Online Monitoring of Polymerization Reactions in Inverse Emulsions | Langmuir
Figure 1: Common nonionic, anionic, and cationic monomers used in the synthesis of water-soluble polymers. Reed and Alina M. I n , an estimated four billion metric tons of natural, semisynthetic, and synthetic water-soluble polymers were consumed globally for use in the production of food, clean water, and energy; and for personal care, pharmaceutical, and industrial applications.
They include polyacrylamides, polyacrylates, polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride polyDADMAC , polyvinyl alcohol, and polyvinylpyrrolidones.
Depending on the target applications, these polymers can have different molecular weights, charge, and architecture. Several reviews that cover the synthesis, characterization, and application of polyacrylamides are available. Monomers commonly used in the synthesis of water-soluble polymers of commercial interest are shown in Figure 1. Polyacrylamides of high commercial interest are copolymers of acrylamide 1 , in Figure 1 with sodium or ammonium salts of acrylic acid 4 or 2-acrylamido tert-butylsulfonic acid ATBS 5 to produce anionic polymers or with acryloyloxyethyltrimethylammonium chloride AETAC, 6 , to produce cationic polymers.
Although not produced in large volume, copolymers of acrylamide and DADMAC 10 are used to produce cationic polymers for use in papermaking applications. Polyacrylamides with a variety of charge densities obtained by varying monomer ratios , molecular weights, and architecture linear, branched, and structured are available commercially in dry and liquid form. Branched and structured polyacrylamides are obtained by including multifunctional monomers in the polymerization mix or through cross-linking following polymerization.
Polyacrylamides are produced commercially in an aqueous environment by free radical polymerization, which follows the classical vinyl polymerization model with initiation, propagation, and termination processes.
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Polymer molecular weights can be lowered and customized through the use of chain-transfer agents. Initiation with water and oil-soluble azo compounds, redox couples, peroxides, or photochemical initiators is common. In general, cationic methacrylates and methacrylamides are more reactive than their acrylate and acrylamide counterparts. This leads to compositional drift and often poor performance.
Semibatch strategies have been employed where the more reactive monomer is withheld from the initial reaction mixture and fed into the reactor during polymerization to obtain copolymers with similar co-monomer sequence distributions.
Hydrolytic stability and pH have to be considered when selecting a cationic monomer. Cationic acrylate esters are susceptible to base hydrolysis above pH 6, resulting in the loss of cationic charge on the polymer. Stock photo. Pre-owned: lowest price The lowest-priced item that has been used or worn previously.
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Be the first to write a review About this product. Along with an overview of fundamentals, the book describes specific spectroscopic and other monitoring methods like Raman and Mie imaging, light scattering, infra-red spectroscopy, and calorimetry.
The text also features a chapter on Automatic Continuous Online Monitoring of Polymerization reactions ACOMP , and coverage of new online means of detection and applications such as natural products, and stimuli responsive and bioactive polymers. Additional Product Features Dewey Edition. Show More Show Less. Pre-owned Pre-owned. No ratings or reviews yet. Be the first to write a review.