However, geopolitical terms and narratives are also part of the vocabulary of analysts located on the left of the political spectrum in this region. Most of the geopolitical writing is affirmative and follows a geographic determinism. However, certain geographical factors, such as whether a nation is landlocked or has a long coastline or a particular geographical endowment such as prized resources , do not necessarily determine a specific foreign policy, as political actors still enjoy a high degree of latitude in making and advancing decisions and adopting geopolitical narratives to justify their policies.
Second, a new geopolitical research agenda should also focus on the reasons why and when actors resort to geopolitical narratives and should study whether these are reactions to political crisis or whether they reflect an identity crisis over the foreign policy roles of a state.
Third, further systematic research on geopolitics in Latin America should also consider the role of new geo-political narratives as the result or not of a changing international status of states, as the case of Brazil indicates. A future research agenda on geopolitics might also explore the reasons why geopolitical narratives are still so popular in Latin America. One aspect that should be dissected and analyzed surrounds the producers, propagators, and drivers of these narratives, as well as the existing types of audiences involved.
Maduro and Guaidó: Who is supporting whom in Venezuela? - BBC News
Another course of investigation may focus on the mechanisms of dissemination of geopolitical narratives. Further, there is an academic void with regard to the study of the consequences and outcomes of existing geopolitical discourses on the foreign policy and behavior of different states.
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Search History. Search history from this session 0. Metrics Views 5. Abstract Geography can certainly influence politics, as the complicated topography of South America with its inaccessible rainforests, deserts, and high mountains illustrates.
Latin America since the mid-20th century
Introduction Geography can certainly influence politics, as the complicated topography of South America with its inaccessible rainforests, deserts, and high mountains illustrates. Classical geopolitics in Latin America The reference to geopolitical codes and maps i. Geopolitics of integration The early s represented a period of change characterized by a sequence of different regional cooperation projects.
The Pacific and South Atlantic as geopolitical markers The economic promise and market projection into the Pacific Basin was already present in the traditional geopolitical thinking with regards to the Pacific Ocean. Natural resources: protection and power projection The abundance of natural resources has always been an important element in Latin American development and underdevelopment, continually attracting the interest of foreign companies and countries. Conclusions Latin America in general and South America in particular are fertile areas for neoclassical geo-politics.
Abdenur, A. Alcaro, R. Barton, J. Benwell, M. Blank, S. Brands, H.
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Army War College. Bruckmann, M. Viana and P. Cabrera T. Cairo C. Child, J. Cohen, S. The Geography of International Relations 2nd ed. Costa, W. Dodds, K. Guzzini, S. Hurrell, A. Adler and M. Kacowicz, A. Kelly, P. Kornegay, F. Legler, T. Lesser, I. Malamud, A. Riggirozzi and D. Malamud, C. Mamadouh, V. Mares, D. Parodi, C. Preciado, C. Revista de estudios sobre espacio y poder, 1 1 : 65— Reis, R. Acioly and R. Rivarola, A. The United States ignored the admonitions, trying to rally other countries to reject what Mr. Pompeo told a meeting in Washington of the member Organization of American States.
Taken together, the events escalated the confusion and conflict over who is the rightful president of Venezuela, the oil-rich and formerly prosperous country upended by political repression and severe economic hardship under Mr. Maduro was sworn in for his second term this month after an election widely viewed as rigged.
Maduro had taken office illegally. After Mr. Trump recognized Mr. Maduro cut ties with the United States and ordered all its diplomats to leave within 72 hours. Pompeo said the United States would not comply. But a senior American official, speaking on condition of anonymity, said the embassy in Caracas, the capital, was evacuating all family members and several diplomats, keeping a core team of officers in place. Maduro, addressing Supreme Court judges on Thursday afternoon, urged the United States to heed his call to withdraw all the diplomats by this weekend.
Maduro said. Opposition leaders had hoped that key members of the armed forces would break ranks with Mr. Maduro after large demonstrations across the country and international pledges of support for Mr. But so far, senior military commanders appear to be siding with Mr. Maduro, even as they express alarm over the possible consequences of rival claims to power. Padrino called Mr. Shop Books. Read an excerpt of this book!
20th-century international relations
Add to Wishlist. USD Sign in to Purchase Instantly. Overview Today, extensive interconnected global processes provide non-state actors with a degree of agency that a 'System of States' paradigm cannot account for alone.
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