LINQ kind of welds several worlds together. It helps us avoid the bumps we would usually find on the road from one world to another: using XML with objects, mixing relational data with XML, are some of the tasks that LINQ will simplify. One of the key aspects of LINQ is that it was designed to be used against any type of object or data source, and provides a consistent programming model for doing this. The syntax and concepts are the same across all of its uses: once you learn how to use LINQ against an array or a collection, you also know most of the concepts needed to take advantage of LINQ with a database or an XML file.
Another important aspect of LINQ is that when you use it, you work in a strongly-typed world.
Examine this basic code and see if it shows any link to a data source:. The code declares a method Square to then declare an implicitly-typed local variable to perform that said operation on an array, or sequence, of three integers. The select method emits a sequence where each input element is transformed within a given lambda expression. The iteration of each element enables the operation to be performed on each element.
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Lambda Expressions: Chaining Query Operators
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LINQ interprets the where operators in the order in which they appear in the query, so order is important. Use the debugger to help locate errors in the logical flow of where operators. The simplest orderby operator relies on the object you define using the from operator. However, an orderby operator can accept any statement that defines a logical ordering argument as input — normally numeric, alphabetical, symbol, or binary. You can use as many orderby operators as needed to fully describe the output order of the data.
As with the where operator, LINQ interprets the orderby operator in the order in which it appears in the query. Consequently, the order of the orderby operators is important. The data sources need not rely on the same providers. You can use as many join operators as required to fully describe all of the data sources used for a query. The on operator defines the criterion used to combine two data sources. Pair the join and on operators to create a complete data source.
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Calculated values make complex queries easier to formulate. In addition, you can pass a calculated value onto the caller to provide additional output information. You can use as many let operators as required to provide full query functionality, but you should limit the use of let to situations where a calculated value enhances query speed. Group Group Description Included Operators Additional Information Aggregation operations The aggregation operators all help you perform mathematical tasks with a data source. Concat Microsoft Developer Network: Concatenation Operations Converting data types Converting data types come in two forms: deferred and nondeferred.
The deferred conversion operators convert the results of a query to a particular type as the code interprets the result set. The nondeferred conversion operators change the output of a query to a particular type. SequenceEqual Microsoft Developer Network: Equality Operations Filtering data The filtering operators help you exclude or include elements in a sequence based on specific criteria.
DefaultIfEmpty , Empty , Range , and Repeat Microsoft Developer Network: Generation Operations Grouping data The grouping operators help you sort data by a particular characteristic, such as the first letter in a group of strings.
GroupBy and ToLookup Microsoft Developer Network: Grouping Data Join operations The joining operators accept two or more sequences as input and create a single output sequence based on a specific join type and the join criteria. Join and GroupJoin Microsoft Developer Network: Join Operations Partitioning data The partitioning operators help you section a sequence to locate specific information. Select and SelectMany Microsoft Developer Network: Projection Operations Quantifier operations The quantifier operators help you select elements based on specific criteria.
You use these operators to determine whether none, one, or more than one elements meet the selected criteria. Think of the set arithmetic you performed in school. Defines the temporary object used to perform a query.