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Internally pristine. Binding square and tight. Spine uncreased, but a little sun-bleached. Covers have minor scuffs. Normally dispatched same day first class from the UK. His ideas and inspiration were drawn from his own magazines and books, and from reading in libraries about Japanese prints and the theories of decoration of. Owen Jones and Christopher Dresser. The most profound inspiration came from William Morris, whose founding of a private press and use of nature as a basis for ornament made a great impression c;n the young Bradley.
By Bradley had moved to Chicago, a thriving commercial city in the midst of reconstruction after the great fire of , and in the venue of the World's Columbian Exposition. He established himself in the specialist community of typographers and printers, designing covers for Chicago's foremost trade journal, The Inland Printer, among other publications. Bradley's illustrative style depended on asymmetric, curvilinear ornament with contrasting black and white areas. The year marked the beginning of Art Nouveau in America, and Bradley and Edward Penfield became its most recognizable exponents.
Bradley's main. The company was noted for commissioning fine printing and graphic design. He also designed several posters for publishers and other commercial companies in the new style, often depicting the fashionable new woman in natural surroundings. His first book commission, for Herbert Stone at Harvard University Press in , was to design the cover, title page, page decorations and a poster for When Hearts Are Trumps, a volume of verse by Tom Hall.
The technique of colour lithography for printing large-scale posters was being rapidly improved in the last decades of the nineteenth century, and a poster craze swept the United States. The fashion for acquiring posters, especially by the French artists Bonnard, Chgret, Steinlen, Toulouse-Lautrec and others, prepared the ground for Bradley's designs, which received favourable reviews as exemplars of the new style.
Bradley was also a serious typographer, and he founded his own press, The Wayside Press, on moving to Springfield, Massachusetts, in He published his own writings in Bradley: His Book, an art and literary magazine. Here he showed a broader interest in the history of printing than was possible in the flat graphic work.
He was a keen advocate of the use of Caslon typeface and studied early Colonial printing. In later life Bradley became art editor of a series of prestigious magazines. In response to the welter of styles on display, designers associated with the fine arts or in association with the Arts and Crafts reform movement developed new styles of "artistic" poster, in the hope that these would stand out from the rest.
In France there was a close association between painters and poster art, whereas in the Netherlands, Germany and Belgium it was more often designers and architects who turned to poster design, seeking to instil values of good taste and appropriateness of form and typography. The modern artistic poster was an invention of the last years of the nineteenth century. Before this, letterpress posters for bill-posting in the streets had emphasized the text, and goods had been sold or events advertised by using the principal means of persuasion: words, set in a wide variety of typefaces.
The technique of lithography encouraged changes. Lithographic printing is described as an autographic medium because what is printed is a direct record of the lines drawn by the hand of the lithographic artist or master printer. The process, invented by the German Alois Senefelder between and , involves drawing in chalk on a flat surface; this was initially done on a specially prepared stone and later on flat rubber sheets that were compatible with mechanized presses.
Artists could visit the printers, either to instruct the master printers or to work directly on the lithographic plates. Lithography attracted artists, who valued the mark-making qualities of the medium. The new poster was also distinctive in that it allowed the copy-line, or text, and pictorial schemes to be integrated in an artistic whole. This was the case in Paris, for example, where designers and artists such as Jules ChGret, Thbophile-Alexandre Steinlen, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec and Pierre Bonnard devised lettering that enhanced their pictorial compositions.
The identity of the poster depended on the close association between the graphic and commercial arts. In the s and s posters were just as likely to be used to advertise a portfolio of prints or a concert as they were to sell bicycles, sewing machines or soap. This new and powerful status was celebrated by the poster's advocates as part of the modernity of contemporary life, but equally it was strongly criticized by its detractors, who believed that fine art was endangered by commerce. Colour lithography also offered tremendous possibilities for verisimilitude, and the technique was used for sophisticated reproductions.
The most celebrated example of this was an advertisement for Pear's soap, which popularized the painting Bubbles by the Royal Academician John Everett Millais when it was converted into a poster in Such pictorialism became commonplace in posters advertising transportation see ppi and many other industrial or domestic goods. As early as the Magazine o f Art suggested that visitors to the cities could witness "the street as art galleries". By implication, posters became a means to disseminate visual ideas to those unfamiliar with the art gallery.
This idea would remain for decades a leitmotif in commentaries on graphic art and design, and often provided an incentive to improve the quality of designs. However, not everyone was so enthusiastic about the spread of printed images across the town and countryside. In London in the 18gos, for example, the Society for Checking the Abuse of Public Advertising met to monitor issues of artistic style and the location of posters. They held the view that these modes of persuasion were too forceful, and that outdoor advertisements presented a form of visual pollution.
In many French and German cities this problem was addressed by using poster columns to encourage an orderly and artistic display. To further the promotion of the poster a number of magazines were also launched around this time, including. The spread of posters was also fuelled by private collectors and societies, and examples began to be acquired by the print collections of major museums of the decorative arts. The poster boom led the acerbic Austrian writer Karl Krauss to comment in igog: "Is there life beyond the poster?
The date of appearance of publications dedicated to the poster reflected the respective degree of commitment. This poster designed by Steinlen fo! Transatlantic ocean liners were a popular subject for prestigious chromo-lithographic posters. He linked the first generation of Art Nouveau designs with the modern interwar poster. United States in the s below shows the haphazard juxtaposition of posters on billboards and buildings that was characteristic of the period. After World War II television took an ever-increasing share of advertising.
First came Japan and France in the s. Germany, by contrast, did not gain recognition for contributing to the history of the poster until the early twentieth century, with Jugendstil designs and the Berlin poster school. The latter, a loose affiliation of poster designers who tended to work for the same art printers, Hollerbaum and Schmidt, came to be defined by a shared approach. They produced the Sachplakat - literally, "object poster" - in which a single, highly lit object was depicted in a manner that emphasized the product's brand name.
Such an approach could be used internationally, as it crossed linguistic boundaries. One of Germany's most popular poster artists was Ludwig Hohlwein ig4g , who worked in a similar style in Munich. This tradition was continued between the. The geography of poster art continued to shift for the rest of the century. By the late s Switzerland was acknowledged as "the classic country of poster advertising". In France the Alliance Graphique of A. Cassandre see pp , Jean Carlu, Charles Loupot and Paul Colin continued the dialogue between fine and graphic art.
These afichistes worked in the convention of highly individualized, autograph styles of posters, employing a wide repertoire of graphic ingenuity. During the second half of the century, however, the poster gave way in many parts of the world to advertising in wider-reaching media, such as radio and television.
Notable exceptions were China see pp , Poland see ppi and Cuba see ppig , where distinct poster traditions evolved, often for particular artistic or political reasons. Ludwig Hohlwein was the most successful poster designer in Germany during the interwar period.
His strong figurative style depended on striking contrasts and silhouettes, as in. Lucian Bernhard pioneered the Sachplakat, or "object poster". The formula depended on a straightforward iconic juxtaposition of name and object. For most consumers at the beginning of the twentieth century by far the most usual way to come across graphic design was when ' shopping.
Robin Lucienne Day
During the last quarter of the nineteenth century and the first quarter of the twentieth, huge changes in the ways goods were prepared and presented for sale were introduced. Whether customers were aware of it or not, manufacturers, distributors, retailers and advertisers were involved in a process of specialization that permanently altered the way we encounter goods. Before a designer was sometimes involved in this change, although in most cases designers remained anonymous and were not recognized as individuals.
Packaging was nothing new. The Chinese are known to have had labels Goods sold by middlemen were given names, or "brands", that were not those of the distributor or the manufacturer. Until Art Deco see pp in the s the modernity of goods was not always the obvious sales strategy. Instead associations with tradition and quality appeared most noticeably in advertisements for new products. References to products' success in the universal exhibitions attested to their value. The "science" of advertising and the psychology of marketing were introduced to university syllabuses in the early igoos in the Unites States, where journals such as Profitable Advertising and The Inland Printer covered the conjunction of interests of the printer, retailer,and advertiser.
It was not until the interwar period that an equivalent specialist press emerged in Europe. All acted as guarantees of quality, promising that the customer would receive goods free from contamination. However, the change in scale of distribution brought about by industrialization and the railways accelerated new techniques of salesmanship.
Singer stamped its name on its sewing machines in the s as sales increased across the United States. Over the following years more mundane goods, such as soaps and biscuits, appeared with imprints of their company or signets and trademarks. The move to encourage trademarks began with the Union des Fabricants in Paris in In the area of foodstuffs, technology enabled goods previously sold loose as staples to be packaged I hygienically in ways that could withstand distribution.
Sainsbury show a coordinated approach to the shop front in place by the early century. Graphic design was also applied to packaging and delivery bicycles. Machines for printing and embossing designs on metal for decorated tins were developed in the s, followed by cardboard technologies and automatic canning and bottle-making.
Aluminium foil was invented in and cellophane in Manufacturers stressed that the label or package was not just an advertisement but an integral part of the. The bold calligraphic trademark and the bottle's distinctive shape enhanced its identity. The original designer of the bottle is unknown, but the industrial.
The package design, by Barringer, Wallis and Manners Ltd, emphasized the tradition of the company as well as asserting the modernity of this brand. A uniform approach to this product's identity, embracing both bottle and box, illustrates the professionalization of packaging design that had occurred by the middle of the century. Once a design was deemed successful, i t could be retained with only minor modification for many years, asserting the enduring strength of the brand in the marketplace. The movement was the first identifiable stage in the twentieth century when women as a group defined representation and questioned social convention through popular graphic means.
The visual arts, and in particular banners, posters and leaflets, were a central part of the strategy for campaigners, and the forms of visual representation employed reveal the complex nature of the struggle. The Reform Act of had seen the enfranchisement of middle-class men, or one-fifth of the population.
In spite of attempts by several groups in the second half of the nineteenth century, an equivalent recognition of the rights of women was resisted by successive governments, even when further Acts in and increased representation to the majority of men. The situation for women remained unchanged after years of struggle and attempts to lobby members of political parties were always diverted, but the campaign escalated until many forms of direct action were taken.
The WSPU was the militant group. The Daily Mail invented the term "suffragette" as a diminutive of the suffragist, and even though the name was initially disparaging, it stuck and was adopted to describe those who believed in "deeds not words". No-single designer represents the full variety of strategies among the Suffragette artists. Instead designs reflect a complex set of circumstances and their work ranges from Pre-Raphaelite depictions of women, to representations similar to contemporary advertising or children's illustrations, and imitations of popular prints Typical of the Suffrage Atelier is the use of a popular graphic form to draw attention to inequality between the sexes.
The cartoon format, familiar from magazines, is used to explain differences in inheritance laws for men and women. In response anti-suffrage campaigns used similar graphic strategies to provoke ridicule. Middleclass women had gained access to arts and crafts schools in the last years of the nineteenth century on an unprecedented scale. Therefore there were many skilled and talented women who could join artists' groups. Visual metaphor was abundant in both pro- and anti-Suffrage campaigns. A guiding principle was the cheapness and appropriateness of the means of reproduction.
The WSPU, by contrast, had only a few individual artists associated with its cause, and it preferred direct action and public spectacle. It was not until 6 February that the Representation of the People Act became law. All men over the age of 21 received the vote, as well as all women over 30 who were "householders, the wives of householders, university graduates and occupiers of property worth 5 per year". In women gained the vote on the same basis as men. The depiction of the figure draws on the medievalized female beauty associated with the Arts and Crafts movement.
As Alice found herself confounded by W. Rabbit, Esq. Lion : '' Ladies as a s h shan't have, and ladles as don't ask don't want! Eric Gill was a sculptor, letter-cutter, typeface designer and illustrator, whose most important contribution to graphic design was the typeface Gill Sans, which changed the face of British typography in the mid-twentieth century.
Gill studied lettering at the Central School of Arts and Crafts in London, which, under the directorship of the architect W. Lethaby, was an important source of Arts and Crafts ideas. Gill was taught by Edward Johnston, who was responsible for the revival of the art of formal lettering in England. While Johnston emphasized penmanship, Gill applied these ideas to letterforms in stone and established a career as a stone- and letter-cutter. Gill's life breaks down into periods when he was a member of established artistic and religious communities - he converted to Catholicism in mid-life.
These settings provided an important environment for his understanding of the unity of art, spirituality and life. He was at Ditchling, Sussex, from to , as a member of the Craft Guild of St Joseph and St Dominic; then, from to , at Capel-y-ffin, in the Black Mountains of south Wales, where a group of artists and craftsmen joined him; and from at Pigotts, a farmhouse near High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire, where he set up a press with Ren6 Hague.
In Gill was asked by Stanley Morison, typographic adviser to the Monotype Corporation, to design a new typeface. The result was Perpetua, a Rne classical alphabet, aspiring to the tradition of Caslon and Baskerville, and its italic variant, Felicity Gill started work in on a second typeface for Monotype, an adaptation of Johnston's Railway type.
Based on the Roman alphabet, it was derived from exact mathematical drawings produced by Gill, although Monotype's mechanical advisers made important modifications,. Sill Sans series were developed. Like many other sans-serif typefaces, Gill Sans did not work well for text, but it was very effective for forms and timetables and was made famous by the distinctive book covers of the publisher Penguin. Gill's ideas on typography and the graphic arts became known through An Essay on Typography and his Autobiography Gill had several associations with members of the private-press movement.
A celebrated example of the. It was printed by the Golden Cockerel Press in an edition of in Typically Gill's figures have elongated faces and simplified facial character, and his treatment of drapery stresses the linear movement of the designs. The integration of decorated capitals, illustrations and his Golden Cockerel type resulted in his distinctive conservative modernity. To take a sheet off the heap, ha places his tcdy almost straight bebre the near side of the tympan: but he nimbtr twlrts the upper p m of his body a littlc 5ackwards towards the heap, the b a n a t o see chat he takes but one sheet 8-pt.
Serif, , showing the changes in the design from 8point light to point titling. Gill Sans became the most popular sans-serif typeface in Britain between the wars. It was used on timetables. This wood engraving is typical of the precision of line in Gill's informal work. Gill moved to Pigotts, near High Wycombe, in and produced this map to guide visitors. One of the buildings housed the press that Gill established with Rene Hague. Other buildings included a workshop, where he did sculpture and inscription lettering, and his studio, where he drew and made wood engravings.
With the approach of the twentieth century, Vienna became the site of a vibrant reaction against the established artistic order. In the young painter Gustav Klimt, convinced that the time was ripe for a new style, led a group of artists, known as the Vienna Secession, who broke away from the city's Kiinstlerhaus, a gallery firmly associated with academic and historicist traditions of art.
In seeking a consciously new style that was in tune with the avant-garde of other major European cities of the time, the Secessionists were part of an international quest for an appropriate design for the new century. Generally rejecting the overabundance of floral ornament in the contemporary French Art Nouveau, they turned instead to a controlled sense of line and decoration, rich materials and strong references to classical forms and symbolism. This style was epitomized by the Secession. Secessionist posters advertising the group's work are among the most striking graphic designs of the first decade of the century.
Exhibitions were publicized by a highly stylized, decorative design, usually in exaggerated vertical format and showing a female figure with suggestions of richly printed textiles. The lettering and motifs were designed as a unity. In many cases the block-style lettering was partly inspired by that of Charles Rennie Mackintosh see pp and the Glasgow Four, who were known through their success at Turin's international exhibition of and were subsequently commissioned by Warndorfer to design an interior in Vienna.
However, the distinctive lettering movement in Vienna was mainly attributable to one individual, Rudolf von Larisch, who taught at the city's School of Applied Arts. Many Secessionists were taught by him and others knew his work and his books iiber Zierschrifien im Dienste der. A forum for Secessionist ideas was the journal Ver. Sacrum Sacred Spring , which published essays, poems and exhibition commentaries from until This journal was a very conscious form of graphic expression. Ii revealed a highly aestheticized approach to page layout, with the use of metallic and coloured inks, wide borders, and a clear sense of the open page, decorated initials and chapter headings, as well as a variety of papers, including transparent insertions with discreet watermarks and other novel decorative devices.
These were led by Josef Hoffmann and Koloman Moser, with the financial assistance of the banker Fritz Warndorfer, and their declared aim was, in Hoffmann's words, the "pursuit of art and quality in all the crafts". The Werkstatte set out to produce limited lines of furniture, metalwork, textiles, glass and ceramics. Inspiration came in part from the Arts and Crafts movement of William Morris and others, although in Vienna there was a greater sense of luxury than among their British counterparts.
In the field of graphic design, the Werkstatte provided companies and individuals with. Several members of the group designed prestigious posters in a distinctive vertical format for the important exhibitions of the Vienna Secession. Here Moser has made the motif of the Art Nouveau woman almost abstract. The design bears comparison with the work of. Koloman Moser, a leading figure in the establishment of the Werkstatte, studied painting and then design. Ver Sacrum Sacred Spring was the cultural magazine that promoted the Vienna Secession and the applied arts. A finely produced publication illustrated by members of the group, it specialized in poetry and aesthetic philosophy as well as promoting the new aesthetic way of life.
Among the most notable of the Werkstatte designers of lithographic prints was Carl Otto Geschka. The illustrative work produced in Vienna had much in common with the illustrations and prints of artists associated with the Munich Jugendstil. Through these projects, other new artists were introduced to the Viennese group, such as the young early Expressionists Oskar Kokoschka and Egon Schiele, who both went on to become famous painters.
The distinctive graphic designs of the Wiener Werkstatte belong to the years before , and so are part of their first phase. Later, at the height of their success, the Werkstatte were selling designs in many media through shops in Paris and New York, as well as in Vienna. Throughout the s the workshops continued to produce goods in a variety of styles, but, faced with mounting financial difficulties, they closed in At first he had criticized the Secessionists' posters as illegible. He encouraged them to make their lettering more controlled but without losing its characteristic energy.
Among the exercises Larisch taught them was filling a square with the letterform, to help develop a fine sense of figure and ground. The square was a consistent motif in the Secession style, and it appears in, for example, Secessionist stationery and the monogram "WW" of the Wiener Werkstatte. This distinctly linear approach to form was a feature in the decoration of objects across various media, including tableware, textiles and architecture.
In addition to the obviously "designed" graphic works of the Werkstatte, another distinctive form of graphic output was their highly decorative illustrations. Series of woodcut and lithographic prints were published as postcards or book illustrations in richly coloured, dense. Hoffmann and Moser designed the distinctive identity of the Wiener Werkstatte, which was applied to all items of stationery.
It was based on a repeated "W" and the lettering was broad, angular and highly stylized. The Kohns were leading manufacturers of modern furniture. Wiener Werkstatte designers took on commissions for fabric and furniture designs for the company as well as designing its publicity material. Mackintosh's scheme for the house won first prize in a competition organized by Koch in the magazine Innen-. The house was built retrospectively in the s in Bellahouston Park, Glasgow. The drawing shows a version of Mackintosh's famous high-back chairs and the recurrent thistle motif.
The Scottish architect and designer Charles Rennie Mackintosh is best known for his furniture and architectural designs. But he also produced graphic art in the form of posters and inscriptions, as well as highly stylized lettering on his architectural drawings. His graphic work played a very important role in broadening recognition of the so-called Glasgow style. The pair attended evening classes at the Glasgow School of Art, where the principal, Francis Newbery, introduced them to the sisters Frances and Margaret Macdonald.
MacNair and Frances. The two couples established a studio, taking on decorative designs for clocks, embroidery, book illustration, furniture, light fittings and jewellery, and became known as the Glasgow Four. An important inspiration for the group was The Studio, a magazine launched in to promote new. In particular they took from the figurative styles of Aubrey Beardsley and Jan Toorop, adapting their attenuated, willowy women with motifs of flowers, often thistles, and gentle greens, greys, pinks and purples.
The style was at its height between and , a period when Mackintosh was also especially successful as an architect. He won the competition to design a new building for Glasgow School of Art. He also produced designs for houses, a church and a school, as well as. The compositional feel was close to that of the Vienna Secessionists josef Hoffmann and Koloman Moser. Typified by Mackintosh, the Glasgow style used floral motifs and elongated female forms in common with Art Nouveau in other centres. The angularity and stylized geometry of designs like this poster were distinctive left.
His first contact with London had been during an unsuccessful contribution to the Arts and Crafts exhibition in , when the Glasgow Four received a hostile reception. However, their work was more favourably reviewed elsewhere in Europe. Mackintosh's graphic work was not as prolific as his other design work, yet it was an important aspect of the Glasgow style, particularly his stylized lettering.
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His graphic designs combined familiar Art Nouveau motifs, but he also gave them a tautness of Line and geometrical emphasis that added to their distinctiveness. A special issue of the art magazine Ver Sacrum was devoted to Glasgow, and Fritz Warndorfer, the banker sponsor of the Wiener Werkstatte see pp ,. The architect also won a competition, part of Alexander Koch's Zeitschrifi fijr Innen-Dekoration in , for the design of the "House of an Art-Lover".
Other contemporary designers applied the Glasgow style more prolifically in areas of book design, illustration and typography. They included Jessie M. In many ways the real fulfilment of Mackintosh's lettering came at the end of the century, when Erik Spiekermann and MetaDesign see ppI Architecture and Design for For many designers the conflict had created a tabula rasa on which the world could be built anew.
As a result the interwar years witnessed a full integration o f experimental artistic ideas within graphic design, and art and design schools became a laboratory for testing the fundamentals of design language. Before Italian Futurism had celebrated the coming o f war through the apocalyptic vision o f machinery and factories colliding in paintings and poems.
Their manifestos disrupted the conventional syntax o f the printed page in what were some of the most experimental typographical arrangements o f the time. Futurists and Dadaists explored the principle of simultaneity. In recognition that the eye can take in immediate messages across a page, texts were arranged apparently arbitrarily. One o f the Futurist inspirations came from seeing advertising hoardings from a passing train: the equivalent of typography in motion.
Raiding the compositor's tray, artists, designers and poets experimented with letterforms and the arrangement o f words, emphasizing or distorting meaning. The end of World War I marked a change in sensibility in art and design. Encouraged by the successful political revolution in Russia of and several attempted revolutions elsewhere in Europe, many young artists and designers pledged allegiance t o the working classes. The hardship o f returning soldiers, which was exacerbated by the widespread destruction of the built environment during the war, led to an urgent need for housing.
Responding to the crisis, architects embarked on social projects to provide mass housing and functionalist furniture. International visual communication was also identified as a priority. Designers held that this could encourage international understanding and hoped that abstract geometry, simplified sansserif typefaces and photography or photomontage could combine as a universal visual language that would transcend differences o f culture and class. They came together in groups that ignored national boundaries, as in the Constructivist Congress in Diisseldorf, to which designers from Romania, Scandinavia, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Germany and the Soviet Union contributed.
Such meetings gave rise to small periodicals and reviews, further promoting experimental design ideas. Although the rhetoric of the new graphic design invoked the machine, individual designs were not always a mechanized product. McKnight Kauffer and Cassandre, for example, used the manual airbrush to suggest machine-like precision in their posters. By far the most popular variant of modern graphic design was Art Deco, a style retrospectively named after the Exposition lnternationale des Arts Decoratifs et Industriels Modernes, held in Paris in Less extreme than the new typography, Art Deco was associated with film, fashion and luxury goods.
Also in France, the psychological meaning of visual language was investigated by the Surrealists after The juxtaposition of unexpected elements was initially a disruptive strategy intended to expose latent sexuality and psychological unease. However, it could equally be used by graphic designers to intrigue the customer looking at an advertisement and cause surprise at the unexpected, as part of a developing psychology of retailing. Modern ideas of unexpected juxtaposition were especially applicable to fashion photography, and in this spirit Alexey Brodovitch introduced Surrealist photography to the United States through his magazine art direction.
The path of modernism was disrupted and displaced by the advent of totalitarianism in Europe. In , on the coming to power of the National Socialists in Germany, graphic design migrated to Switzerland, or Italy, where Mussolini continued to approve of Futurism. Modernism then moved further afield, most characteristically via Paris and London to the United States. Many of the designers discussed in this chapter took this path.
Other designers were taken up by sympathetic art directors and quickly appeared as cover artists This poster for the second part of the film Die Frau ohne Namen The Woman Without a Name shows all the elements of the "new design" as developed in the s by designers interested in defining a modernist graphic language. The transfer of the ideas of modernism to the pragmatic, commercial climate of America did not lead to a seamless adoption of all of its principles.
The ideological commitment to a new society expressed in Europe during the s had informed many of the aesthetic values of early modernism. However, removed from its original context, the style at times became a set of borrowed mannerisms. Its central characteristics - a tendency towards simplification; use of signs and symbols as visual shorthand; use of a grid; a bright, associative visual language with parallels in modern art - would be transformed in the United States into a visual language for corporations, just as much as for individual design experiment.
His choice of typeface, primary red. The Futurist movement was announced to the world in a founding manifesto, published in the French newspaper Le Figaro on 20 February igog. Eleven points of action summoned young artists to reject the museum-minded approach to the culture of the past and t o embrace modern technology, speed, the machine and war: "a roaring car that seems to ride on grapeshot is more beautiful than the Victory of Samothrace". The leader of the movement was the Italian writer and poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. In painting, for which the movement is best known, the Futurists concentrated on urban subjects, which they depicted through fragmented and facetted forms reminiscent of Cubism.
What most distinguished such works was the concern to depict speed and simultaneity through lines of force, repeated motifs and the inclusion of typographical elements, all emblems of a hectic world of advertising, cafes and railway stations. Marinetti's manifestos were planned as part of a provocative cultural programme. He organized Futurist events in major European cities from to , when poetry and music recitals accompanied exhibitions of the visual arts. As he made clear in the "Destruction of Syntax" manifesto of , the written and printed word.
It opened the way for Marinetti and other Futurists metaphorically to raid the compositor's tray for greater impact in a series of small publications. Marinetti's first book, Zang Tumb Tumb, published in , was an attempt to convey the Battle of Tripoli in typographic form. He was particularly harsh towards parallel experiments by the French poet Mallarme, who aimed to break down the conventional syntax of poetic language, dismissing his work as a "precious aesthetic" and "static".
The commercial adoption of Futurism occurred largely in the , led by Fortunato Depero, who created covers for Vanity Fair magazine and advertising design for Campari, as well as his own remarkable typographical experiment, the book Depero Futurista In this "explosive" novel, published in Milan in , Marinetti, the leader of the Futurists, divided his personality during. The book must be the Futurist expression of our Futurist thought.
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Not only that. My revolution is aimed at the so-called typographical harmony of the page, which is contrary to the flux and reflux, the leaps and bursts of style that run through the page. For example: italics for a series of similar swift sensations, boldface for the violent onomatopoeias, and so on. With this typographical revolution and this. This is a later version of Marinetti's igig text Words in Freedom, bound in tin plate to celebrate his enthusiasm for technology.
The designer, D'Albisola, was more systematic. Depero joined the Futurists in Rome in This remarkable book, with a bolted cover, acted as a self-portrayal, showing examples of Depero's designs.
Depero employed the typographic dynamism o f Futurism in advertisements, posters and magazine covers as well as in artistic manifestos. The colour lithographic poster had been perfected in the years up t o , and before cinema or radio could supersede them, posters were the major form of mass visual propaganda. War posters drew from the visual traditions o f their respective countries and consequently indicate strong national styles. But, because they needed to address shared concerns of public morale and war effort, many also indicate common techniques of visual persuasion.
The Committee organized the publication of a vast number of posters until conscription was introduced in January in response to mounting difficulty in encouraging young men to enlist. The output of war posters exceeded the numbers in the commercial advertising campaigns of peacetime. In addition to enlistment posters, the other major form was posters intended to encourage people to contribute to the war effort by buying war bonds.
Although World War I was the first mechanized, technological war, witnessing the introduction of aeroplanes, artillery, tanks and Zeppelins, the emphasis of many posters tended to be on the resulting human situation. Great play was made of the psychological relationships within soldiers' families, or their relationship with future leaders. Among the most famous was "Daddy, What Did cover. The pointing finger and staring eyes of Lord Horatio Kitchener, Britain's Secretary of State for War, asserted a direct one-to-one message. In contrast to the emphasis on figurative and literal depictions in the posters of the Allies, German and AustroHungarian posters tended to have simpler designs, derived from the Secessionist and Jugendstil movements.
Their posters concentrated on war loans and war bonds. In this area, posters produced for both sides tended to concentrate either on the women and families left at home or on action in the field. Animal symbolism has a long tradition in the graphic arts and during World War I it provided a familiar visual language to encapsulate stereotypes such as the German eagle, the Gallic cock and the British lion.
These appeared in Allied posters, but, curiously, German posters did not feature animal symbolism to a great extent until after the war, when poster designers presented the extreme political opponents by employing exaggerated animal types. Lumley of around that depicted the domestic scene of a father being questioned by his daughter in the future. It was unquestioningly accepted that all male viewers of the poster would rise to its challenge, with the unambiguous implication that children expected their fathers to fight. Such a strategy of playing on guilt and stereotypes in the public mind would subsequently become formative for advertisers in the interwar years.
This was first used as a London Opinion magazine. Forceful animal symbolism is used here t o represent the perceived dangers o f anarchy to Germany, which, after defeat in the war, experienced extreme political turbulence. Based in Munich, the conservative Engelhaard was a painter, poster designer and illustrator and contributed to the satirical journal Simplicissimus. During the war the respected and prolific British artist Frank Brangwyn produced visual propaganda. Some criticized this poster for its candid depiction This image was adapted as a recruiting poster carrying the same portrait of Lord Kitchener, Britain's Secretary of State for War.
It was a prototype of effective wartime propaganda. Fred Spear produced this poster opposite for the Boston Committee of Public Safety after the sinking of the Lusitania by a German submarine. The United States entered the war in April. Edward McKnight Kauffer, an American designer who lived for much of his professional life in London, made a major contribution to British graphic design in the interwar years. He was a highly gifted artist who applied his understanding of modern styles of painting, particularly those associated with Paris, in a range of striking designs for important clients.
Kauffer studied for a few months at the Art Institute of Chicago before being sponsored to travel to Paris in He took the name McKnight in. On the outbreak of World War I, however, it became. An overriding interest for Kauffer was the poster, and in he published a book on the subject, The Art of the Poster. His first designs were painted. By contrast, a poster advertising a. The design reflected his awareness of Japanese prints. Like many artists and designers of his generation, he was inspired by the simplicity of.
An important challenge for Kauffer, with his strong commitment to modern design, was to identib like-minded people who would commission his work. Unlike many parts of continental Europe, Britain showed little enthusiasm for modernism. An important professional relationship for Kauffer began in , when he first worked for Frank Pick, the publicity manager for London Transport, who was a strong advocate of improved.
Through Pick, Kauffer's mature style was introduced to a wide public in the form of travel posters, of which he designed for London Transport. Pick pioneered. As part of his strategy for the design of stations and trains, he asked Kauffer and other designers familiar with modernism to design posters for display on stations. These stressed the attractions of locations served by the Underground, such as.
Kauffer had trained in Paris just before designing this poster for London Transport. His famiiiarity with Cubism shows in the treatment of the drapery and background scene. Kauffer also benefited from the patronage of jack Beddington, advertising manager of the ShellMex and BP petroleum company, and this led him.
While many of the designs were modern, the format reinforced the separation of word and image and therefore ran counter to the hopes of many graphic designers. Kauffer was well aware of developments in the new typography in mainland Europe. Influenced by these, this design. Kauffer, in particular, was sponsored by the publicity manager, Jack Beddington, and produced posfers in several styles.
In this campaign Beddington responded to criticism of advertisers for despoiling the countryside by introducing posters for use on the sides of delivery lorries. While always concerned to produce modern designs in a variety of styles, Kauffer also felt a deep empathy with England. He expressed this in his romantic interpretations of landscape, which drew on a more traditional sensibility. Kauffer knew many figures from literary circles and designed book jackets for Gerald Meynell o f the Westminster Press, Francis Meynell of the Nonesuch Press, and the publisher Faber.
This work allowed him to pursue a more private approach to imagery. In the late s and the s Kauffer continued to produce posters and book covers but also took on designs which offered new opportunities to work threedimensionally, devising interior designs, theatre sets and shop windows. He also designed rugs for the Royal Wilton.
His association with modern architects led to commissions for photo-murals, in which his fluency with Constructivism and Surrealism was clear. In he became art director at Lund Humphries, a London publisher firmly committed to the promotion o f modernism. He also assisted with a series o f design exhibitions, several devoted t o newly arrived 6migr6 graphic designers from Europe, among them Ian Tschichold see ppg and Hans Schleger.
Kauffer's work was shown in an exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art, New York, in , a sign o f his international standing.
Pioneers Of Modern Graphic Design by Jeremy Aynsley
This poster was part of a campaign to encourage passengers to use London Transport to enjoy culfural events. Peignot was the most popular of the three typefaces Cassandre designed. For this all-purpose typeface he retained the original form in lower and upper cases of many of the letters, inspired by the characters in Carolingian manuscripts. Cassandre incorporated Florent's packaging design as a vital element of this early poster.
Cassandre, coincided with the transition, in the s and ig3os, of French commercial art from a strong lithographic poster tradition to a fuller range o f graphic design. Of the work o f a trio o f internationally recognized Parisian poster designers, the others being Paul Colin and Jean Carlu, Cassandre's is the most celebrated.
His posters carried familiar French and international brand names and, in many cases, established their visual identity and long-standing resonance. Among the first posters Cassandre designed were those for the Parisian furniture store Au Bucheron. When they appeared on the city's streets in , these striking designs were some of the earliest to interpret the ideas of modern painting and to emphasize the typographic arrangement of words as a key element in the design.
Cassandre's career as a graphic designer took off at a time when the Paris art world was still investigating the compositional discoveries of Cubism, Futurism and Purism, and he applied many of the ideas of Picasso, Braque and L6ger to his new medium. In all these artistic movements, modern painters had depicted still lifes, portraits or street scenes through the breaking up of conventional perspective.
DESG U7004 - Introduction to Graphic Design
What were called "facetted" forms were used to merge objects in space. The idea of. Paris immediately after World War I. On designing his first poster he adopted the pseudonym "Cassandre" -. This famous poster for the popular alcoholic drink Dubonnet appeared in several versions, either as a single image. Cassandre's work was also in tune with the simplification of form that characterized much of the design known as moderne in the years leading up to the influential Exposition Internationale des Arts Decoratifs et lndustriels Modernes held in Paris in Cassandre's compositions were derived from a firm geometrical base, more familiar to architecture than graphic design.
The Florent poster shown here, for example, is based on a rectangle and the diagonal line draws attention to this proportion. The composition is softened and enhanced by a series of repeated motifs, the curves of the tin box and the product's name. Some of Cassandre's most famous posters - he designed a total of more than - were produced for. These designs show his extreme virtuosity in using elegant symbols as a form of visual shorthand. These he depicted in illusionistic spaces with clever use of shadow, intriguing silhouettes or reversed forms. Like many of his contemporaries, including the architect Le Corbusier and the painters L6ger and Ozenfant, Cassandre stressed the beauty of machines.
Echoing Le Corbusier's functionalist declaration that "the house is a machine for living in", Cassandre wrote in of the poster as the "machine i annoncer" a machine for announcing. By the ig3os, together with the precise depiction of industrial forms, which he achieved by using an airbrush, Cassandre introduced neoclassical heads or figures into his designs - a. NU 91 MA1 All 5. Many posters in Cassandre's mature style derive their effectiveness from the use of the airbrush. In this example, advertising the Grand International Lawn Tennis Fortnight staged in Paris in , the tennis ball and net are created by masking the surface and defined by the transition from dark to light.
At the peak of his activity he was also commissioned by Charles Peignot, of the prestigious type foundry and publisher Deberny Peignot in Paris, to design typefaces. An acknowledgement of Cassandre's international significance came in , when the Museum of Modern Art, New York, installed a solo exhibition, making him one of the first graphic designers to be honoured in this way. Following this, he spent the winters of and in New York, where he designed covers for the magazines Fortune and Harper's Bazaar, as well as monthly press advertisements for the Container Corporation of America and advertisements for the agencies Young and Rubicam and N.
At what might have been the apex of his career, Cassandre appeared uncomfortable with the division of labour in New York publishing, which was more marked than in Europe. He retreated to France and concentrated on stage design and painting, more at ease with the European model of the autonomous graphic artist. Bauhaus see pp6o Cassandre's typefaces are distinctive for their stress on negative and positive space.
One of the important sources for their style was the Carolingian lower-case letterforms developed during the tenth century. Cassandre designed many posters advertising travel, notably by luxury train and ocean liner. This example depends on the suggestive possibilities of geometry, Characteristically, it is clearly signed with the designer's autograph.
The first poster and manifesto for De Stijl indicated the rectilinear character of the movement's style. The logotype was made up of blocks, and the design suggested an abstract architectural space.