The city was granted the Latin Rights ius Latii , giving its citizens the privileges of Roman citizenship and exempting them from paying taxes. The city population was around 30, at the time. Earthquakes were documented in 60 BC, several from 47 to 44 BC, several in 33 AD and a strong quake in AD, but the exact amount of damage to the city is unknown. Olissipo in Roman times was an important commercial centre,  providing a link between the northern countries and the Mediterranean Sea.
Its main products were garum , a fish sauce considered a luxury,  salt and the Lusitanian horses renowned in antiquity. After the disintegration of the Roman empire and the subsequent feudalisation of society, the first waves of invaders, including Alans , Germanic tribes , Huns , and others, swept into the peninsula. Initially accepted as settlers in lands depopulated by the terrible epidemics probably measles and smallpox that killed much of the population, their incursions soon gave way to military expeditions with the sole object of plunder and conquest.
In the early 5th century the Vandals took Olissipo, followed by the Alans. In Olissipo was plundered and burnt by the Visigothic king Walia , who founded the Visigothic kingdom in Spain. After the invasion, the Visigoths set up their court in Toledo and following several wars during the 6th century, conquered the Suevi, thus unifying the Iberian Peninsula, including the city they called Ulixbona. Merchant Greeks, Syrians, Jews, and others from the East formed communities  that exchanged local products with the Byzantine Empire , Asia and India. After three centuries of looting by invaders and the devastation of its economy, Ulixbona was reduced to little more than a village by the beginning of the 8th century.
In , taking advantage of a civil war in the Visigothic Kingdom, the Arabs, led by Tariq ibn Ziyad , invaded the Iberian Peninsula with their Moorish troops. Ulixbona, like the rest of the western peninsula, was conquered by the troops of Abdelaziz ibn Musa, a son of Tariq, who took the city in According to contemporary accounts, the city was one of the largest cities in Europe at the time, several times larger than Paris and London, which then had only 5,—10, inhabitants each. Most of the Hispano-Roman inhabitants adopted the Arabic language and Islamic religion of the Muslim invaders, who, although a minority among the population, had become the new elite.
The members of the Mozarabic Christian population had their own bishop, and were speakers of Arabic, or a variety of Vulgar Latin. Speaking the Mozarabic language, a Romance language similar to that spoken in Galicia and the northern provinces, was tolerated by the Muslim authorities as one of the rights of residence allowed the dhimmi , in exchange for their paying a tax, the jizyah. The Jewish community, which had existed since the city's earliest days, grew more influential as Jews established themselves as merchants  and gained the financial advantage of living in the city's rising commercial hub.
Besides salt, fish and horses, they traded spices from the Levant, medicinal herbs, dried fruit, honey and furs. The citadel of al-Madan, now the city of Almada , was built on the south bank of the Tagus to protect the port. The Arabs and Berbers introduced new methods of irrigated agriculture that were much more productive than the old Roman system of irrigation. Lisbon became part of the Umayyad Caliphate based in Damascus, Syria, soon after the beginning of Muslim rule in Iberia.
An ongoing rebellion — of the Berber or "Moorish" elite against the Umayyads had spread through the Maghreb North Africa and across the Strait of Gibraltar to al-Andalus , but needed reinforcements to defeat the caliphate. When the Umayyad dynasty was finally toppled by the Abbasid Revolution in , Abd al-Rahman I , an Umayyad prince, fled with his family from the capital in Damascus across North Africa to al-Andalus, and gained independence from the new Abbasid Caliphate. In several dozen Viking boats sailed into the Sea of Straw.
These sects were a form of political organization in revolt against the hierarchical system of the Muslim conquerors which institutionalised obstacles to their social mobility. With their allies in other cities they started civil wars against the Sunni Arab troops. The Mozarabs and the Jews were treated even worse, sometimes suffering persecution that, although regrettable in modern eyes, was a pale reflection of what the Catholics would do not only against Muslims and Jews, but even against fellow Christians themselves when they reconquered the land.
In a new pan-Hispanic Caliphate was established after an Almoravid invasion from the deserts of Morocco led by the caliph Ali ibn Yusuf. It was eventually attached to Lisbon, thus integrating the territories adjoining the entire length of the Tagus. Afonso I and his Christian forces first attempted to conquer the city in but failed to breach the city walls. In crusaders passing through Portugal launched another unsuccessful attack.
According to the Anglo-Norman chronicler, in June and July a more numerous force of crusaders, consisting of boatloads of English, Norman , and Rhenish crusaders,  left from Dartmouth in England bound for the Holy Land. Bad weather forced the ships to stop on the Portuguese coast at Porto where they were persuaded to join in a new assault on the city. While the Portuguese forces attacked by land, the crusaders, lured by promises of booty to be taken and prisoners to be ransomed, set up their siege engines, among them catapults and towers, and attacked both by sea and land, preventing the arrival of reinforcements from the south.
In their first encounters the Muslims killed many Christians; this affected the Crusader's morale, and occasioned several bloody conflicts between the various Christian contingents. Legend has it that after many previous attempts, the Portuguese knight Martim Moniz led an attack on the castle doors and when he saw the Moors closing them, blocked the doorway with his own body, allowing his companions to enter, and was crushed.
With the success of the crusaders' assault on the city's walls with siege engines , the Moors capitulated on 22 October. According to an account by the priest Raol addressed to Osbert of Bawdsley Osbernus ,       Germans from Cologne and the Flemish cohort violated their oaths to the king of Portugal after entering the city and plundered it. These crusaders behaved in a wanton manner, looting Muslims and Mozarabs indiscriminately, debauching virgins and even cutting the throat of the elderly Mozarab bishop.
Mary in a religious ceremony converting it to a Cathedral. After conquering the city, Afonso I received information that the relics of Saint Vincent of Saragossa were buried in the Algarve. He made his way southward to reclaim the martyr's remains. A flock of crows was seen flying over the place when the remains were finally found in , and according to legend, two crows accompanied the boat that was carrying them all the way to Lisbon.
In commemoration of this story, the crow was chosen to adorn the city's coat of arms as a symbol of its faithful guardians;  but the fearless birds are no longer found in the area. Afonso I granted Lisbon a Foral in , and tried to restore the city's commercial connections by inaugurating a major new fair or market.
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Lisbon became a conduit for maritime trade between the North Sea and the Mediterranean, and thanks to advances in navigation, the volume of ocean shipping increased. Portuguese merchants opened trade houses in Seville, Southampton , Bruges , and in the cities of the Hansa, which later joined to form the Hanseatic League.
They exchanged Portuguese olive oil, salt, wine, cork, honey and wax as well as wool and fine linen textiles, tin, iron, dyes, amber, guns, furs and artisanal works of the north for the spices, silks and herbal remedies of the Mediterranean countries, in addition to the gold, ivory, rice, alum, almonds and sugar bought from the Arabs and Moors. Shipyards were founded to build more commercial and military vessels for the naval fleet armada essential to protect this trade from Saracen pirates.
An indirect effect of this economic dynamism was that Lisbon's trade contributed to the ruin of the south German merchants, who engaged in the same commerce by using a more costly land route between the ports of Italy and those of the Netherlands and the Hansa  that was only viable when Muslim pirates and their ships controlled southern Spain and the Strait of Gibraltar. As the Holy Roman Empire lost influence over its kingdoms, duchies and city-state constituents ,  the German merchants, hitherto the masters of European trade, were forced to seek new markets in the East.
With the new prosperity and increased security of Lisbon after the final conquest of the al-Gharb or al-Garve Arabic: al-Gharb , "the west" , in Afonso III took note of its obvious advantages and chose the largest and most powerful city in the kingdom for his capital,  moving his court, the national archives and the treasury from Coimbra to Lisbon. Denis , the first Portuguese king to rule at Lisbon during all his reign, created the University in , which was transferred to Coimbra in  because of increasing conflicts between the students and Lisbon residents. New streets were laid out, such as Rua Nova , while the Rossio square became the city centre, stealing that distinction from the Castle hill.
Just as there were Portuguese communities in the cities of northern Europe, there were colonies of merchants from the rest of Europe in Lisbon,   then one of the most important cities in international trade. These merchants brought new cartographic and navigational techniques to Portugal, as well as an understanding of financial and banking practices and of the mercantilism system, not to mention the knowledge gained through their contacts with Byzantine and Muslim middlemen of the origins of imported Asian luxury goods such as silks and spices.
Political tensions with Castile were counterbalanced by an alliance made in by King Denis between Portugal and England,   the main trading partner of Lisbon and also of Porto , which has continued uninterruptedly until the present. This alliance later fought on one of the two sides of the so-called Caroline War; the second phase of the Hundred Years' War , on the other were Castile and France.
During Ferdinand's reign, Portugal started a war with Castile, and Lisbon boats armed with cannons were recruited to participate in an unsuccessful Genoese attack on Seville. In response to this provocation, the Spaniards laid siege to Lisbon, taking it in , but departed when they were paid a ransom. On the lower end of the social scale in Lisbon were all types of labourers and street merchants, as well as fishermen and farmers of vegetable gardens. In this era the streets were occupied by tradesmen who had organised artisans' guilds directed by masters of their respective trades. The aristocracy, attracted to Lisbon by the court, established its presence in the city with the building of large palaces, and served in the bureaucratic offices of governmental administration.
But the most powerful segment of society in Lisbon, even after the city gained its status as the nation's capital, was the bourgeoisie , the merchant class that was the economic powerhouse of this rising commercial centre, now among the most important in Europe. They were the magnates of commerce who controlled the city and its oligarchic council.
It was to serve their needs that business professionals organised in the city: bankers to raise capital and coordinate the financial risks; lawyers to protect the rights of citizens and handle their legal cases ; naval architects and marine engineers to build boats, and scientists to design their navigational instruments. With their political influence, they could extract from the monarchy concessions that favored their mercantile interests, and were a great impetus for exploration to find new markets.
A mutual benefit association, the Companhia das Naus , was founded in as a kind of insurance company which required the payment of compulsory quotas from all ship owners in exchange for the sharing of losses after shipwrecks. As an umbrella organisation covering more than five hundred large vessels owned by the magnates of the city, it was the forerunner of Portuguese overseas expansion.
With rising profits, the wealthiest merchants acquired titles of nobility, even as the poorer nobles engaged in trade. There was a large Jewish quarter occupying the parishes of St. Mary Magdalene, St. Julian and St. Those who did not engage in trade were largely scholars or professionals such as doctors, lawyers, cartographers and other specialists in the sciences or arts. The Jewish community's business activities were fundamental to the vitality of the city's economy.
The Jews of Lisbon included such distinguished families as the Abravanels , descendants of Samuel Abravanel, a converso who had served as royal treasurer in Andalusia and comptroller in Castile. He apparently fled to Portugal with his family where they reverted to Judaism and later served in high governmental positions. Their living quarters were segregated from those of the rest of the population and they were forbidden to go out at night; as well as being forced to wear distinctive clothes and to pay extra taxes.
However, they were not as prosperous nor as educated as the Jews, since the Muslim elites had fled to North Africa, while the Jews, who were literate speakers of Portuguese, had no other homeland. Most Muslims were workers in low-skilled, low-wage jobs and many were slaves of Christians. They had to display identifying symbols on their robes and pay extra taxes, and suffered the violence of the crowds. The deprecatory term saloio countryman came from a special levy, the salaio , that the Muslims who cultivated gardens within the city limits had to pay.
Likewise, the term alfacinha little head of lettuce came from the cultivation by the Moors of lettuce plants,  then little consumed in the north. The city's prosperity was interrupted in by the first major earthquake in its recorded history, with many buildings collapsing and thousands of people dying. Famine in and the first appearance of the Black Death in killed half the population; new outbreaks of lower mortality occurred in each succeeding decade.
The aftermath of these disasters, in Lisbon as well as in the rest of Europe, led to a series of religious, social, and economic upheavals, destroying the vibrant European civilization of the Middle Ages and the spirit of universal Christianity symbolised by the soaring Gothic architecture of its cathedrals.
Yet it also paved the way for the emergence of a new civilization with the coming of the age of discovery and the rise of a revitalised spirit of scientific inquiry. A new chapter in the history of Lisbon was written with the social revolution of the — Crisis. This was a time of civil war in Portugal when no crowned king reigned. They were invested in the spirit of Crusade against the Moors from the Maghreb  and the potential benefits of the union of all Hispania.
However, these were not the main concerns of the merchants of Lisbon many of them small gentry. This helps explain why the merchants and lesser nobles supported the cause of the Master of Avis. The war fought in — was at bottom a war between the conservative land-owning medieval aristocracy very similar to and allied with their Galician and Castilian counterparts  centred in the former County of Portugal in Minho except the bourgeois city of Porto, a Lisbon ally, among a few other cities and personages of the north , and the rich merchants of the pluralistic society of Lisbon.
The nobles had reclaimed the country from the Muslims and founded the northern counties—as their alliance with the Castilian nobility was reestablished, the increasing dominance of Lisbon threatened their supremacy. For the merchants of Lisbon, a commercial city, the feudal practices and land wars of the Castilians were a threat to their business interests. It was the bourgeoisie who, with their English connections and substantial capital, would win the struggle. The town had the narrow, winding streets characteristic of medina quarters , mostly unpaved, its houses alternating with gardens and orchards.
As the city continued to grow, the widespread abandonment of highly productive Moorish irrigation techniques  meant that it had to import wheat from Castile, France, the Rhineland and even Morocco. With this expansion into the countryside, the adjacent territory became suburbs like those of other European commercial cities. Lisbon, along with Antwerp , served the same function of an organised trade centre on the Atlantic coast as Venice , Genoa , Barcelona or Ragusa on the Mediterranean; or Hamburg, Lubeck and the other cities on the Baltic Sea.
Wanting to improve public hygiene, the city council in prohibited garbage piles near the Carmo Monastery and other areas, and in another law was enacted prohibiting the dumping of trash in the streets, under penalty of paying a fine. Portuguese foreign policy promoted the interests of Lisbon: trade and cooperation agreements were signed with the commercial city-states of Venice accord of , Genoa , Pisa and Florence , whose merchants had already formed communities in the city, and many of whom were naturalised and married into the Portuguese nobility.
Ceuta on the north African coast was captured by the Portuguese during the Battle of Ceuta in ,  giving Lisbon's merchants a base from which to attack Saracen pirates and better local control of the Mediterranean trade that passed through the Strait of Gibraltar , as well as the importation of Moroccan wheat at the best prices.
Moreover, at this time Ceuta received caravans bearing gold and ivory, a trade Lisbon wanted to dominate, and it was feared that its Castilian rivals in Seville or the Aragonese of Barcelona might seize the outpost. A renewed alliance with England, one of its most important trade partners, was pursued. The prosperity of Lisbon was threatened when the Ottoman Empire invaded and conquered the Arab territories of North Africa, Egypt and the Middle East in the 15th century.
The Turks were initially hostile to the interests of Lisbon and its allies in Venice and Genoa;  consequently the trade in spices, gold, ivory and other goods suffered heavily. The merchants of Lisbon, many of them descendants of Jews or Muslims with links to North Africa, reacted by seeking to negotiate directly with the sources of these goods, without using Muslim mediators.
The Portuguese Jews' connections with the Jews of the Maghreb, and the conquest of Ceuta, allowed the Lisbon merchants to spy on the Arab merchants. They learned that the gold, slaves and ivory brought to Morocco in the great caravans travelled through the Sahara desert from the Sudan which at that time included all the savannas south of the desert, the current Sahel.
The new strategy of the merchants of Lisbon — Christian and Jewish Portuguese, Italian and Portuguese-Italian — was to send ships to the sources of these valuable products. Prince Henry, based in the city of Tomar , was the major proponent of this initiative,. As headquarters of the Order of Christ formerly the Knights Templar ,  and with a large community of Jewish merchants, the city was also very connected to Lisbon by its trade in grains and nuts one of Lisbon's main exports.
The ready access to large amounts of capital and knowledge of the Orient that the Templars and the Jews had were key to achieving the objectives of the Lisbon merchants. Although Prince Henry was the driving force of this project, it was not actually of his own design, but rather had been conceived by the merchants of Lisbon. Those who supported the monarchy financially by the payment of taxes and customs tariffs , making it virtually independent of the resources of the territorial nobles, bent it to their own mercantilist purposes. Prince Henry was, however, the organiser of the state's policy of dirigisme state-directed investment : the substantial risk involved and the capital needed to finance the opening of new trade routes required the cooperation of all merchants throughout the realm just as today many large capital projects are undertaken with international cooperation.
Henry organised and supervised preparations by the Portuguese merchant fleet to reach the sources of gold, ivory and slaves, efforts that the merchants themselves had managed inefficiently. Using funds made available by the Order of Christ, mariners' schools were founded to centralise the resources and practical knowledge of the merchants of Lisbon. Several expeditions were launched under contract to some of the most influential of the bourgeoisie in Lisbon, and the Gulf of Guinea was finally reached around , the year Prince Henry died.
After Henry's death, by which time the sea route was already open, the expansion of the African trade led to the rise of a private sector in the Portuguese economy. Meanwhile, there were new attempts by the remaining feudal nobles of northern Portugal to retake control of the kingdom, frustrated as they were by the growing prosperity of Lisbon's merchants in contrast to their own loss of income. Their purpose was to seek further conquest in North Africa, which offered the prospect of more and relatively easy victories.
Such a campaign would be favorable to the interests of the feudal nobles, who stood to gain lands and tenants in Morocco by waging war,   but was anathema to the merchant nobles and Jews in Lisbon who would be paying the extra taxes needed to finance such expeditions. The merchants favored investing the resources of the kingdom and its military forces in the discovery of new African and Asian markets, not in augmenting the power of the hostile and pro-Castilian Portuguese nobility. The ongoing disputes that John II engaged in against these nobles, with the backing of the merchants, demonstrate the underlying reality of the conflict between Lisbon and the former County of Portugal, birthplace of the nation: its resolution would set the future course of the country.
Following the exposure of several conspiracies and various other incidents of their treachery, the northern nobles again sought the aid of their Castilian counterparts, but Lisbon and its merchants eventually prevailed: the ringleaders of one plot were executed, including the Duke of Braganza in and the Duke of Viseu in A great confiscation of estates followed and enriched the Crown, which now became the sole political power of the realm, aside from the Catholic Church.
John II famously restored the policies of active Atlantic exploration, reviving the work of his great-uncle, Henry the Navigator. The Portuguese explorations were his main priority in government, pushing ever further south on the west coast of Africa with the purpose of discovering the maritime route to India and breaking into the spice trade. The colonial ventures in north Africa were abandoned to pursue trade in the new lands discovered further south. As the islands of Madeira and the Azores were colonised, the Crown encouraged production of commercial products for export to Lisbon, primarily cane sugar and wine , which soon appeared in the markets of the capital.
In the recently discovered land of Guinea , cheap products like metal pots and cloth distributed from Lisbon-controlled depots were exchanged for gold, ivory and slaves. The natives of the region relocated their economic activities closer to the coast for this European trade, but their settlements were left unmolested because such campaigns of conquest were deemed too costly.
Sham weddings between officials of the trading posts and the daughters of local chieftains were made to facilitate commerce, albeit with an aim for profit, not colonisation. The result was a new impetus to trade in Lisbon: wheat was shipped from Ceuta, as well as musk, indigo, other clothing dyes, and cotton from Morocco. Significant amounts of gold were obtained from Guinea and the Gold Coast ; other sources of this precious metal were sorely lacking in Europe of the late 15th century.
The best markets and most valuable products were to be found, however, in India and the East. The war between the Ottoman Empire and Venice resulted in greatly increased prices for black pepper, other spices, and silks brought by the Venetians to Italy from the Ottoman-controlled Egypt, which received Arabian boats sailing from India at its ports on the Red Sea and thence to Lisbon and the rest of Europe. To circumvent the "Turkish problem", a voyage of discovery to be captained by Vasco da Gama was organised, again on the initiative of the Lisbon merchants, but this time with royal funding; his boats arrived in India in Before the end of the 16th century, the Portuguese merchant fleets had reached China where they founded the commercial colony of Macau , as well as the island archipelagos of present-day Indonesia and Japan.
They established the ports of call of the Eastern trade route and made commercial agreements with the chiefs and kings in Angola and Mozambique. A large colonial empire was consolidated by Afonso de Albuquerque , his armed forces securing those ports on the Indian Ocean in locations convenient for ships outbound from Lisbon against competition from the Turks and Arabs.
Local territories were generally not seized, excepting the ports that carried on a profitable trade with the natives. Lisbon also traded in fish mainly salted cod from the Grand Banks , dried fruit, and wine. The city still controlled much of the commerce of Antwerp through its depot there, which exported fine fabrics to the rest of Europe. The German and Italian merchants, seeing their trade routes, by land in the case of the first, and by the Mediterranean sea in the second, mostly abandoned, founded large trading houses in Lisbon for re-exporting goods to Europe and the Middle East.
As Lisbon became the prime market for luxury goods to satisfy the tastes of the elite classes all across Europe:  Venice and Genoa were ruined. In the 16th century Lisbon was one of the richest cities in the world,   and the city gained a mythic stature. England and the Netherlands were obliged to imitate the Portuguese mercantile model to halt the loss of foreign exchange. Meanwhile, merchants migrated from all over Europe to establish their businesses in Lisbon, and even some Indian, Chinese, and Japanese traders found their way to the city.
Large numbers of African and a few Brazilian Indian slaves were imported at this time as well. During the reign of King Manuel I , festivals were celebrated on the streets of Lisbon with parades of lions, elephants, camels and other animals not seen in Europe since the time of the Roman circus. In , Afonso de Albuquerque presented an Indian rhinoceros to King Manuel, who had it let loose in a ring with an elephant to test the reputed mutual animosity of the two species.
In Europe the prestige of Lisbon and its land discoveries had grown so great that when Thomas More wrote his book Utopia , about the political system of an ideal and imaginary island nation, he tried to further its plausibility by saying that the Portuguese had discovered it. Numerous palaces and mansions were built by the merchants with their profits. As the city expanded and reached nearly , inhabitants, the Bairro Alto urbanisation known initially as Vila Nova de Andrade was developed by the wealthy Galicians Bartolomeu de Andrade and his wife, and quickly became the richest neighbourhood in town.
Isaac Abravanel , one of the greatest Hebrew philosophers, was appointed the King's Treasurer.
All social classes benefited from the city's prosperity, although the urban nobility serving in royal administration and the bourgeoisie benefited the most, but even the common people enjoyed luxuries unattainable to their English, French or German contemporaries.
Heavy manual labour was done by African slaves and by Galicians. The Galicians, although uprooted from their homes, certainly found their lot improved, considering their miserable condition in rural Spain,  and their language being very similar to Portuguese facilitated their integration into Portuguese society. The Jewish population, as always, included some of the poor, as well as scholars, merchants, and financiers who were among the most educated and wealthy citizens in the city.
A commentary on the Pentateuch , written in Hebrew by Moses ben Nahman , and published by Eliezer Toledano in , was the first book printed in Lisbon. In , the Spaniards expelled the Jews from Spanish territory, motivated by a fundamentalist spirit that demanded an exclusively Christian kingdom. Many of the Jews fled to Lisbon, and may have temporarily doubled its population. Although acknowledging the central importance of the Jews to the city's prosperity, Manuel I decreed in that all Jews must convert to Christianity, only those who refused being forced to leave, but not before the expropriation of their property.
His desire to wed Princess Isabel of Castile, daughter of the Catholic Monarchs, who required that he first expel all the Jews of Portugal, is generally given as his reason for the forced conversions. Without the disadvantage of being considered Jewish, they were able to rise in the social hierarchy, even to the higher ranks of the court. Again the elite descendants of the ancient families of the old aristocracy of Asturias and Galicia created barriers to the social ascent of Jews, who were often better-educated and more proficient than their antagonists. As a result of the dissension aroused by this catastrophe, King Manuel was persuaded by the territorial nobles to introduce the Inquisition which did not become formally active until  during the reign of his son and successor, King John III, and legal restrictions were imposed on all descendants of New Christians similar to those the Old Christians had imposed on the Jews , to prevent them from threatening senior government posts held by the Old Christian aristocracy.
The inquisition put to death many of the New Christians, and expropriated the property and wealth of many others. The riches of even some Old Christian merchants were expropriated after false anonymous complaints were made that the inquisitors accepted as valid, since the property of the condemned reverted to themselves. On the other hand, few merchants would not have had some New Christian ancestry, as marriages between the children of Christian and Jewish partners in the major firms were commonplace.
The Inquisition thus became an instrument of social control in the hands of the Old Christians against almost all the Lisbon merchants, and finally restored their long lost supremacy. In this climate of intolerance and persecution, the expansion of the economy enabled by the genius of the traders was undone by the large landowners whose collectible rents were much less than the receipts of the merchants , and the prosperity of Lisbon was destroyed.
The former climate of liberalism conducive to trade disappeared and was replaced by Catholic fanaticism and a rigid conservatism. The noble elites persecuted those who were alleged to be not of "pure blood" and truly Old Christian. Many of the merchants fled to England or the Netherlands , bringing their naval and cartographic knowledge with them as they settled in those places. Lisbon was taken by the feudal mentality of the great nobles, and the Portuguese merchants, with no security or social support and unable to obtain credit during the persecutions of the Inquisition , could not compete with the English and Dutch merchants many of them of Portuguese origin who subsequently took over the markets of India, the East Indies and China.
The young king Sebastian I was burning with zeal to go to Morocco and stop the advances of the Turkish-supported armies,  an enterprise which held the promise of more land and revenues in North Africa for the nobles they perhaps believing this would allow them to maintain their economic supremacy over the merchants , but the mercantile bourgeoisie also supported the effort as it would benefit Portuguese commerce in North Africa.
Sebastian used much of Portugal's imperial wealth to equip a large fleet and gather an army. The remaining Portuguese nobles and the high clergy were gathered once again to the arms of their like-minded counterparts, the Castilians, and supported Philip, a maternal grandson of Manuel I of Portugal.
The Philippine Dynasty was the third royal house of Portugal. It was named after the three Spanish kings who ruled Portugal from to  in a dynastic union of the Castilian and Portuguese crowns. The 16th century was the golden age of Lisbon, a time when the city became the European hub of commerce with Africa, India, the Far East and, later, Brazil , accumulating great riches through the importation of spices, slaves, sugar, textiles and other goods.
Nevertheless, the sixty years of Habsburg rule in Portugal beginning in coincided with a period of economic distress, social upheaval, and warfare in Europe that spread around the world through the colonial empires. Philip was crowned king of Portugal as Philip I in , beginning the union between the two nations known as the Iberian Union.
After a three-year-long war with Anthony and his foreign allies, the resistance crumbled and the union was consolidated. In , Philip started a series of construction works and renovations throughout Portugal, seeking to rehabilitate the kingdom after the War of the Portuguese Succession. During his three-year stay in Lisbon, from to , Philip considered making the city the imperial capital of his trans-European monarchy and empire.
The king decided to modernise the palace, stripping it of its early renaissance Manueline style and converting it into a monumental Mannerist complex. Dutch and English pirates, among them Francis Drake , made several attacks on some Portuguese squares, but did not dare to attack Lisbon.
Philip attempted to reconcile the interests of the Portuguese nobility in acquiring more territory in Europe with those of the clergy in halting the spread of Protestantism, as well as those of the bourgeoisie in eliminating mercantile competition and privateering by the English and Dutch. All the boats capable of military action in Lisbon, Seville and Barcelona were gathered in an armada sent against England in  with the express purpose of escorting an army from Flanders  to invade the island nation across the Channel.
From the Portuguese succession crisis in to the beginning of the reign of the monarchs of the House of Braganza in was an era of transition in Lisbon. The Portuguese Empire 's spice trade was near its height at the start of this period, having expanded to global influence after Vasco da Gama had finally reached the East by sailing around Africa to India in — Throughout the 17th century, the increasing predations and surrounding of Portuguese trading posts in the East by the Dutch, English and French,  and their rapidly growing intrusion into the Atlantic slave trade ,  undermined Portugal's near monopoly on the lucrative oceanic spice and slave trades.
Over time, Portugal became economically dependent on its colonies, first India and then Brazil. As the Dutch and English made encroachments on the overseas trade, they were unable to seize the Spanish territorial empires of Mexico and Peru, so they concentrated on taking the Portuguese trading posts, ports and coastal colonies that provided the goods trafficked in Lisbon. Lisbon, with its merchants persecuted by the Inquisition which expropriated the property of Crypto-Jews   and even that of genuine Christians ,  and having already lost much of its fleet in the disaster of the Spanish Armada, as well as paying high taxes to support the armies of the Spanish nobles in Europe, began gradually to lose its overseas ports and its access to foreign products.
Although the Portuguese royal monopoly suffered from competition by the Dutch joint-share trading companies , the private enterprises of the Portuguese merchants faced only limited competition from their European rivals until In the 17th century their share of the Asian trade declined and profits shrank, but they lost no markets in Asia to the Dutch and English trading companies through the s. However, from the s and s onward the northern European merchants dominated the Atlantic economy and overseas trade.
The results were published at Madrid in Portugal was brought low during the final years of the reign of Philip III, as the Spanish officials often flagrantly violated the conditions granted by Philip I, which were the original contract and unalterable constitution of Portugal while it was subject to the monarchs of Castile. Lisbon lost much of its population and its importance to the world economy as its mercantile activity shrank.
With economic decline, unemployment and crime increased greatly, adding to the misery of the common people. The Spanish authorities were obliged to introduce a kind of auxiliary police force, the Quadrilheiros , whose members patrolled the streets to control street crime, fights, sorcery and gaming. Half a century of continual war and more than a century of depredations by privateers and pirates weighed heavily on the administration and defence of the Portuguese empire,  spread as it was across Asia, Africa and America, and exhausted the Portuguese treasury.
Then the prime minister of Portugal, Miguel de Vasconcelos , on the advice of the Spanish nobility, and with the complicity of the Portuguese feudal nobles, announced the Spanish minister's intention of abolishing the Portuguese Cortes, and of making the country a mere province of Castile  with its own representatives in the Castilian Cortes. The merchants of Lisbon allied themselves with the lower and the middle Portuguese nobility and entreated the Duke of Braganza to accept the throne.
According to some historians he was really as indifferent as he seemed and it was the ambition of his wife and of his allies that made him king. Post-Restoration Lisbon was increasingly dominated by Catholic religious orders.
This led to such a proliferation of priests, nuns and friars that they became a significant proportion of the population. The financial plight of the country was finally relieved, not by the successful prosecution of state-issued directives, but by the colonial government's exploitation of the deposits of gold discovered — in what is now the state of Minas Gerais General Mines in Brazil.
With the large income generated by this surge in gold production, opulent buildings were commissioned by the clergy and the aristocracy of Lisbon. In contrast to the luxurious lifestyle of the elite classes, the common people generally lived under wretched conditions,  even though demand for manual labour to construct new buildings increased as the population grew.
The late 17th-century discoveries of gold and diamond deposits in Brazil were the most important such finds ever made in the colonial New World. Between and a thousand metric tonnes of gold were recorded as received by the Portuguese treasury, and another thousand tonnes may have evaded the royal fifth.
Around 2. These riches had a great economic impact there and in the mother country, encouraging large numbers of Portuguese to emigrate to the colony and giving it a more European character. Increasing demand from Brazil benefited the merchants of Lisbon, who supplied the colonials with cloth and metal wares, as well as luxury items including spices, porcelain, silks, and velvets from Europe and Asia.
They sold these slaves in exchange for gold at Rio de Janeiro, the port city that grew on the Atlantic coast to satisfy the demand for import goods created by the mining activities of Minas Gerais. To secure a larger portion of the lucrative Brazilian gold market, the Rio merchants worked out a strategy of obtaining slaves from traders in Angola. A new era began in Lisbon on 1 November , All Saints Day ,  when a devastating earthquake, one of the most powerful in recorded history, destroyed two thirds of the city.
After the earthquake, the tsunami, and subsequent fires, Lisbon lay in ruins. Thousands of buildings collapsed, including many churches, monasteries, nunneries, and palaces. Of the 20, less solidly built houses of the lower classes, 17, were destroyed. Many buildings occupied by the rich in the Bairro Alto neighbourhood survived, as well as some buildings made of solid stone in a few other areas.
Major fires raged in the city for six days and there was rampant looting. The Marquis of Pombal , who was inspired by the new political, economic, and scientific theories of the Enlightenment and had such influence over the king that he was de facto ruler of Portugal, seized the opportunity presented by the catastrophe to implement in Portugal some of the liberal reforms that had been tried successfully in other western European countries.
Voltaire subsequently used the catastrophic event in his novella Candide ,  published in , to satirise Leibnizian optimism, religion, and war. As part of the reconstruction of downtown Lisbon, a new naval arsenal was erected by order of Pombal  at the same site on the banks of the Tagus, west of the royal palace, where many of the ships of the Portuguese age of exploration were built, among them the naus and galleons that had opened the trade route to India.
Renamed the Arsenal Real da Marinha Royal Navy Shipyard ,  the official maritime works of the Ribeira das Naus continued operating there as in the expansive days of Manuel I , who had ordered the construction of new shipyards tercenas on the site of the medieval shipyards. The 1st Marquis of Pombal, who had been born into the lower-ranking nobility, became effectively prime minister to Joseph I ,  after brief careers in the Portuguese army and the diplomatic service  He famously responded to the king's query regarding what he should do about the devastation caused by the earthquake: "Bury the dead.
Feed the living. Rebuild the city. The marquis, after he had ordered a review of the actual situation through an unprecedented population survey, refused the counsel of some of his advisers who wished to move the capital to another city, and initiated reconstruction in Lisbon according to new theories of urban planning. The royal income from Brazil paid for almost the entire reconstruction project,  its cost amounting to over 20 million silver cruzados. The city also received emergency aid from England,  Spain and the Hansa , and subsequently filled with construction sites.
Most of the Portuguese aristocracy took refuge on their country estates around Lisbon, while King Joseph and his court took up residence in a huge complex of tents and barracks built in Ajuda, on the outskirts of the city. Most of the reconstruction was carried out, however, in the old city centre with a new layout approved by the marquis and designed by Eugenio dos Santos and Carlos Mardel ,  for the Baixa, the neighbourhood hardest hit by the earthquake. Their plan fit the pragmatic spirit of the age of Enlightenment, with the narrow old streets being replaced by wide straight avenues arranged orthogonally.
These not only allowed proper ventilation and lighting of the streets, but also allowed for better security, including police patrols and access to buildings in case of fire, as well as measures to prevent the spread of fire to neighbouring structures. They aimed to reorganise the social structure of the city, with a new emphasis on mercantile business, and developed a set of rules for the construction of housing better able to survive a powerful earthquake.
The critical architectural innovation designed for this purpose consisted of a wooden skeleton called the gaiola pombalina Pombal Cage , a flexible rectangular frame with diagonal braces  enabling structures to withstand the overload and stress of an earthquake without coming apart.
History of Lisbon
All new structures in the downtown area were erected on pine log pilings driven into the sandy soil of the Baixa, to ensure the effective support of their weight. All the buildings had masonry firewalls separating them from each other. The entire area was laid out along neo-Classical lines with classical proportions  according to architectural rules of composition using the golden ratio.
The buildings surrounding the Palace Square were built to contain warehouses and the large commercial buildings expected to stimulate mercantile activity in the plaza, but after several years of abandonment were eventually occupied by government ministries, courts, the Navy Yard, the Customs building, and the stock exchange  during the reign of Queen Maria I. Despite their fervent desire to complete the project, rebuilding Lisbon took much longer than Pombal and his staff expected, its reconstruction not being completed until This was due largely to the lack of capital among the bourgeoisie of a city in crisis.
With ruthless efficiency Pombal limited the power of the Church, expelled the Jesuits from Portuguese territories   and brutally suppressed the power of the conservative territorial aristocracy. By the s Pombal had effectively neutralised the Inquisition,   consequently the new Christians, still the majority of the educated and liberal middle class of the city and the country, were freed from their legal restrictions and finally allowed access to the high government positions previously the exclusive monopoly of the 'pureblood' aristocracy.
After the Pombaline period there were twenty new plants for every one that had previously existed. The various state-imposed taxes and duties, which had proven burdensome to trade, were abolished in Signs of a recovering economy emerged slowly under the Portuguese economic renewal policy. In this manner a self-conscious bourgeois middle class rose again from the people of Lisbon, composed of both New Christians and Old Christians; these were the source of the national Liberal and Republican political movements, their presence manifested by the publication of several new newspapers in the capital.
To deal with rising poverty and crime, a police force was created in under the leadership of Diogo Pina Manique. The police hounded, arrested, tortured and expelled progressive partisans: Freemasons, Jacobins and liberals; as well as their newspapers, were censored. Many literary works by liberal Protestants or philosophers were banned and the cafes where they congregated were watched by plainclothes policemen. Cultural expression was controlled and any manifestations less than rigidly Catholic were outlawed, including the ancient Carnival.
It was, however, funded by the private sector. In the last quarter of the 18th century, the American Revolution, begun in , galvanised liberal ideas of government throughout Europe. The revolutionary movement in Paris was quickly radicalised, however, when its leadership fell into the hands of the extreme left. The bourgeoisie felt threatened and called to power the politically centrist Napoleon Bonaparte , who eventually declared himself Emperor of France. The foreign policy he deployed in his struggle against Great Britain during the Napoleonic Wars is referred to as the Continental System or Continental Blockade known in French as Blocus continental.
After the French declaration of war against the United Kingdom in , Portugal signed a treaty of mutual aid with Britain. When Junot entered Lisbon on 30 November , the Portuguese royal family, aristocracy and high clergy had already set sail for Brazil the previous day.
The people expected a continuation of the political reforms enacted by the Marquis of Pombal, but Junot did not want to risk stimulating radical ideas and did nothing along those lines. Meanwhile, 50, Spanish and French troops roamed the countryside arresting, killing, plundering and raping the citizenry. The lack of any movement by General Junot to enact reforms and the violent behavior of the French soldiers finally compelled the Junta Provisional do Supremo Governo do Reino Provisional Board of the Supreme Government of the Kingdom to seek the aid of England,  which sent an expeditionary force led by Wellesley and William Beresford.
Lisbon suffered economically with the opening of the ports of Brazil to England. Meanwhile, to control access to the capital, Wellington's chief engineer, Richard Fletcher, built the defensive lines known as the Lines of Torres Vedras across the peninsula on which Lisbon sits, using Portuguese workmen. This offensive culminated with a victory at Vittoria, effectively ending French control of Spain. Beresford was made a Lieutenant-General in the British army and given command of the Portuguese army in , with the rank of Marshal to bolster his authority over the Portuguese generals.
He remained in the country long after the French withdrew in , and, although he took his orders from King John, acted as a virtual dictator, becoming increasingly despotic after , when Brazil was declared a kingdom. The object of the conspirators was to overthrow the British, to put Beresford to death, and to set up a revolutionary government. Gomes Freire, formerly commander of the Portuguese Legion in Napoleon's army, was sentenced to death with eleven of his accomplices, and on 18 October they were executed. He and seven others were hanged, their bodies burnt, and their ashes thrown into the Tagus.
The years of political struggle between the conservative authoritarian absolutists and the progressive constitutionalist Liberals  over the issue of royal succession, lasting from to , was a complex period in Lisbon's history. In , Prince Michael, whom the absolutists wanted to rule Portugal as an absolute monarch, returned from exile in Vienna. Conservative politicians, clergymen and aristocratic supporters of Queen Carlota manipulated political developments and proclaimed him king,  starting a civil war against the forces of the Liberal constitutionalists who supported his brother, Emperor Peter I of Brazil.
Peter's forces won the war in and he became Pedro IV of Portugal, but the new Constitution as promulgated was more conservative than expected by the people. However, it did present some liberal reforms, such as restoration of freedom of the press, mandatory education, abolishment of the slave trade in the African colonies, extinction of the religious orders and confiscation of their convents,  as well as the expropriation of many other properties of the Catholic Church, which had supported the Miguelists. On 9 September , the politicised population, many of them petty bourgeois and literary intellectuals, joined with the National Guard to drive the Cartistas Chartists from power and forced Queen Maria II to reinstate the Constitution.
The absolutists attempted a coup in , and again in The country was divided into two opposing radical groups that refused to engage in a dialogue. Seeing opportunity in this chaotic state of affairs, the great northern European powers planned the division of its provinces and colonies. The period of Liberal government — was marked by wars and guerrilla actions, but even so, many reforms and public works projects were introduced.
The long-planned project to provide lighting in the city was finally implemented; and introduced in many private homes of the bourgeoisie between the years and Initially, lamps were lit by olive oil, and later fish oil, then were replaced by gas lamps in Plans were made to launch the construction of railways, but the war with the Conservatives made this impossible, and the first railroad line in Portugal, the Caminhos de Ferro Portugueses , between Lisbon and Carregado , would not open until This period was marked by a partial loss of Lisbon's economic vitality when Brazil became independent and its gold and other products no longer flowed into the capital.
It was at this time that titles of ' Baron ' and ' Viscount ' multiplied among the landed property owners,  many of them hereditary, but many others being limited to the life of the beneficiary receiving rents from the state or engaged in the corrupt politics of the time. The territorial aristocracy acquired the habit of spending the winters in Lisbon, staying in their manor houses solars only in summer. However, it was the common people who suffered most from the wars and the loss of Brazil, as the city's economy stagnated and it lost its international influence, going from the fifth most populous city in Europe  to the tenth and continuing downward.
Following the end of the wars and conflicts between absolutist conservatives and liberals, Lisbon was in a declining economic situation,  having lost the gold and commodities monopoly of Brazil, the source of most of its wealth since the end of the 16th century. Unable to decisively defeat the Liberals, and frightened by the economic downturn that conservative policies had led Portugal into since the 16th century, in contrast to the success of liberal England, France and the Netherlands, the absolutists who dominated the country and the capital partially relented.
Limited reforms would be allowed in exchange for defending the conservative and religious values of a mostly rural population, with political power remaining in the hands of the large landowners. Elections would be held, but only those qualified by ownership of substantial property would be allowed to vote. The patronage of the state would be shared with the neo-aristocrats and titles granted to the large bourgeoisie and capitalists. In this period Lisbon was a poor and dirty city compared to the cities of northern Europe. The first large-scale emigrations began, and many thousands of poor Lisbons departed for Brazil,  not to take government administrative jobs, but rather to rise from the lower levels of the Portuguese social scale:  Despite the poverty and backwardness of most of the country, a rich upper class rose in Lisbon which spent lavishly and behaved as if it belonged to the elite  of northern Europe, while governing a rural and backward country  crippled by economic protectionism, and lacking systems to provide state-funded education and health care.
With the decreasing importance of land as a factor of wealth, the landed aristocracy and gentry orbited the royal court, living luxuriously on allowances and salaries distributed by the state using taxes collected from the middle and lower classes. A regime "of genteel manners" was established which ceased political persecution, but also halted any reforms; corruption was routine and almost always went unpunished.
Occasionally, an exceptional politician who was amenable to change and willing to invest time and effort to bring it about would appear in the succession of mostly idle and corrupt administrators. Its inhabitants were encouraged to use the decorative ceramic tiles called azulejos on the exteriors of their houses   and to paint the facades pink, according to municipal guidelines the numerous buildings with decorated tiles of this period dominate the city centre today.
The cultural and commercial centre of the city moved to the Chiado. With the old streets of the Baixar already occupied, the owners of new stores and clubs established their businesses in the newly annexed hillside neighbourhood, which was rapidly developed. Clothing stores carried the latest Paris fashions and other luxury products, and department stores were built   and set up in the style of Harrods of London or the Galeries Lafayette in Paris, as well as new Luso-Italian cafes like Tavares and Cafe Chiado.
Buildings rose and roads were constructed in the new neighbourhoods north of Lisbon, works initiated by the city council with the support of the bourgeoisie. In the public promenade was demolished; it was replaced in by the Avenida da Liberdade Liberty Avenue , designed by Ressano Garcia to be the central urban axis of the city, connecting the Baixa with the newly developed areas of the city and extending into agricultural land in anticipation of further urban expansion.
In the vicinity was the Campo Grande then an open field and not a Garden and the new Campo Pequeno bullring, completed in in a Moorish Revival architectural style. All these new developments transformed the city. The lower middle class and the common people settled in the eastern side of the city, while the upper middle classes and the wealthy bourgeoisie moved to the western side, with the Baixa being the location of the larger retail establishments. In the cultural realm, this was the period when bullfighting and fado became popular entertainments, soon joined by the popular theatre and theatrical revues imported from Paris  which, along with classical comedies and dramas, competed with the new theatres of the capital.
The first large public gardens were created around this time, imitating Hyde Park in London and the gardens of German cities; the first was the Jardim da Estrela located opposite the Basilica da Estrela. Socially, the upper classes of Lisbon were now a mix of conservative nobles who were forced to accept, albeit reluctantly, some liberal ideas, and the newly entitled bourgeois who held many conservative ideas.
They were joined by the Brazilians, many of them formerly poor and uneducated immigrants who had immigrated to Brazil and grown rich, then returned to the city, eager to find acceptance in higher social circles. Lisbon was the industrial centre of the country, despite its industrialisation being minimal compared to that of England or Germany. The poorer strata of Lisbon society grew exponentially with the arrival of the first workers to man the new factories. Prior liberal governments had betrayed the middle class, whose taxes paid for the luxuries of the leisure classes, but they, receiving nothing in return, were invigorated by a new, more radical liberal movement, which threatened not only the old landowners but also the new capitalist barons and viscounts who depended on the largesse of the state.
An alliance between the most educated workers and the middle class was borne of the new radical liberalism, better known as Republicanism because of its opposition to the alliance of former liberals who now depended on the monarchist state the newly entitled bourgeois and the conservative monarchists of the old aristocracy, as well as large capitalists, landowners and dependents of the royal court. With the emergence of a compromise government between the more right wing Liberals and the more moderate conservatives,  as manifested in the constitutional monarchy, the lack of development and further notable reforms in the country led the more left wing Liberal party, made up mostly of middle class partisans, to reformulate its policy objectives.
Thus was born a Republican Party that advocated radical liberal reforms such as universal suffrage, the end of the privileges of the Catholic Church and rents given to the nobles, and above all, the overthrow of a political elite discredited by its corruption and incompetence. The country went into debt and was increasingly dependent on the northern provinces of the country.
The humiliation of submitting to the ultimatum of 11 January issued by Great Britain, an allied nation, was undoubtedly a cathartic episode. The conditions that made possible the Republican rise to power were above all economic. In the last quarter of the 19th century, a slow but vigorous industrialisation began in Portugal, concentrated in Lisbon and Porto.
The manufacture of tobacco products and matches were the major industries in Lisbon at the time, but there were also textile, glass, rubber and canning factories, among many others.
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Living conditions for the new working class in Lisbon were miserable. Coming in large numbers from rural areas, they lived in tin shanties in large neighbourhoods with no infrastructure on the outskirts of town, their children often working long hours in the factories. The first workers' districts appeared at this time, with dwellings built at minimal cost by entrepreneurs to attract the workforce. As the working poor struggled under deteriorating economic conditions and falling wages, the nation came increasingly under the control of an oligarchy of the rich.
The first trade unions were organised at this time, many of which were affiliated with anarchists. Instead of joining the new Marxist party as elsewhere in Europe, other workers gathered around the middle and professional classes of the Republican Party, and supported their candidates in the elections of and Despite championing property rights and the free market, the Republicans promised to improve working conditions and pass social measures.
However, the upper classes still lived in a society apart, unable to respond to the new political environment except with repression. The result was increasingly violent actions among the populace. In the workers of Lisbon organised extensive strikes, and in Lisbon finally revolted. Ordered to suppress the revolution, the army was decimated by defections.
On 5 October of the same year the armed forces deposed the monarchy, ending the government's subordination to the interests of Great Britain. Subsequently, the tax structure was modified from a model based on contributions from workers and the middle classes to one that taxed the rich more heavily. The privileges of the nobility and the Church were rescinded, while religious orders were again expelled and some of their property seized by the state.
On 5 October , Portugal became a republic, ending a monarchy that had endured since the 12th century. The period of the First Portuguese Republic — was marked by strife and political violence in Lisbon: under a little less than 16 years of republican government, there would be 45 changes of government.
This was a time of upheavals, locally and nationally.
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There was a succession of general strikes now legal , demonstrations, gunfire exchanges, and even bombings in the streets of Lisbon; the Republican political class was divided on how to handle the situation. In the monarchists exploited discontent with liberal laws imposed by the Republicans in the north, and launched a coup that failed. In the Spanish flu descended on the city, killing many thousands and worsening the situation of the workers, who then revolted several times. This growth was part of the vision of engineer Frederico Ressano Garcia,   with wide streets having tree-lined walkways in the middle, although the street grid was laid out unevenly as the area developed.
Nearly all of them were built by speculators and small contractors, mostly originating from the city of Tomar , and known colloquially as patos bravos wild ducks. The regime was staunchly conservative and nationalistic , opposing communism , socialism , anarchism , liberalism and anti-colonialism. In the s, Duarte Pacheco — , first as Public Works minister and later as Mayor of Lisbon, was responsible for a redefinition of the city's urban area by an innovative concerted action of legislation, architecture and urbanisation. The French architect Agache came to Lisbon to study the construction of a highway from Lisbon to Cascais".
This was to be a panoramic coastal road designed to accentuate the Portuguese capital's spectacular location, emphasising its proximity to the sea and associated entertainment and touristic activities, as well as sunbathing areas and thermal spas of cosmopolitan character. Lisbon would be connected to "The Costa do Sol", a tourist resort with the Palace Hotel and the International Casino, where facilities for golf, horse-riding and horse racing, polo, auto racing, fencing, pigeon shooting and beach sports were available.
Under his administration, significant changes were made in town planning policies, including new ordinances to facilitate land appropriation. Staged to commemorate the foundation of the nation in and the regaining of its independence from Spain in , the Exhibition became a vehicle for the diffusion and legitimisation of the dictatorship's ideology and values in which the idea of the nation was re constructed through a series of carefully planned images, myths and symbols.
The World Exhibition of Lisbon attracted over 3 million visitors. The site of the trade fair was located between the northern bank of the river Tagus and the Jeronimos Monastery. Today this area covers the Belem Cultural Centre and the gardens directly in front of the Jeronimos Monastery. The marina of Lisbon was constructed expressly for the fair. Despite the preparations for the Portuguese World Exhibition, Lisbon was the stage of an unusual movement: as the crossroads of the circulation of refugees from World War II, Lisbon was an important meeting place for spies from both sides, given the neutral character of the country.
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He was not the only one; the Portuguese capital became a symbol of hope for many refugees. Even Ilsa and Rick, the star-crossed lovers in the film Casablanca, sought a ticket to that "great embarkation point. The race was from Torquay , Devon, to Lisbon, and was meant to be a last farewell to the era of the great sailing ships. Public interest was so intense, however, that race organisers founded the Sail Training International Association to direct the planning of future events. Since then Tall Ships' Races have occurred annually in various parts of the world, with millions of spectators.
On 6 August , a suspension bridge connecting Lisbon to the municipality of Almada on the left south bank of the Tejo river was inaugurated. Urban renewal projects initiated by the New State razed much of the Mouraria in the s through the s, thus eradicating a considerable amount of the last physical remnants of Moorish Lisbon, the loss of which has become a subject of lament in Lisbon fado.
Surrounding areas were filled with peasants uprooted from farms and dwelling in squalid neighbourhoods. The largest and best known of these was the Brandoa. The movement was joined by a popular campaign of civil resistance, leading to the fall of the Estado Novo, the restoration of democracy, and the withdrawal of Portugal from its African colonies and East Timor. The strain of waging the Portuguese Colonial War had overextended and weakened the Portuguese dictatorship, leading to the overthrow of Caetano's regime. Younger military officers, disillusioned by a far-off and taxing war,  began to side with the pro-independence resistance against Portugal and eventually led the military coup in Lisbon, ending a dictatorship that had been in power since The Carnation revolution of , effectively a bloodless left-wing military coup, installed the Third Republic , and broad democratic reforms were implemented in the country's government.
With Portugal's admission to the European Union in , plans to rehouse the huge population living in deprived areas of the city emerged. There are now fewer slums in the capital and its environs, although there are serious problems in those that remain. But even these, such as Mouraria, have seen changes. Expo '98 Lisbon World Exposition , held to coincide with the commemoration of the th anniversary of Vasco da Gama's voyage to India, was exploited by the Portuguese government to perform a thorough renovation of the city. The Exposition's theme was 'The Oceans, a Heritage for the Future';  around 11 million visitors  attended in days, with countries and organizations represented.
The area thrives today, attracting 18 million tourists a year to its gardens, museums, commercial areas and modern buildings. It has also become a permanent residential area for up to 25, people and one of Lisbon's premier business centres, with many multinational corporations having their headquarters in its main avenue. The Lisbon Strategy was an agreement between the EU nations based on measures to improve the European economy, signed in the city in March Reforms made by local government in the first years of the 21st century established the administrative region of the Lisbon metropolitan area.
The station has since reached a ridership of 75 million passengers per year. Lisbon's international airport is located in the city centre, but with no room to expand, may soon have problems meeting demand. This small museum, located in the architecturally distinctive former Banco Nacional Ultramarino building, features displays of fashion and industrial design, grouped by decade. These consist of about a thousand objects of furniture and utilitarian design, as well as pieces of haute couture representing remarkable moments in high fashion of the 20th and 21st centuries.
The show was opened by a leotard-clad Madonna , who exploded from a shiny disco ball to the tune " Hung Up ". Lisbon is also the host city for the Portuguese editions of Rock in Rio , the largest rock festival in the world. After a major renovation, it reopened as a multi-event venue in , designed to be used for various events besides bullfighting.
Including an underground shopping centre, restaurants and a parking lot, it features a range of live performances, with many famous bands having performed there. Immigrants who came to Lisbon in the early years of the 21st century from the Portuguese-speaking African countries PALOP , especially Angola and Guinea, now constitute a large proportion of the city's immigrant population.
The majority of them arrived before the economic crisis of to fill the demand for workers in the service sector and in the construction of large public works projects. As in the past, Lisbon has a network of outdoor vegetable gardens hortas providing fresh produce to residents of many of the traditional neighbourhoods in the city, although today they are officially sanctioned and regulated.
The document was designed to improve the functioning of the Union by amending the Treaty on European Union as well as the treaty establishing the European Community. The most important reforms introduced were mitigating the chances of deadlock in the Council of the European Union , increasing the legislative and budgetary powers of the European Parliament , reducing the number of members of the European Commission, abandoning the three pillars of the European Union , and creating the positions of President of the European Council and High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy to provide greater consistency and continuity to EU policies.
The NATO Lisbon Summit of 19—20 November convened to cement NATO'S new "Strategic Concept", a plan aiming to implement better coordination between the military and civilian organisations and to address the economic concerns of member states, as well as new threats such as cyberattacks. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Olisipo. Main article: Siege of Lisbon. Main article: — Crisis. Main article: Lisbon earthquake. Main article: Estado Novo Portugal. Greek in Three Months. Hunter Publishing, Inc. A Traveller's History of Portugal. Interlink Books. National Geographic Traveler: Portugal, 2nd Edition.
National Geographic. The Neanderthals. Antoniazzi, Alberto ed. Retrieved 24 August Cira Arqueologia. Cira Arqueologia II in Portuguese. Archived from the original PDF on 21 June Retrieved 21 June University of Chicago Press. A vida dos lusitanos no tempo de Viriato. Bierling; Seymour Gitin Museu Ethnologico do Dr. Leite de Vasconcellos. Lloyd Herodotus, Book II: Commentary 1— Editorial Alpha. The Celtic Encyclopedia. Clio Press. Cities of the World: A History in Maps. University of California Press.
Academic Commons, Columbia. Columbia University. Retrieved 19 August Lisbon: a portrait and a guide. Barrie and Jenkins. International Journal of Nautical Archaeology. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Archived from the original PDF on 13 October Port of Lisbon. A Editora limitada. The South West to AD. The tradition of Phoenician or Carthaginian trade with Britain is deeply rooted in secondary writing on the subject, but the merest glance at the ancient sources is enough to reveal that this is myth, arising perhaps out of the smokescreen in which the Phoenician captains enshrouded lucrative operations in any part of their world.
None of these settlements was permanently inhabited and no settlement yields a necropolis. If tin was so central to the economic health of Phoenician colonies in the western Mediterranean, then Phoenician colonies should concentrate in the areas with access to this resource. However, Phoenicians never settled these areas permanently and peacefully abandoned most of their trading stations in modern Portugal during the mid-6th century BC.
Institute of Metals. Two myths concerning British prehistory tenaciously maintain their hold on the popular imagination. The first is that the Druids built Stonehenge. The second is that the Phoenicians came to Cornwall for tin, which they supplied to all the ancient civilizations of the Mediterranean and the Near East. The story is so firmly embedded in the south-west that it is commonly set down as a general introductory remark to prove the antiquity of Cornish mining in otherwise authoritative books dealing with recent aspects of Cornish economic history. La ciudad que navega. Expansion continued throughout the 7th century with foundations at Abul, Santa Olaia, and Cerro de Rocha.
It must be noted that none of the sites in Portugal have yet to produce a necropolis, a fact which suggests some dependence on larger colonies in the southern Iberian Peninsula. Retrieved 20 August In Gocha R. Tsetskhladze ed. In the rest of Iberia, Greek activity was mainly commercial, not calling for the establishment of permanent settlements: at most there might have been coastal towns in which stable Greek communities could have existed, although only at certain periods. University of Zaragoza. Editions Ernest Leroux. Paganism and pagan survivals in Spain up to the fall of the Visigothic kingdom.
The Catholic University of America. The Description of Greece. Imprensa Nacional. Revista Portuguesa de Arqueologia. Livermore Portugal: a short history. Edinburgh University Press. Totius Latinitatis Lexicon. Perizonii Adnotata De Olisipo a Lisboa: estudos olisiponenses. Penguin Group US. Labor Intelectual: Cultura portuguesa. Cambridge University Press. Sheridan Lea January Volume XII. Open Collections. BC Historical Books. Featured Collection. The works of Hubert Howe Bancroft.
History of Mexico: Vol. Bancroft, Hubert Howe, San Francisco : The History Company. The list of authorities quoted in each volume includes mss. The Works with changed t. For the period up to the s, it is necessary to consult all the volumes relating to the northwest Pacific. Bancroft's histories have been bitterly attacked on grounds of prejudice and failure to give adequate recognition to contributing authors. For scholars and investigators they will always remain the greatest source of authority": - Cowan.
Contents: vols. Native races. Central America. North American states and Texas.