political power.

The Lands of the South; The Winning of the South; The Bequest of Nicomedes; The Return of Mithradates; Pompey the Organizer; From Pompey to Caesar; The End of the Old Regime; Through Monarchy to Principate; The Galatian Province; The First Princeps; The Heir of Augustus; Lycia: Federation and Province; The Claudian Emperors: Bureaucracy and War;