The SDG Fund supports initiatives that tackle inclusive growth from a multisectoral perspective and address the following dimensions:. There is no country in the world that is not seeing first-hand the drastic effects of climate change.
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Greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, and are now more than 50 percent higher than their level. Further, global warming is causing long-lasting changes to our climate system, which threatens irreversible consequences if we do not take action now. Strengthening the resilience and adaptive capacity of more vulnerable regions, such as land locked countries and island states, must go hand in hand with efforts to raise awareness and integrate measures into national policies and strategies.
It is still possible, with the political will and a wide array of technological measures, to limit the increase in global mean temperature to two degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels. This requires urgent collective action. Addressing climate change is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the Agenda for Sustainable Development. Learn more about the targets for Goal The SDG Fund joint programmes take into account climate change adaptation considerations along the project cycle. As an example, a key element to mainstreaming climate change is the use of a climate lens.
The Sustainable Development Goals SDGs can only be realized with a strong commitment to global partnership and cooperation.
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While official development assistance from developed countries increased by 66 percent between and , humanitarian crises brought on by conflict or natural disasters continue to demand financial resources and aid. Many countries also require Official Development Assistance to encourage growth and trade. The world today is more interconnected than ever before.
Improving access to technology and knowledge is an important way to share ideas and foster innovation. Coordinating policies to help developing countries manage their debt, as well as promoting investment for the least developed, is vital to achieve sustainable growth and development. The goals aim to enhance North-South and South-South cooperation by supporting national plans to achieve all the targets.
Promoting international trade, and helping developing countries increase their exports, is all part of achieving a universal rules-based and equitable trading system that is fair and open, and benefits all. Strengthening global solidarity is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the Agenda for Sustainable Development.
SDG Fund bridges the efforts of different development partners such as UN agencies, national and local governments, businesses, civil society, and academia. All SDG Fund programmes are cooperative or joint in nature, which means UN agencies coordinate with one another and their national partners to establish integrated responses that address community-wide issues such as poor access to potable water, child nutrition, income generation for vulnerable populations, and gender parity at the institutional level.
Sustainable development must be inclusive and people-centered.
Efforts to increase the effectiveness of development cooperation should be based on basic principles of country ownership, inclusive partnerships, transparency and accountability. Economic growth has to be inclusive to ensure the wellbeing of the entire population. Inclusive growth requires full respect for human rights. Inclusive growth generates decent jobs, gives opportunities for all segments of society, especially the most disadvantaged, and distributes the gains from prosperity more equally. The first priority is to create opportunities for good and decent jobs and secure livelihoods for all.
This will make growth inclusive and ensure that it reduces poverty and inequality. Better government policies, fair and accountable public institutions, and inclusive and sustainable business practices are essential parts of a Post agenda. A second priority is to strive constantly to add value and raise productivity. Some fundamentals will accelerate growth everywhere:. Third, countries must establish a stable environment that enables business to flourish.
It also wants a simple regulatory framework that makes it easy to start, operate, and close a business. Small and medium firms that employ the most people are especially restricted by complicated regulations that can breed corruption. Fourth, in order to bring new prosperity and new opportunities, growth must also usher in new ways to support sustainable consumption and production. It must also enable sustainable development. Poverty reduction in San Pedro region. Two of the MDG-F thematic windows encouraged practices related with inclusive growth, especially providing opportunities for the most vulnerable: youth, employment and migration and private sector and development.
Some programmes on culture and development also tried to boost the economic potential of cultural industries to create livelihoods.
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Lessons learned from these programmes have been translated into a broader perspective on inclusive growth as a means of poverty reduction. Economic growth is critical for poverty eradication. Yet, an expanding economy does not mean that everyone benefits equally. Climate change is adding to the challenge of achieving sustainable food production and meeting the demands of a growing population. Events related to climate change are likely to intensify in the coming years. Abstract This article reconsiders state-led development in the changing political context of the East Asian economies of South Korea, Taiwan and Singapore.
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Regional Development Reconsidered
This article is also available for rental through DeepDyve. View Metrics. Email alerts New issue alert. Advance article alerts. The Pareto coefficient is Figure 2 shows the results of the regression analyses in which settlements with less than , , , and inhabitants were omitted consecutively. R squared is 0. The values of the Pareto coefficients are b —1.
The independent variable is significant for all cases at a significance level of 1 percent, while the value of R squared is very high above 0. The values of the Pareto coefficient are slightly higher than 1, which indicates that the concentration of settlements is high and uniformly distributed.
Hypothesis 1 was tested by calculating the Pareto coefficient in relation to different sizes of settlement based on 20 truncation points Figure 3. Figure 3 shows that the values of the Pareto coefficient equal 1 absolute term for settlements whose size is greater than inhabitants and inhabitants.
For the area in between these two sizes the value of the Pareto coefficient is higher than 1 with a maximum value for settlement size above inhabitants. Therefore, Hypothesis 1 has been confirmed. Rank-size distribution does not hold true for the lower and upper-tail of the settlement size distribution. The Pareto coefficient value is The value of the Pareto coefficient was The rank-size distribution does not hold true for extremely small or extremely large sizes of settlement, which is in accordance with previous studies Gabaix b ; Newman Urban agglomeration comprises the population of the city proper and includes economic functional areas that are comprised of the commuting flows of urban populations.
Our analysis shows that the Croatian system of cities, especially cities based on economic functions, comprise a hierarchical structure. Krugman b found that the size and growth of the few first ranked cities can be slowed down through the opening up of trade and reduced government intervention. However, international trade is not to be assumed to be the key determinant of the regional convergence process in Croatia due to work by Modica who found the differences in the concentration and dispersion processes of cities in the European Union Member States; namely, the effect of the Schengen treaty induced a concentration of population in larger cities, while the introduction of a single currency has enabled the dispersion processes.
The stress should be put on smaller cities that have a tendency to grow faster; therefore, there is room for policy implementation in both very large and very small cities. As mentioned above, policies aimed at raising regional productivities of secondary urban centres through education, structural features of each county, and investment in fixed assets, should be the primary focus for a more even urban development. Our study has several drawbacks to do with individual country analysis and limited census data. Using census data for one period of time is limited to a static view of city-size distribution.
Hence, additional power laws should be considered in future papers, especially ones concerning the cities in the lower tail of distribution as they comprise the majority of cities. Finally, it will be interesting to observe whether city size distribution has changed over time depending on the inclusion of Croatia in the Schengen area and the introduction of a single currency.
Applicable structural and cohesion funds from the European Union, as well as its Smart Specialisation policy should enable a more even development that would mitigate the possible contingencies connected with the uneven concentration and agglomeration of cities. How is the city rank-size rule connected to regional development? Methodology and data F. Results and discussion Statistics that are available after show that the number of inhabitants in Croatia has been in constant decline Croatian Bureau of Statistics: Census of Population, Households and Dwellings