To act as the one voice for alternative ecotoxicity testing in Europe. The European Commission is currently funding a number of research consortia to develop new 3Rs replacement, reduction and refinement test methods and strategies as potential alternatives to the use of animals in safety testing. Monitoring of these 3Rs activities at pan-European, national, and international levels is vital to facilitate swift progress. AXLR8 aims to fulfill this growing need by providing a focal point for dialogue and collaboration.
The next conference 10th will be held in September in Seattle.
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The Cosmetics Directive provides the regulatory framework for the phasing out of animal testing for cosmetics purposes. It establishes prohibitions against a testing finished cosmetic products and cosmetic ingredients on animals testing ban , and b marketing in the EU finished cosmetic products and ingredients included in cosmetic products which were tested on animals for cosmetics purposes marketing ban.
It promotes the use of alternative methods for animal testing, but does not oblige the test performer to do so; Article It is also necessary to take measures limiting duplication of other tests. In parallel to the adoption of REACH, the EC published standardised and accepted methods for testing hazardous properties of chemicals.
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These were written into the "Test Methods Regulation". Such methods, as they become available, must be considered wherever possible for hazard characterisation and consequent classification and labeling for intrinsic hazards and chemical safety assessment. EU philosophy on food additives, food enzymes , and food flavourings and ingredients intended for human consumption is that none should be put on the market unless they are included on a published Community list of authorised substances, in accordance with the conditions laid down in relevant food law.
As part of the approval process, the EC will require full disclosure of study data, safety issues, and toxicological findings for all such additives. The agreement will yield globally coordinated scientific recommendations on alternative toxicity testing methods that should speed their adoption in each of these countries, thus reducing the number of animals needed for product safety testing. The OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development is a forum for discussion where governments express their points of view, share their experiences, and search for common ground, as opposed to a supranational organization.
The testing of chemicals is labor-intensive and expensive. Often the same chemical is tested in several countries simultaneously, which means that redundant animal tests are performed. To relieve some of this burden, the OECD Council adopted a decision in , stating that data generated in a member country, in accordance with OECD Test Guidelines and Principles of Good Laboratory Practice GLP , shall be accepted in other member countries for assessment purposes and other uses relating to the protection of human health and the environment.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Three Rs. Animal testing Alternatives to animal testing Animal testing regulations History of animal testing History of model organisms IACUC Laboratory animal sources Pain and suffering in lab animals Testing cosmetics on animals Toxicology testing Vivisection.
Invertebrates Frogs primates Rabbits Rodents. Animal testing Animal rights Animal welfare. See also: in silico. Further information: Medical imaging and Microdosing. Further information: microfluidics and Lab-on-a-chip. Main article: Organ-on-a-chip. The examples and perspective in this section might have an extensive bias or disproportional coverage towards Europe. Please improve this article or discuss the issue on the talk page.
January Learn how and when to remove this template message. Further information: Animal rights and List of animal welfare groups. This multilateral framework maintains the highest level of global consumer protection, while minimizing barriers to international trade. Bibcode : Natur. Archived from the original on 28 September Retrieved Speaking of Research. Alternatives to Laboratory Animals. Archived from the original on MatTek Corporation. Retrieved 7 July Neaves Humane Science is Superior Science. Archived from the original on 8 July Retrieved 24 Apr International Journal of Toxicology.
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Annals of Biomedical Engineering. Journal of Analytical Toxicology. He also studied the EEG correlates of meditative states. Brown demonstrated the clinical use of alpha-theta biofeedback. In research designed to identify the subjective states associated with EEG rhythms, she trained subjects to increase the abundance of alpha, beta, and theta activity using visual feedback and recorded their subjective experiences when the amplitude of these frequency bands increased.
She also helped popularize biofeedback by publishing a series of books, including New Mind, New body and Stress and the Art of Biofeedback Mulholland and Peper showed that occipital alpha increases with eyes open and not focused, and is disrupted by visual focusing; a rediscovery of alpha blocking. Green and Green investigated voluntary control of internal states by individuals like Swami Rama and American Indian medicine man Rolling Thunder both in India and at the Menninger Foundation.
They brought portable biofeedback equipment to India and monitored practitioners as they demonstrated self-regulation. A film containing footage from their investigations was released as Biofeedback: The Yoga of the West They developed alpha-theta training at the Menninger Foundation from the s to the s.
They hypothesized that theta states allow access to unconscious memories and increase the impact of prepared images or suggestions. Their alpha-theta research fostered Peniston's development of an alpha-theta addiction protocol. Sterman showed that cats and human subjects could be operantly trained to increase the amplitude of the sensorimotor rhythm SMR recorded from the sensorimotor cortex.
He demonstrated that SMR production protects cats against drug-induced generalized seizures tonic-clonic seizures involving loss of consciousness and reduces the frequency of seizures in humans diagnosed with epilepsy. Birbaumer and colleagues have studied feedback of slow cortical potentials since the late s. They have demonstrated that subjects can learn to control these DC potentials and have studied the efficacy of slow cortical potential biofeedback in treating ADHD, epilepsy, migraine, and schizophrenia. Lubar studied SMR biofeedback to treat attention disorders and epilepsy in collaboration with Sterman.
He documented the importance of theta-to-beta ratios in ADHD and developed theta suppression-beta enhancement protocols to decrease these ratios and improve student performance. This move has been caused by the general change in the population norms in the past 20 years most likely due to the change in the average amount of sleep in young people. Tarchanoff used the endosomatic method by recording the difference in skin electrical potential from points on the skin surface in ; no external current was applied. Jung employed the galvanometer , which used the exosomatic method, in to study unconscious emotions in word-association experiments.
Marjorie and Hershel Toomim published a landmark article about the use of GSR biofeedback in psychotherapy. Meyer and Reich discussed similar material in a British publication. Jacobson developed hardware to measure EMG voltages over time, showed that cognitive activity like imagery affects EMG levels, introduced the deep relaxation method Progressive Relaxation , and wrote Progressive Relaxation and You Must Relax He prescribed daily Progressive Relaxation practice to treat diverse psychophysiological disorders like hypertension.
Several researchers showed that human subjects could learn precise control of individual motor units motor neurons and the muscle fibers they control. Lindsley found that relaxed subjects could suppress motor unit firing without biofeedback training. Harrison and Mortensen trained subjects using visual and auditory EMG biofeedback to control individual motor units in the tibialis anterior muscle of the leg. Basmajian instructed subjects using unfiltered auditory EMG biofeedback to control separate motor units in the abductor pollicis muscle of the thumb in his Single Motor Unit Training SMUT studies.
His best subjects coordinated several motor units to produce drum rolls. Basmajian demonstrated practical applications for neuromuscular rehabilitation, pain management , and headache treatment. Marinacci applied EMG biofeedback to neuromuscular disorders where proprioception is disrupted including Bell Palsy one-sided facial paralysis , polio , and stroke.
They were unable to recognize its potential as a teaching tool even when the evidence stared them in the face! Many electromyographers who performed nerve conduction studies used visual and auditory feedback to reduce interference when a patient recruited too many motor units. Even though they used EMG biofeedback to guide the patient to relax so that clean diagnostic EMG tests could be recorded, they were unable to envision EMG biofeedback treatment of motor disorders.
Whatmore and Kohli introduced the concept of dysponesis misplaced effort to explain how functional disorders where body activity is disturbed develop. Bracing your shoulders when you hear a loud sound illustrates dysponesis, since this action does not protect against injury. They reported case follow-ups ranging from 6 to 21 years. This was long compared with typical month follow-ups in the clinical literature.
Their data showed that skill in controlling misplaced efforts was positively related to clinical improvement. Last, they wrote The Pathophysiology and Treatment of Functional Disorders that outlined their treatment of functional disorders. Wolf integrated EMG biofeedback into physical therapy to treat stroke patients and conducted landmark stroke outcome studies.
Peper applied SEMG to the workplace, studied the ergonomics of computer use, and promoted "healthy computing. Taub , demonstrated the clinical efficacy of constraint-induced movement therapy CIMT for the treatment of spinal cord-injured and stroke patients. Shearn operantly trained human subjects to increase their heart rates by 5 beats-per-minute to avoid electric shock.
This briefly stopped his heart's pumping of blood and silenced his pulse. He then used this approach to teach patients to control their rate of premature ventricular contractions PVCs , where the ventricles contract too soon. Engel conceptualized this training protocol as illness onset training, since patients were taught to produce and then suppress a symptom. Schwartz , examined whether specific patterns of cardiovascular activity are easier to learn than others due to biological constraints.
He examined the constraints on learning integrated two autonomic responses change in the same direction and differentiated two autonomic responses change inversely patterns of blood pressure and heart rate change. Schultz and Luthe developed Autogenic Training , which is a deep relaxation exercise derived from hypnosis. This procedure combines passive volition with imagery in a series of three treatment procedures standard Autogenic exercises, Autogenic neutralization, and Autogenic meditation.
Clinicians at the Menninger Foundation coupled an abbreviated list of standard exercises with thermal biofeedback to create autogenic biofeedback. Fahrion and colleagues reported on an session treatment program for hypertensive patients. The Menninger program combined breathing modification, autogenic biofeedback for the hands and feet, and frontal EMG training. While this study did not include a double-blind control, the outcome rate was impressive. Freedman and colleagues demonstrated that hand-warming and hand-cooling are produced by different mechanisms.
The primary hand-warming mechanism is beta-adrenergic hormonal , while the main hand-cooling mechanism is alpha-adrenergic and involves sympathetic C-fibers. This contradicts the traditional view that finger blood flow is controlled exclusively by sympathetic C-fibers. The traditional model asserts that, when firing is slow, hands warm; when firing is rapid, hands cool. Freedman and colleagues' studies support the view that hand-warming and hand-cooling represent entirely different skills. Vaschillo and colleagues published the first studies of heart rate variability HRV biofeedback with cosmonauts and treated patients diagnosed with psychiatric and psychophysiological disorders.
The opposite happens when blood pressure goes down. Because it takes about 5 seconds for blood pressure to change after changes in heart rate think of different amounts of blood flowing through the same sized tube , the baroreflex produces a rhythm in heart rate with a period of about 10 seconds. Another rhythm in heart rate is caused by respiration respiratory sinus arrhythmia , such that heart rate rises during inhalation and falls during exhalation. During HRV biofeedback, these two reflexes stimulate each other, stimulating resonance properties of the cardiovascular system caused by the inherent rhythm in the baroreflex,  and thus causing very big oscillations in heart rate and large-amplitude stimulation of the baroreflex.
This apparently has the effect of modulating autonomic reactivity to stimulation. Because the baroreflex is controlled through brain stem mechanisms that communicate directly with the insula and amygdala, which control emotion, HRV biofeedback also appears to modulate emotional reactivity, and to help people suffering from anxiety, stress, and depression     .
Emotions are intimately linked to heart health, which is linked to physical and mental health. In general, good mental   and physical  health are correlated with positive emotions and high heart rate variability HRV modulated by mostly high frequencies. High HRV has been correlated with increased executive functioning skills such as memory and reaction time. Because emotions have such an impact on cardiac function, which cascades to numerous other biological processes, emotional regulation techniques are able to effect practical, psychophysiological change.
Newton-John et al. This seems to indicate that biofeedback is as effective as CBT in chronic low back pain. Comparing the results of the groups before treatment and after treatment, indicates that EMG-Biofeedback reduced pain, disability, and depression as much as by half. Budzynski and Stoyva showed that EMG biofeedback could reduce frontalis muscle forehead contraction. Budzynski, Stoyva, Adler, and Mullaney reported that auditory frontalis EMG biofeedback combined with home relaxation practice lowered tension headache frequency and frontalis EMG levels.
A control group that received noncontingent false auditory feedback did not improve. This study helped make the frontalis muscle the placement-of-choice in EMG assessment and treatment of headache and other psychophysiological disorders. Sargent, Green, and Walters , demonstrated that hand-warming could abort migraines and that autogenic biofeedback training could reduce headache activity.
The early Menninger migraine studies, although methodologically weak no pretreatment baselines, control groups, or random assignment to conditions , strongly influenced migraine treatment. Flor trained amputees to detect the location and frequency of shocks delivered to their stumps, which resulted in an expansion of corresponding cortical regions and significant reduction of their phantom limb pain.
Financial traders use biofeedback as a tool for regulating their level of emotional arousal in order to make better financial decisions. A randomized study by Sutarto et al. A observational study by Pacella et al. Moss, LeVaque, and Hammond observed that "Biofeedback and neurofeedback seem to offer the kind of evidence-based practice that the healthcare establishment is demanding. In , Donald Moss, then president of the Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, and Jay Gunkelman, president of the International Society for Neurofeedback and Research, appointed a task force to establish standards for the efficacy of biofeedback and neurofeedback.
The Task Force document was published in ,  and a series of white papers followed, reviewing the efficacy of a series of disorders. A broader review was published  and later updated,  applying the same efficacy standards to the entire range of medical and psychological disorders. The ratings for each disorder depend on the nature of research studies available on each disorder, ranging from anecdotal reports to double blind studies with a control group. Thus, a lower rating may reflect the lack of research rather than the ineffectiveness of biofeedback for the problem.
The randomized trial by Dehli et al. Both methods lead to an improvement of FI, but comparisons of St Mark's scores between the groups showed no differences in effect between treatments. Level 1: Not empirically supported. Yucha and Montgomery assigned eating disorders, immune function, spinal cord injury , and syncope to this category. Level 2: Possibly efficacious. This designation requires at least one study of sufficient statistical power with well-identified outcome measures but lacking randomized assignment to a control condition internal to the study.
Yucha and Montgomery assigned asthma, autism , Bell palsy , cerebral palsy, COPD, coronary artery disease , cystic fibrosis , depression, erectile dysfunction , fibromyalgia, hand dystonia, irritable bowel syndrome , PTSD , repetitive strain injury , respiratory failure , stroke, tinnitus , and urinary incontinence in children to this category. Level 3: Probably efficacious.
This designation requires multiple observational studies, clinical studies, waitlist-controlled studies, and within subject and intrasubject replication studies that demonstrate efficacy.
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Yucha and Montgomery assigned alcoholism and substance abuse, arthritis , diabetes mellitus , fecal disorders in children, fecal incontinence in adults, insomnia , pediatric headache, traumatic brain injury , urinary incontinence in males, and vulvar vestibulitis vulvodynia to this category. Yucha and Montgomery assigned attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD , anxiety, chronic pain, epilepsy, constipation adult , headache adult , hypertension, motion sickness , Raynaud's disease , and temporomandibular joint dysfunction to this category. Level 5: Efficacious and specific.
The investigational treatment must be shown to be statistically superior to credible sham therapy, pill, or alternative bona fide treatment in at least two independent research settings. Yucha and Montgomery assigned urinary incontinence females to this category. In a healthcare environment that emphasizes cost containment and evidence-based practice, biofeedback and neurofeedback professionals continue to address skepticism in the medical community about the cost-effectiveness and efficacy of their treatments.
Critics question how these treatments compare with conventional behavioral and medical interventions on efficacy and cost. The publication of white papers and rigorous evaluation of biofeedback interventions can address these legitimate questions and educate medical professionals, third-party payers, and the public about the value of these services.
The Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback AAPB is a non-profit scientific and professional society for biofeedback and neurofeedback. The Biofeedback Foundation of Europe BFE sponsors international education, training, and research activities in biofeedback and neurofeedback. The Southeast Biofeedback and Clinical Neuroscience Association SBCNA is a non-profit regional organization supporting biofeedback professionals with continuing education, ethics guidelines, and public awareness promoting the efficacy and safety of professional biofeedback.
The SBCNA offers an Annual Conference for professional continuing education as well as promoting biofeedback as an adjunct to the allied health professions. BCIA offers biofeedback certification, neurofeedback also called EEG biofeedback certification, and pelvic muscle dysfunction biofeedback. BCIA certifies individuals meeting education and training standards in biofeedback and neurofeedback and progressively recertifies those satisfying continuing education requirements. The BCIA didactic education requirement includes a hour course from a regionally-accredited academic institution or a BCIA-approved training program that covers the complete General Biofeedback Blueprint of Knowledge and study of human anatomy and physiology.
Orientation to Biofeedback, II. Psychophysiological Recording, IV. Professional Conduct. Applicants may demonstrate their knowledge of human anatomy and physiology by completing a course in human anatomy, human physiology, or human biology provided by a regionally-accredited academic institution or a BCIA-approved training program or by successfully completing an Anatomy and Physiology exam covering the organization of the human body and its systems. Distance learning allows applicants to complete didactic course work over the internet.
Distance mentoring trains candidates from their residence or office. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, II. Clinical Disorders: Bowel Dysfunction, and V. Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndromes. Currently, only licensed healthcare providers may apply for this certification. Tarchanoff showed that voluntary control of heart rate could be fairly direct cortical-autonomic and did not depend on "cheating" by altering breathing rate.
Bair studied voluntary control of the retrahens aurem muscle that wiggles the ear , discovering that subjects learned this skill by inhibiting interfering muscles and demonstrating that skeletal muscles are self-regulated. The former translated sound vibrations into tracings on smoked glass to show their acoustic waveforms, while the latter allowed sound to be displayed as patterns of light.
The conference resulted in the founding of the Bio-Feedback Research Society, which permitted normally isolated researchers to contact and collaborate with each other, as well as popularizing the term "biofeedback. Skinner led researchers to apply operant conditioning to biofeedback, decide which responses could be voluntarily controlled and which could not. In the first experimental demonstration of biofeedback Shearn  used these procedures with heart rate. The effects of the perception of autonomic nervous system activity was initially explored by George Mandler 's group in In , Maia Lisina combined classical and operant conditioning to train subjects to change blood vessel diameter, eliciting and displaying reflexive blood flow changes to teach subjects how to voluntarily control the temperature of their skin.
Kimmel trained subjects to sweat using the galvanic skin response. Biofeedback systems have been known in India and some other countries for millennia. Ancient Hindu practices like yoga and Pranayama breathing techniques are essentially biofeedback methods. Many yogis and sadhus have been known to exercise control over their physiological processes. In addition to recent research on Yoga, Paul Brunton, the British writer who travelled extensively in India, has written about many cases he has witnessed.
Mandler's group studied the process of autonomic feedback and its effects. Shearn used feedback instead of conditioned stimuli to change heart rate. Brown becomes the society's first president. Shearn in the 'Handbook of Psychophysiology'. Brown . Christopher deCharms of Omneuron in San Francisco in conjunction with Stanford University School of Medicine has developed a real-time fMRI for the purpose of training the brain to activate its own endogenous opiates.
The patient can control his own pain by visually looking at his rtfMRI, watching his own reactions in real time, and then blocking the pathways causing pain.
The subjects were instructed to use techniques such as changing the focus of their attention to the pain, and changing the emotional value of the pain. Then while viewing their own fMRI in real time the subjects could observe the effect of their thoughts on the part of the brain called the rostral anterior cingulate cortex rACC.
When the subject 'controlled the pain' the virtual flame on the fMRI got dimmer. Results from this study indicate two things: 1.
That subjects can learn to voluntarily control brain activity in a specific region of the brain, and 2. There is a significant increase in the ability of healthy subjects to control their pain with repeated training. This study was then repeated with 8 patients with chronic intractable pain. The authors state that this is not yet a 'treatment', but still under serious investigation. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Biofeedback A diagram showing the feedback loop between person, sensor, and processor to help provide biofeedback training. This section includes a list of references , but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations.
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Please help to improve this section by introducing more precise citations. September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main articles: Electroencephalography and Neurofeedback. Science portal. Abnormal psychology: an integrative approach. See bottom of page. Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback. Retrieved December Bibcode : PNAS.. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. New mind, new body: Bio-feedback; new directions for the mind. Journal of Altered States of Consciousness. Center of International Studies. Who should help South Africa's? Indian click the up coming webpage Quiz of the Charter: Which gender studied about Lee's?
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