More variable technologies, such as wind and solar photovoltaics, are generally used whenever they are available, in large part because their fuel — sunlight and wind — is free. Electricity demand, supply, reserve margins, and the mix of electricity generating technologies is constantly monitored and managed by grid operators to ensure that everything runs smoothly. Generators can only be built with approval from the PUC or PSC, and these agencies set appropriate electricity rates within their state that the utilities must abide by [ 2 ].
Transmission lines are necessary to carry high-voltage electricity over long distances and connect electricity generators with electricity consumers. Transmission lines are either overhead power lines or underground power cables. Overhead cables are not insulated and are vulnerable to the weather, but can be less expensive to install than underground power cables.
Overhead and underground transmission lines are made of aluminum alloy and reinforced with steel; underground lines are typically insulated [ 3 ]. Transmission lines carry high-voltage electricity over long distances. As electricity flows through the wires, some of it dissipates as heat through a process called resistance.
The higher the voltage is on a transmission line, the less electricity it loses. Most of the electric current flows close to the surface of the transmission line; using thicker wires would have minimal impact on transmission losses. Transmission-level voltages are typically at or above , volts or kV, with some transmission lines carrying voltages as high as kV [ 5 ].
How the Electricity Grid Works
Power generators, however, produce electricity at low voltages. In order to make high-voltage electricity transport possible, the electricity must first be converted to higher voltages with a transformer. These high voltages are also significantly greater than what you need in your home, so once the electricity gets close to end users, another transformer converts it back to a lower voltage before it enters the distribution network. Transformers convert electricity from low to high voltage for long-distance transmission, then convert it back to low voltage for use in homes and other facilities.
Transmission lines are highly interconnected for redundancy and increased reliability of electricity supply, as this map of U. However, wholesale electricity transactions, which are made between regional grid operators, are regulated by a national agency called the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FERC [ 6 ]. FERC regulates the electricity grid on a larger scale than PUCs and can resolve disputes among different market participants on the grid.
These companies facilitate competition among electricity suppliers and provide access to transmission by scheduling and monitoring the use of transmission lines. The distribution network is simply the system of wires that picks up where the transmission lines leave off. These networks start at the transformers and end with homes, schools, and businesses.
Distribution is regulated on the state level by PUCs and PSCs, who set the retail rates for electricity in each state. The transmission grid comes to an end when electricity finally gets to the consumer, allowing you to turn on the lights, watch television, or run your dishwasher. The patterns of our lives add up to a varying demand for electricity by hour, day, and season, which is why the management of the grid is both complicated and vital for our everyday lives.
The electricity grid has grown and changed immensely since its origins in the early s, when energy systems were small and localized. During this time, two different types of electricity systems were being developed: the DC, or direct current , system, and the AC, or alternating current , system [ 7, 8 ]. Competition between these two systems was fierce. Competing electric companies strung wires on the same streets in cities, while electric service for rural areas was ignored.
Despite a campaign by Thomas Edison to promote the direct current system, businessman George Westinghouse and inventor Nikola Tesla won the support of electric companies for the alternating current system, which had the distinct advantage of allowing high voltages to be carried long distances and then transformed into lower voltages for customer use [ 9 ]. As the electricity system grew, the advantages of AC allowed utility companies to build grids over larger areas, creating economies of scale. From roughly to , that approach was locked in place.
Under this structure, utilities controlled every aspect of the electricity grid, from generation to distribution to the customer. This led 17 states, plus the District of Columbia, to restructure the management of the electricity grid, allowing customers to buy electricity from competitive retail suppliers [ 11 ].
The interconnected and complex nature of the electricity grid delivers several benefits [ 12 ], including:. A historic blackout in showcased why effective grid transmission is so important. On August 14, , an Ohio power company set off the largest blackout in human history simply due to human error . Offices had to be evacuated, and thousands of people flooded hospitals suffering from the heat . Our electricity grid has come a long way since , but many more opportunities exist for improvement.
The electricity grid is a dynamic system. It has changed and evolved rapidly over the last century to accommodate new technologies, increases in electricity demand, and a growing need for reliable, diverse sources of electricity. Even on an hourly basis, the grid is changing, with different sources of electricity being manipulated to satisfy demand at the least cost. As technology changes and better options become available, significant improvements could be made to the electricity grid.
For example, energy storage technologies could allow electricity to be stored for use when demand for electricity peaks or increases rapidly, increasing efficiency and reliability. Newer, more advanced meters such as self-programming thermostats will allow better data collection for more effective management and faster response times. Even vehicles could play a role, as smart charging can allow electric cars to interface with the electric grid.
Distributed generation systems, such as solar panels on individual homes, reduce the distance that electricity has to travel, thereby increasing efficiency and saving money. Normally after how many days you inform the author the results of the review?
Is the author charged for review or publication of the paper? Best Regards Sh. I want to know that is this journal indexed by ISI Thomson or not? Thank you for bringing this to our attention. We are regularly checking on the indexing status of our journals. Thanks for your interest. We are of course offering all our journals for indexing in ISI but we have not got a final confirmation that also the International Journal of Emerging Electric Power Systems is indexed.
I could not see template for. Thank you for your interest! The expected time from submission to first decision is 60 days, with the understanding that there are several factors that could increase or decrease this time for an individual manuscript. Dear Team, This is Kabir here. I, along with my supervisor have developed the following journal: Title: Analysis of the Impact of Large Scale Photovoltaic Systems on Voltage Stability of Sub-transmission Networks This journal paper presents analysis results of the impact of large-scale PV on voltage stability for IEEE 14 bus sub-transmission network.
We would like to submit the paper to your prestigious journal for publication. Can you please confirm whether the stated topic matches with the scope of your journal or not? Thanks and Regards kabir. Dear Shahariar Kabir, thank you for your interest.
How the Electricity Grid Works | Union of Concerned Scientists
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Can you please advise me what i do Best regards. Dear ali el yakobi, thank you for your message. We have forwarded your request to our editors who will get back to you as soon as possible. Thank you, Best Regards.
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I am in the crucial time as I am about to submit my Ph. So, please kindly provide the review or review status as early as possible. Thank you in advance. So far, we did not get any response from editorial office or EIC. Please kindly forward my request and provide the review or review status of our manuscript.
Electrical Energy: Its Generation, Transmission, and Utilization
I'm sorry to hear you have not received a reply regarding your status request yet. We have forwarded your comment to the editorial department who will contact you with an update shortly. Could you please advise me what I do. Thank you very much in advance Best regards. Dear Ratna Ika Putri, thank you for your interest. We have forwarded your request to the editorial department. It would be appreciable if I can get to knew the status of my Manuscript. I have written a mail to Editor in chief also but still awaiting his reply.
Until now, the manuscript status is under review. I have contacted by email to editor several time but I did not get any response from editorial office.
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So, please provide the review or review status as early as possible. In the status of the manuscript, it is written "under review" but AE is "not assigned".