C is the bare-bones, simple, clean language that makes you do everything yourself. It doesn't hold your hand, it doesn't stop you from shooting yourself in the foot. But it has everything you need to do what you want. If there's something you want to accomplish, chances are there's a way to abuse the template system to give you a relatively easy syntax for it. This complexity also gives you the power to accidentally create a dozen instances of yourself and shoot them all in the foot.
It runs in a full managed environment, so memory management is done for you. It does let you "get dirty" and use unsafe code if you need to, but it's not the default, and you have to do some work to shoot yourself. It was done 10 years ago, and there's likely a lot of legacy code still in use, but they're not particularly well suited, there doesn't appear to be as much ongoing tool support, and they probably have a small active community that does web development except perhaps for web server development. The nice thing with C is that you can also easily transfer into writing Windows and Console apps and stay in C.
With Mono you're also not limited to Windows although you may be limited to which libraries you use. Anyways this is all from a web-biased perspective. NET is pretty slick, it works well, there are heaps of online resources, a huge community, and free dev tools. From your other posts, I guess you want to learn a new language to get new skills.
Also, in the C family, Objective-C has the best mix of power and simplicity in my opinion, but is a niche player.
C - an older programming language that is described as Hands-on. As the programmer you must tell the program to do everything. Also this language will let you do almost anything. It does not support object orriented code. Thus no classes. It allows for highly controlled object orriented code. Once again a very hands on language that goes into MUCH detail. This is really closer to JAVA. C is the latest version of the C style languages and is very good for developing web applications. For raw speed, use C.
C is the core language that most closely resembles and directly translates into CPU machine code. CPUs follow instructions that move, add, logically combine, compare, jump, push and pop. C does exactly this using much easier syntax. If you study the disassembly, you can learn to write C code that is just as fast and compact as assembly. It is my preferred language on 8 bit micro controllers with limited memory. If you write a large PC program in C you will get into trouble because of its limited organization. That is where object oriented programming becomes powerful.
I am beginning to learn C now. C is not interpreted like VB. It is partially compiled at development time and then further translated at run time to become more platform friendly. Learn more. First 10 Free. Asked 10 years, 6 months ago. Active 8 months ago. Viewed k times. Edit Note: While I'm a web developer, please don't let that limit your answer.
Can you clarify if you're interested in a comparison from a web-application perspective? Do you want to remain a web developer, or are you looking to do something different? In terms of real world applications, I see these languages applied in the following domains: C Kernel level software. Hardware device drivers Applications where access to old, stable code is required. Development environments that require access to libraries that do not interface well with more modern managed languages. NET framework, it is not a seamless transition. C Rapid client application development.
High performance Server development StackOverflow for example that benefits from the. NET framework. Applications that require the benefits of the. NET framework in the language it was designed for. Mohsen 79 10 10 bronze badges. I guess my point is that that the lower level abstraction is part of the language with C. Pointers, Unsafe and Unchecked are breaking out of C ' higher level of abstraction. Garbage Collection Garbage Collection GC is the single most important factor in differentiating between these languages. Platform Support I've put this last only because it doesn't appear to differentiate these languages as much as you might think.
Daniel Earwicker Daniel Earwicker Downvoters - please comment! This is a great answer, especially the part about undefined behavior and the problem with libraries. But yes, there is more then one such It is question of choise. Artyom - mono is up to date with C 3. Lots of real projects are using it. Novell is investing in it. Same goes for thinking GC is undefined, you apparently don't know what undefined means either. I believe what he means is "non-deterministic," which is precisely what GC is. And the CLR's generational garbage collector can be considered undefined behavior in the sense that you have no defined guarantee that any given object that lives past generation 1 will ever actually be collected before the app terminates.
Menus under. NET come in two forms. MainMenu is applied to a form to provide the main user interface menu, and ContextMenu is used to respond to right mouse clicks.
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In both cases, the individual items within the menus are objects of type MenuItem. A menu is constructed as a hierarchy of parent and child objects. The main menu owns the individual drop-downs, which in turn own their menu items. Placing an ampersand before a character in the menu text will automatically give the menu item an underscore when the Alt key is pressed.
A direct key combination might also be added to the menu item by using one of the predefined Shortcut enumerations. When you press the Alt key, the F in the File menu is underlined. You can press F to pop up the menu and press O to invoke the menu's function, as shown in Figure 3. ShowShortcut property setting.
There are several events that you can handle from a MenuItem. The most important is the one that you defined the item for in the first place. Remember from our button click example earlier that the events are hooked to the Click event source by a delegate defined by the system. In Listing 3. The event handler has the standard method signature for events void function Object, EventArgs and can be added to the File, Open MenuItem 's Click event source like this:. The complete C file for the modified resize. Other events are fired by MenuItem s to enable you to give better feedback to the user or to customize the user experience.
Windows Forms provides the Popup event source. Just before a MenuItem is shown, the Popup event is fired to give you time to decide whether to show, check, or change the appearance of a menu item. You can trap this event by adding an event handler to the Popup event source:.
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The handler for this event is defined in Listing 3. It shows some of the standard things you can do, checking, enabling, hiding, and so on, with MenuItem s. Every time the File menu is expanded, the program toggles this variable to true or false depending on its previous state. The Sender object is known to be a MenuItem , so it's possible to cast to that type safely. The three menu entries in the File menu are then checked, disabled, or hidden entirely, depending on the state of the variable. The image seen in Figure 3. Very often a group of menu entries will be strongly associated with one another, or one menu item will be separated from another by strategic placement of a menu separator.
Under Windows Forms the menu separator is a menu item that does nothing but draw a line across the menu. This is very simple; just set the text of a menu item to a single dash:. Once a menu item has been popped up, all of its visible members can be selected by positioning the mouse over them or using the arrows keys. When this selection takes place, an event is fired.
The event source for this is called Select , and it is handled in much the same way as the Popup event. The Select event is used primarily to update a status bar or other control with a help string that explains an otherwise cryptic menu entry. It could also be used for other user-interface customization. The demonstration in Listing 3. Menus are built up from MenuItem components. These can be arranged across the screen on the menu bar, and are most often arranged vertically in drop-down menus.
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You can change the default layout of MenuItem s to give a different UI style. The Break and BarBreak methods are used to create menus that are arranged horizontally rather than vertically. Setting the BarBreak property in a MenuItem causes the item to be drawn in a new column. BarBreak adds a vertical separator bar to the menu between the columns. Break makes a new column but doesn't add the vertical bar. The modifications to the menus.
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Dispelling the Myth of the. NET Virtual Machine. Microsoft Intermediate Language IL. An Introduction to. NET Memory Management. C -A New Programming Language. How Objects Describe Themselves. Assemblies, the. NET Packaging System. Programming with Attributes. Ready, Set, GO!
The Common Language Runtime. The CLR in Relation to. IL Intermediate Language. Language Inter-Op. Hello IL. Reflection API. Garbage Collected Classes. The using Directive. The String.
Mixing Managed and Unmanaged Code. Pinning Managed Code. Managed Interfaces. Creating Value Types. Creating and Using Delegates. Calling Custom. NET Programs. Introducing Visual Studio. Debugging Programs. C Basics. The C Type System. Programming Concepts. Advanced C. NET Collections. XML Serialization. Introduction to Windows Forms. The Hello Windows Forms Application. Creating and Using an Event Handler. Defining the Border Style of the Form. Adding a Menu. Adding a Menu Shortcut. Handling Events from Menus. User Interface Components. Creating Dialogs. Using Controls. Data Bound Controls.
Data Binding Strategies. Data Binding Sources. Simple Binding. Simple Binding to a DataSet. Complex Binding of Controls to Data. Windows Forms Example Application Scribble. Resources in. Localization Nuts and Bolts. Creating Text Resources. Using Visual Studio. NET for Internationalization. Image Resources. Using Image Lists. Programmatic Access to Resources. NET Graphics Interface.
The Graphics Object. Graphics Coordinates. Drawing Lines and Simple Shapes. Using Gradient Pens and Brushes. Textured Pens and Brushes. Tidying up Your Lines with Endcaps. Curves and Paths. The GraphicsPath Object. Clipping with Paths and Regions.
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Alpha Blending. Alpha Blending of Images. Other Color Space Manipulations. Practical Windows Forms Applications. Using the Properties and Property Attributes. Demonstration Application: FormPaint. The New Web. NET Essentials. Hello ASP. Adding Some Meat.
Comparison of C# with Java: A Developer Perspective
NET Data Access. Employee and Department Class. Introduction to ASP. NET WebForms. ASPX Pages. Echo Service. Returning User-Defined Types.