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An additional 62, have been seriously maimed or injured. If Igloo White demonstrated anything, it was the limits of remote warfare. As one Air Force report from explained:. By noting how long each of the sensors was activated, he could estimate the number of vehicles in the group moving through a string. This gave him enough confidence to identify this activation pattern as a potential target, and he estimated that target to be five trucks moving northward at 17 kilometers per hour.

The Air Force claimed that 75, trucks had been destroyed as a result of their sensor network. The only problem? The lag time and uncertainty of the Igloo White system in the early s was unsustainable. Lukasik thought the weakness of the Igloo White system was that the sensors were on the ground, and drones were merely relay devices between them and the computers in Thailand. These new drones had optical sensors, radar sensors, infrared sensors, among plenty of others. Humans are still in the loop. But some people find comfort in knowing, especially here in the year , that at least there were humans behind those triggers.

I called him at his office in Michigan to talk about Igloo White. What they were trying to do then is what we do now, except a lot of those sensors are mobile because they were on drones. And that continues to be an issue. The February 14, edition of the Sunday newspaper insert The Family Weekly described the tactics to come. As long as our boys in Vietnam were getting high-tech tools to kill people half-way around the world, that was good enough for them. But there were others who noticed that what goes around comes around.

How the battlefield sounded as World War I guns fell silent

One of the few voices of the s to notice that all this technology was being brought back to the United States was Robert Barkan. Remote stretches of the border have been seeded with sensors similar to the Acousids and Minisids that detect sounds and vibrations from footsteps and vehicles in Vietnam. Barkan explained that it was all coming back to the North America — the drones, the sensors, the computers. Or at least we hoped. How do I know that? It may not have worked in Vietnam. But it would radically shift the tenor on the US-Mexico border for years to come. The existence of the Jasons, the secretive group of scientists who conceived Igloo White, would finally become known to Americans through the Pentagon Papers.

And there was subsequently a debate among academics about what kind of contributions scientists should be making to the military establishment in a war like Vietnam. Suddenly the physicists who had helped win World War II were no longer seen by their peers as heroes. In a conflict like the Vietnam War, technologists solving problems for the military were regarded with suspicion.

Carmenta technologies in battlefield acoustics

Especially as those technologies were brought back from Vietnam to the US-Mexico border. Whether they understood it in the s or not, the Jasons would come to learn by the s that the technologies they had held to devise for Vietnam were coming back to the US border. Dyson had been invited to a trip to the Mexico border in the s to see how the virtual fence idea might work there at the behest of the military.

Simply, we wanted to educate ourselves about what was going on. And the tech has only expanded and gotten more sophisticated.

Battlefield Acoustic Target Localization in Electronic Sentinel System

The technologies developed in wartime inevitably have an indelible impact on the countries that manufacture them. World War II gave us computers and even drones. Battlefields have never sounded like this. Posted by Keith at Saturday, June 24, Subscribe to: Post Comments Atom. Subscribe to this feed Subscribe in a reader. About Me Keith Researcher, engineer, and lecturer in audio and video forensics, sensors, and signal processing.

View my complete profile. The system is undergoing currently in-theater operational assessment with British and US troops. Several international customers have shown also interest in this innovative system. The HGS incorporates a neurocap sensor suite to monitor brain activity, as well as multi-band, multi-mode radio frequency communications for C4 data processing. Sensor emitters on the headgear will assist in navigation, determination of target locations, target designation, combat ID, amplification devices, and movement detection sensors. A combination of these sensors will feed also a weather decision system.

A typical sensor array on the helmet see futuristic display below could consist of the following: 1. Secondary Infrared Illumination 3. Radar to detect movement 5. Hyper-spectral image processing and display Laser and Environmentally Hardened Sensors will provide sensor selection through nanometer range via digital signal processing Laser detection of unfriendly queries and reception of friendly Combat ID Thermal Acoustic Light Amplification Image Intensification Unaided Vision In addition, the sensors on the helmet will incorporate geo spatial registration and weapon targeting features that assist in navigation, sniper detection, biometric facial recognition, and target detection: 1.

Head Tracker 2. Eye Tracker 3. The effectiveness of these sensors [28] will be a function of critical C3 links and deployment logistics. Once deployed, the WAM uprights itself see picture below and autonomously searches for a target vehicle. WAM uses acoustic and seismic sensors to locate, identify and track armored targets.

When a firing solution is satisfied, the WAM launches a sublet in a trajectory over the target. The sublet uses a passive infrared sensor to detect the target and fires an Explosively Formed Penetrator EFP at the vulnerable area. In addition, the WAM has a command destruct capability for easy battlefield cleanup. Army Brigade Combat Team modernization effort.

The SUGV can be used in military operations conducted in urban environments, tunnels, culverts and caves. Using advanced algorithms and unique communications protocols, the system offers a high probability of detection PD and low false alarm rates FAR. Other UGS which are products of Israeli innovation for border control and perimeter protection include:.


The system uses a broad network of in-house developed sensor clusters, with intelligent dedicated communication, breakthrough sensing technologies and data analysis capabilities. Since all the sensors are developed in house at Elbit Systems, their connectivity in one communication network maximizes the performance of each sensor. It contains a patented low-energy design, featuring integrated solar panels for continuous operation, without the need for additional infrastructure. MTR has high target separation capability and solar panels for recharging the inner battery providing continuous power.

Figure Miniature Imaging Detector Chameleon 2 - Day and thermal video covert sensor [39], with inner pan capabilities for wide area and high resolution coverage, with no external moving parts, using wide band communication for video transmission. The above sensor systems are designed to give the military infantry personal protection while engaging in a battle theater possible having dramatic weapons exchanges. In such a theater, the possibility of injuries should factor into force strategies where optimally troops sustain minimal injuries.

The IBESS was designed to endure the hard explosions in these hot fire conflict zones while collecting invaluable data on brain trauma induced by crashes, rollovers and sudden detonations. In a Proceedings of the 8th Conference on System of Systems paper [41], the authors Mulkey, Liu and Medda describe the system architecture of the IBESS and its operative component interactions between vehicle, soldier and seat1 see article.

The soldier component has pressure ports and an accelerometer to record body blast kinetics. The vehicle system records data from sensors to get blast data on its hull and seat much like the data collected in car crash testing facilities for major auto manufacturers. The Data Collection System is an existing U. Figure IBESS high level block definition diagram. In protecting the warfighter, Lockheed Martin has develop sensing devices especially to increase situational awareness on the battlefield. It combines microelectronics, distributed signal processing and wireless mesh networking into a single surveillance system for force protection see image below.

The new engineering concept for these sensing devices is to make them low cost manufactured and expendable. Future innovations of such sensors will be to provide images of targets as well as location. These magnetic and infrared sensors that detect personnel, wheeled and traced vehicles can be hooked to seismic sensors to determine more accurately direction of travel.

Millennium Sensors are producing an Android capability to upload information. Lockheed Martin is prototyping from its Advanced Technology Laboratories the Samarai family of vehicles inspired by maple seeds. These biomimetic devices use a high-speed image sensor coupled with optical flow algorithms to drive vertical motion parameters. The MEMS accelerometer will derive vertical pitch, rool and vertical motion with a magnetometer to derive rotation [45]. A consistency-function-based algorithm has been considered due to real world issues of non-line-of-sight reverberant areas that produce cooperative and consistent errors in them.

A solution to these basic problems have led to stochastic initialization, acoustic signal detection algorithms, Cramer-Rao bounds, and acoustic localization. At the second fusion step, reduced processing creates faster estimation. In a sensor networking scenario, the two step approach reduces the inter-sensor communication requirements.

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Its only disadvantage is probable lost of information due to data compression. Redundant measurements provided by redundant sensors however minimize this deficiency in the two step approach. Air-based Applications Acoustic sensor devices are propagating with the advent of new air vehicles in the battlezone. The disadvantage of this approach is that the UAV has to have considerable size and weight. However the Microflown vector array sensor eliminates this problem.

Another innovation for airborne sensors with battlespace utility is Smart Dust. We use the military anecdote above because it was these military research groups that first conceptualized Smart Dust but the practical application of the technology can be applied to almost any industry. Dust in the fields monitoring the crops. Dust in the factories monitoring the output of machines.

Dust in your body monitoring your entire state of well being. Dust in the forests tracking animal migration patterns, wind and humidity. The entire world could be quantified with this type of ubiquitous sensor technology. But how does it really work? The advances in digital circuitry are what enable the motes to become so small while still having the ability to have a battery [48], a nominal amount of RAM and a wireless transmitter, likely powered by RFID but perhaps Bluetooth. A giant flower beetle with implanted electrodes and a radio receiver on its back can be wirelessly controlled, according to research presented this week.

Scientists at the University of California developed a tiny rig that receives control signals from a nearby computer. Electrical signals delivered via the electrodes command the insect to take off, turn left or right, or hover in midflight. Beetles and other flying insects are masters of flight control, integrating sensory feedback from the visual system and other senses to navigate and maintain stable flight, all the while using little energy.

His group has previously created cyborg beetles, including ones that have been implanted with electronic components as pupae. Unpiloted military drones and commercial UAVs are predicted to increase in coming years and possibly disastrous mid-air collisions with other air vehicles such as commercial airliners , or skyscrapers must be avoided.

The requirement for avoiding collisions between aircraft, or between aircraft and objects, applies equally to manned and unmanned aviation. Therefore, appropriate steps must be taken to cater for the absence of a pilot within the aircraft. For UAS flights, the methods used to prevent collisions depend on whether the aircraft is being flown within or beyond the 'Line of Sight' of its pilot.

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Visual Line of Sight is termed as being the maximum distance that the flight crew is able to maintain separation and collision avoidance, under the prevailing atmospheric conditions, with the unaided eye other than corrective lenses. For flights within Line of Sight, the pilot is required to employ the See-and-Avoid principle through continued observation of the aircraft, and the airspace around it, with respect to other aircraft and objects.

Within the UK, Visual Line of Sight operations are normally accepted out to a maximum distance of m horizontally, and ft vertically, from the pilot. Unmanned aircraft with a mass of more than 7 kg excluding fuel must not be flown within controlled airspace, restricted airspace or an Aerodrome Traffic Zone ATZ unless permission has been obtained from the relevant ATC unit.

One emerging sensor technology utilizes acoustic sounds to provide a passive sense and avoid system.. The acoustic probes employ proprietary windscreen technology and mounts that remove the effects of wind noise and platform vibration [50]. Interfacing with the UAV flight control system, it gathers GPS location and aircraft attitude data to estimate the location of targets.

In addition, the team's developers are designing image-processing algorithms, processing units and integration with on-board avionics. General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. The prototype DRR tracked multiple targets of opportunity, in addition to participating aircraft, throughout plus scripted encounters, including some aircraft not tracked by Air Traffic Control. Sensor data collected by these systems during the flight test will be used by the FAA and industry participants to develop and further refine their algorithms, which will in turn lead to a proof-of-concept SAA system including Collision Avoidance 3.

Sea-based Applications The battlefield of the future will undoubtedly include the oceans territoriesspecifically navigation of weapons and vessels underwater, in the littoral zones and upon the ocean surface. The Navy in conjunction with many manufacturers is building a faster class of warships accoutered with the latest sensors technologies for rapid surveillance, information and reconnaissance processing. Figure Long Range Acoustic Device LRAD — is a long-range hailing and warning, directed acoustic device designed to communicate with authority and exceptionally high intelligibility in a degree beam.

LRAD can issue a verbal challenge with instructions in excess of meters and has the capability of following up with a warning tone to influence behavior or determine intent [53]. The "hailing and warning" application for commercial shipping is similar to the successful LRAD deployments by the U. Navy on patrol craft in and around the port of Basra, Iraq to communicate with vessels in shipping lanes and around oil terminals, where the device was reported to be effective even at a distance of 1, meters. LRAD was originally conceived to support the protection and exclusion zones around U.

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Navy warships. The challenge of interdicting small boats approaching commercial maritime assets is quite similar.

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