For Sartre, meaning was found in human freedom, but death was not an obstacle to an individual's freedom. As he states in Being and Nothingness, "Death is not an obstacle to my projects; it is only a destiny of these projects elsewhere. And this is not because death does not limit my freedom but because freedom never encounters this limit" Barnes , p.
In a sort of atheistic existentialist version of Epicurus, death is seen as that which a meaningful life never encounters. As Sartre explains, meaning requires subjectivity as in Kierkegaard , and "I myself escape death in my very project. Since death is always beyond my subjectivity, there is no place for it in my subjectivity" p.
The analytic philosophers, being drawn to issues of language and logic, perceived the whole topic of death as being outside the proper study of philosophy since, in their view, it is hopelessly bound up with religion and metaphysics. The English philosopher A. Ayer — , in Language, Truth, and Logic, is typical in demanding empirical evidence for belief in an afterlife because "all the available evidence goes to show that it is false" Ayer , p.
Man is the product of causes which had no prevision of the end they were achieving; that his origin, his growth, his hopes and fears, his loves and beliefs, are but the out-come of accidental collocations of atoms; that no fire, no heroism, no intensity of thought and feeling, can preserve an individual life beyond the grave; that all the labors of the ages, all the devotion, all the inspiration, all the noonday brightness of human genius, are destined to extinction in the vast death of the solar system, and that the whole temple of man's achievement must inevitably be buried beneath the debris of a universe in ruins.
The French religious existentialist Gabriel Marcel — countered this point of view. In Homo Viator he states, "If death is the ultimate reality, value is annihilated in mere scandal, reality is pierced to the heart" Crauford , p.
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Marcel discusses death from several unique perspectives. He speaks of the "death of man" as following upon the heels of Nietzsche's "death of God. Rather, he refers to a radical change stemming from what he calls "techniques of degradation," wherein the human person is degraded, dehumanized, and treated as a thing or an object rather than as a person. Under this system of depersonalization, the person is already "dead.
In Being and Having, he says that death can be "considered as the springboard of an absolute hope" Farrer , p. How can death provide hope? An essential part of one's personhood, he argues, lies in one's relationship with others, for humans are intersubjective beings. And while other thinkers have focused on what death and dying means to the individual, Marcel explores what death may mean as an avenue for fuller relationships with others—in particular, those that we love.
For Marcel, loving transcends the world of things—and nothing that can happen to the world of things including death can affect the person. In the last few decades of the twentieth century, certain postmodern thinkers have revisited the "death of man" theme. The French thinker Michel Foucault — , for instance, speaks of the "death of man," and his countryman Jacques Derrida — refers to the "ends of man.
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New York: Random House, The City of God, translated by M. Aurelius, Marcus Antoninus. Marcus Antoninus Aurelius, translated by C. Ayer, A. Language, Truth and Logic. New York: Dover Publications, Derrida, Jacques. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, Discourse on Method, translated by R. Haldane and G. In The Philosophical Works of Descartes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Edman, Irwin, ed.
The Works of Plato. New York: Modern Library, In Epicurus: The Extant Remains. Oxford: Clarendon Press, Foucault, Michael. The Order of Things. Guthrie, W. A History of Greek Philosophy. Heidegger, Martin. New York: Harper and Row, Hume, David. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Kant, Immanuel. Critique of Practical Reason, translated by T.
London: Longmans Green, Concluding Unscientific Postscript, translated by D. Kirk, G. The Presocratic Philosophers. Marcel, Gabriel. New York: Newman Press, The Mystery of Being, translated by R. Chicago: Henry Regnery Company, Homo Viator, translated by Emma Crauford. Being and Having, translated by Katherine Farrer. London: Dacre Press, Essays, translated by Jacob Zeitlin.
Nietzsche, Friedrich. Return to Book Page. Preview — Cowboy Metaphysics by Peter A. For many of us, the image of the cowboy hero facing off against the villain dominates our memories of the movies. Peter A. French examines the world of the western, one in which death is annihilation, the culmination of life, and there is nothing else.
In that world, he finds alternatives to Judeo-Christian traditions that dominate our ethical theories, alternatives that a For many of us, the image of the cowboy hero facing off against the villain dominates our memories of the movies. In that world, he finds alternatives to Judeo-Christian traditions that dominate our ethical theories, alternatives that also attack the views of the most prominent ethicists of the past three centuries.
More than just a meditation on the portrayal of the good, the bad, and the ugly on the big screen, French's work identifies an attitude toward life that he claims is one of the most distinctive and enduring elements of American culture. Get A Copy. Paperback , pages. More Details Original Title. Other Editions 5. Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about Cowboy Metaphysics , please sign up. Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia.
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Community Reviews. Showing Rating details. More filters. Sort order. Nov 25, Shawn rated it it was amazing Shelves: philosophy. Doing Pop Culture and Philosophy before it was cool, French delivers a philosophic analysis of the Western and the underlying moralities that set the theme for the Western. The fourth century BCE saw a turn towards cosmogony with the rise of Taoism in the Daodejing and Zhuangzi and sees the natural world as dynamic and constantly changing processes which spontaneously arise from a single immanent metaphysical source or principle Tao.
The Taoists held that the ultimate, the Tao, was also non-being or no-presence. This school was very influential in developing the concepts of later Chinese metaphysics. Neo-Confucians like Zhang Zai under the influence of other schools developed the concepts of "principle" li and vital energy qi. Socrates is known for his dialectic or questioning approach to philosophy rather than a positive metaphysical doctrine.
His pupil, Plato is famous for his theory of forms which he places in the mouth of Socrates in his dialogues. Platonic realism also considered a form of idealism  is considered to be a solution to the problem of universals ; i. Platonism developed into Neoplatonism , a philosophy with a monotheistic and mystical flavour that survived well into the early Christian era. Plato's pupil Aristotle wrote widely on almost every subject, including metaphysics. His solution to the problem of universals contrasts with Plato's. Whereas Platonic Forms are existentially apparent in the visible world, Aristotelian essences dwell in particulars.
Potentiality and Actuality  are principles of a dichotomy which Aristotle used throughout his philosophical works to analyze motion , causality and other issues.
The Aristotelian theory of change and causality stretches to four causes : the material, formal, efficient and final. The efficient cause corresponds to what is now known as a cause simplicity. Final causes are explicitly teleological , a concept now regarded as controversial in science. The opening arguments in Aristotle's Metaphysics , Book I, revolve around the senses, knowledge, experience, theory, and wisdom. The first main focus in the Metaphysics is attempting to determine how intellect "advances from sensation through memory, experience, and art, to theoretical knowledge".
More on Indian philosophy: Hindu philosophy.
Cowboy Metaphysics: Ethics and Death in Westerns
Samkhya is strongly dualist. The end of this imbalance, bondage is called liberation, or moksha , by the Samkhya school. The existence of God or supreme being is not directly asserted, nor considered relevant by the Samkhya philosophers. Realization of the nature of Self-identity is the principal object of the Vedanta system of Indian metaphysics.
In the Upanishads , self-consciousness is not the first-person indexical self-awareness or the self-awareness which is self-reference without identification,  and also not the self-consciousness which as a kind of desire is satisfied by another self-consciousness. The word Self-consciousness in the Upanishads means the knowledge about the existence and nature of Brahman. It means the consciousness of our own real being, the primary reality. The Atman is unknowable in its essential nature; it is unknowable in its essential nature because it is the eternal subject who knows about everything including itself.
The Atman is the knower and also the known. Metaphysicians regard the Self either to be distinct from the Absolute or entirely identical with the Absolute. They have given form to three schools of thought — a the Dualistic school , b the Quasi-dualistic school and c the Monistic school , as the result of their varying mystical experiences. Prakrti and Atman , when treated as two separate and distinct aspects form the basis of the Dualism of the Shvetashvatara Upanishad.
Self-consciousness is the Fourth state of consciousness or Turiya , the first three being Vaisvanara , Taijasa and Prajna. These are the four states of individual consciousness. There are three distinct stages leading to Self-realisation. The First stage is in mystically apprehending the glory of the Self within us as though we were distinct from it.
The Second stage is in identifying the "I-within" with the Self, that we are in essential nature entirely identical with the pure Self. The Third stage is in realising that the Atman is Brahman , that there is no difference between the Self and the Absolute. The Fifth stage is in realising that Brahman is the "All" that exists, as also that which does not exist.
In Buddhist philosophy there are various metaphysical traditions that have proposed different questions about the nature of reality based on the teachings of the Buddha in the early Buddhist texts. The Buddha of the early texts does not focus on metaphysical questions but on ethical and spiritual training and in some cases, he dismisses certain metaphysical questions as unhelpful and indeterminate Avyakta , which he recommends should be set aside.
The development of systematic metaphysics arose after the Buddha's death with the rise of the Abhidharma traditions. Noa Ronkin has called their approach " phenomenological ". Later philosophical traditions include the Madhyamika school of Nagarjuna , which further developed the theory of the emptiness shunyata of all phenomena or dharmas which rejects any kind of substance. This has been interpreted as a form of anti-foundationalism and anti-realism which sees reality as having no ultimate essence or ground. Islamic metaphysics was highly active during Europe's 'Dark Ages', beginning with the arrival and translation of Aristotle into Arabic.
More on medieval philosophy and metaphysics: Medieval Philosophy. Between about and , philosophy as a discipline took place as part of the Catholic church 's teaching system, known as scholasticism. Scholastic philosophy took place within an established framework blending Christian theology with Aristotelian teachings. Although fundamental orthodoxies were not commonly challenged, there were nonetheless deep metaphysical disagreements, particularly over the problem of universals , which engaged Duns Scotus and Pierre Abelard.
William of Ockham is remembered for his principle of ontological parsimony. In the early modern period 17th and 18th centuries , the system-building scope of philosophy is often linked to the rationalist method of philosophy, that is the technique of deducing the nature of the world by pure reason. The scholastic concepts of substance and accident were employed. British empiricism marked something of a reaction to rationalist and system-building metaphysics, or speculative metaphysics as it was pejoratively termed. The skeptic David Hume famously declared that most metaphysics should be consigned to the flames see below.
Hume was notorious among his contemporaries as one of the first philosophers to openly doubt religion, but is better known now for his critique of causality. John Stuart Mill , Thomas Reid and John Locke were less skeptical, embracing a more cautious style of metaphysics based on realism, common sense and science. Other philosophers, notably George Berkeley were led from empiricism to idealistic metaphysics. Christian Wolff had theoretical philosophy divided into an ontology or philosophia prima as a general metaphysics,  which arises as a preliminary to the distinction of the three "special metaphysics"  on the soul, world and God:   rational psychology ,   rational cosmology  and rational theology.
This scheme, which is the counterpart of religious tripartition in creature, creation, and Creator, is best known to philosophical students by Kant's treatment of it in the Critique of Pure Reason. In the "Preface" of the 2nd edition of Kant's book, Wolff is defined "the greatest of all dogmatic philosophers. Immanuel Kant attempted a grand synthesis and revision of the trends already mentioned: scholastic philosophy, systematic metaphysics, and skeptical empiricism, not to forget the burgeoning science of his day.
As did the systems builders, he had an overarching framework in which all questions were to be addressed. Like Hume, who famously woke him from his 'dogmatic slumbers', he was suspicious of metaphysical speculation, and also places much emphasis on the limitations of the human mind. Kant described his shift in metaphysics away from making claims about an objective noumenal world, towards exploring the subjective phenomenal world, as a Copernican Revolution , by analogy to though opposite in direction to Copernicus ' shift from man the subject to the sun an object at the center of the universe.
Kant saw rationalist philosophers as aiming for a kind of metaphysical knowledge he defined as the synthetic apriori —that is knowledge that does not come from the senses it is a priori but is nonetheless about reality synthetic. Inasmuch as it is about reality, it differs from abstract mathematical propositions which he terms analytical apriori , and being apriori it is distinct from empirical, scientific knowledge which he terms synthetic aposteriori. The only synthetic apriori knowledge we can have is of how our minds organise the data of the senses; that organising framework is space and time, which for Kant have no mind-independent existence, but nonetheless operate uniformly in all humans.
Apriori knowledge of space and time is all that remains of metaphysics as traditionally conceived. There is a reality beyond sensory data or phenomena, which he calls the realm of noumena ; however, we cannot know it as it is in itself, but only as it appears to us. He allows himself to speculate that the origins of phenomenal God, morality, and free will might exist in the noumenal realm, but these possibilities have to be set against its basic unknowability for humans.
Although he saw himself as having disposed of metaphysics, in a sense, he has generally been regarded in retrospect as having a metaphysics of his own, and as beginning the modern analytical conception of the subject. Nineteenth century philosophy was overwhelmingly influenced by Kant and his successors. Schopenhauer , Schelling , Fichte and Hegel all purveyed their own panoramic versions of German Idealism , Kant's own caution about metaphysical speculation, and refutation of idealism , having fallen by the wayside.
The idealistic impulse continued into the early twentieth century with British idealists such as F. Bradley and J. Followers of Karl Marx took Hegel's dialectic view of history and re-fashioned it as materialism. During the period when idealism was dominant in philosophy, science had been making great advances. The arrival of a new generation of scientifically minded philosophers led to a sharp decline in the popularity of idealism during the s.
Analytical philosophy was spearheaded by Bertrand Russell and G. Russell and William James tried to compromise between idealism and materialism with the theory of neutral monism. The early to mid twentieth century philosophy saw a trend to reject metaphysical questions as meaningless. The driving force behind this tendency was the philosophy of logical positivism as espoused by the Vienna Circle , which argued that the meaning of a statement was its prediction of observable results of an experiment, and thus that there is no need to postulate the existence of any objects other than these perceptual observations.
At around the same time, the American pragmatists were steering a middle course between materialism and idealism. System-building metaphysics, with a fresh inspiration from science, was revived by A. Whitehead and Charles Hartshorne. The forces that shaped analytical philosophy—the break with idealism, and the influence of science—were much less significant outside the English speaking world, although there was a shared turn toward language. Continental philosophy continued in a trajectory from post Kantianism. The phenomenology of Husserl and others was intended as a collaborative project for the investigation of the features and structure of consciousness common to all humans, in line with Kant's basing his synthetic apriori on the uniform operation of consciousness.
It was officially neutral with regards to ontology, but was nonetheless to spawn a number of metaphysical systems. Brentano 's concept of intentionality would become widely influential, including on analytical philosophy. Heidegger , author of Being and Time , saw himself as re-focusing on Being-qua-being, introducing the novel concept of Dasein in the process.
Classing himself an existentialist , Sartre wrote an extensive study of Being and Nothingness. The speculative realism movement marks a return to full blooded realism. There are two fundamental aspects of everyday experience: change and persistence. Until recently, the Western philosophical tradition has arguably championed substance and persistence, with some notable exceptions, however.
According to process thinkers, novelty, flux and accident do matter, and sometimes they constitute the ultimate reality. In a strict sense, process metaphysics may be limited to the works of a few founding fathers: G. Whitehead , and John Dewey. While early analytic philosophy tended to reject metaphysical theorizing, under the influence of logical positivism, it was revived in the second half of the twentieth century. Philosophers such as David K.
Lewis and David Armstrong developed elaborate theories on a range of topics such as universals, causation, possibility and necessity and abstract objects.
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However, the focus of analytical philosophy generally is away from the construction of all-encompassing systems and toward close analysis of individual ideas. Among the developments that led to the revival of metaphysical theorizing were Quine's attack on the analytic—synthetic distinction , which was generally taken to undermine Carnap's distinction between existence questions internal to a framework and those external to it. The philosophy of fiction , the problem of empty names, and the debate over existence's status as a property have all come of relative obscurity into the limelight, while perennial issues such as free will, possible worlds, and the philosophy of time have had new life breathed into them.
The analytic view is of metaphysics as studying phenomenal human concepts rather than making claims about the noumenal world, so its style often blurs into philosophy of language and introspective psychology. Compared to system-building, it can seem very dry, stylistically similar to computer programming, mathematics or even accountancy as a common stated goal is to "account for" entities in the world.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Metaphysics disambiguation. Branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of reality. Plato Kant Nietzsche. Buddha Confucius Averroes. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
October Learn how and when to remove this template message. Further information: Epistemology. See also: Ontology. See also: Identity philosophy and Philosophy of space and time. See also: Philosophy of space and time. See also: Causality. See also: Modal logic and Modal realism. See also: Cosmology metaphysics. See also: Philosophy of mind.
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See also: Determinism and Free will. Main article: Philosophy of mathematics. May Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Rationalism. Further information: Process philosophy. London: pp. Retrieved 24 November Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 14 November Hall, Ned In Edward N. Zalta ed. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Fall ed.