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Algar , J. Ramos Solano.

Plant-Soil Interactions: Nutrient Uptake

Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Received Apr 22; Accepted Jun Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author s and the source are credited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Iron is one of the essential elements for a proper plant development. Introduction Iron is a crucial element for proper plant development. Materials and methods Bacterial strains Two siderophore-producing bacterial strains were studied; Chryseobacterium spp.

Siderophore production media, quantitative determination and iron-binding capacity Bacterial strains were grown in modified M9 medium MM9 without added iron Alexander and Zuberer Experimental design Tomato seeds of Lycopersicon esculentum var. Chlorophyll determination Chlorophyll content was determined on the last fully expanded leaf of plants from each treatment.

Open in a separate window. UV—Vis spectra of C and N Biometrical analysis Data obtained from biometrical analysis of tomato plants appear in Fig. Chlorophyll content Chlorophyll content analysis showed non-significant differences in total chlorophylls between siderophore treatments S or BS and the Hoagland-treated plants Fig. Discussion Iron is an essential element for plants, and, therefore, it is absolutely necessary to close plant cycle.

Conclusions Bacterial siderophores from C are effective in supplying Fe to iron-starved tomato plants when delivered to the roots, independent of the bacterial presence. Contributor Information W. J Food Compos Anal. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria allow reduced application rates of chemical fertilizers. Microb Ecol. Use of chrome azurol S reagents to evaluate siderophore production by rhizosphere bacteria. Biol Fertil Soils. Beneficial soil microorganisms, an ecological alternative for soil fertility management.

In: Lichtfouse E, editor. Genetics, biofuels and local farming systems. Sustainable agriculture reviews. Netherlands: Springer; Iron deficiency, fruit yield and fruit quality. Iron nutrition in plants and rhizospheric microorganisms. Dordrecht: Springer; Iron utilization and metabolism in plants.

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Curr Opin Plant Biol. Microbial siderophores. Progress in the chemistry of organic natural products. Vienna: Springer; Tomato, lycopene, and prostate cancer. Preventive nutrition. Nutrition and health. Totowa: Humana Press; Uptake of 59Fe from soluble 59Fe-humate complexes by cucumber and barley plants. Plant Soil. Comparison of methods for measuring heavy metals and total phosphorus in soils contaminated by different sources.

Role of Iron in Plant Culture

Arch Agron Soil Sci. Root-microbial effects on plant iron uptake from siderophores and phytosiderophores. Pseudomonas fluorescens WCSr-induced systemic resistance in rice against Magnaporthe oryzae is based on pseudobactin-mediated priming for a salicylic acid-repressible multifaceted defense response. Plant Physiol. Role of siderophores in crop improvement. In: Maheshwari DK, editor. Bacteria in agrobiology: plant nutrient management. Berlin: Springer; Environmental factors modulating antibiotic and siderophore biosynthesis by Pseudomonas fluorescens biocontrol strains.

Appl Environ Microbiol. The use of microbial siderophores for foliar iron application studies.

Iron Nutrition in Plants and Rhizospheric Microorganisms - Google книги

Correcting iron deficiency in corn with seed row-applied iron sulfate. Agron J. Cell biology of metals and nutrients. Plant cell monographs. Chemistry and biology of siderophores. Nat Prod Rep. Fusarinines and dimerum acid, mono- and dihydroxamate siderophores from Penicillium chrysogenum , improve iron utilization by strategy I and strategy II plants.

Reduction and transport of Fe from siderophores. Aerobic degradation of ethylenediaminetetraacetate. Appl Biochem Microbiol. However, this recovery was transient and it was not maintained 30 d after the onset of Fe deficiency data not shown. As far as plant growth is concerned, all of the cucumber cultivars experienced a significant reduction in growth of the root and the aerial part under conditions of Fe deficiency Fig. To facilitate the analysis of the data related to plant nutrient acquisition, the results were presented as a function of the nutrient extraction from the shoot.

This type of data presentation was chosen because, in many cases, there were no clear differences in nutrient concentration between the root and the shoot in Fe-sufficient and Fe-deficient plants due to a concentration effect associated with the significant decrease in dry matter production for Fe-deficient plants.


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However, this decrease was not observed in the following harvest 26 d except in the case of P Fig. However, a significant increase in Fe assimilation was observed after 19 d in these plants. The same was observed in the case of Cu, but only at 16 and 26 d from the onset of the treatments Fig. Our experiments suggest that all the cucumber cultivars in this study were able to activate the main Fe-stress root responses under conditions of Fe-starvation Figs. However, time course results and the intensity of root responses were different depending on the plant cultivar, as will be discussed later.

Consequently, the four cucumber cultivars are Fe efficient, in concordance with the most widely accepted theory that relates Fe efficiency to the expression of Fe-stress root responses. Moreover, certain studies showed that some of those micronutrients could also be a substrate for the root chelate-reductase Lucena et al.

Thus, in our case, the time course and intensity of Fe-stress root responses seemed to be inversely related to the efficiency of the plant to grow under Fe starvation. This result suggests that the expression of Fe-stress root responses might be subordinated to the capacity of the plant to integrate the Fe present in the leaves in different metabolic and physiological processes Briat et al.

In summary, these results show that there was not a direct link between the Fe efficiency of the plants, according to their capacity to develop under Fe starvation, and the inferred Fe efficiency from their capacity to express the main Fe-stress root responses in the cucumber cultivars in this study. Other authors have also described this phenomenon. Thus, although a number of studies described a good relationship between the root chelate-reductase activity and the resistance to Fe deficiency in the field for soybean Glycine max L.

Jolley et al. Our results suggest the existence of two different levels of Fe efficiency in these cucumber cultivars. The first level of Fe efficiency would be related to the ability of the plant to activate the main Fe-stress root responses under Fe deficiency. This response would be focused to obtain Fe from the rhizosphere and may be controlled by the amount of Fe within the root Bienfait et al.

Then, a second level of Fe efficiency would be reflected in the optimization of the use of those Fe molecules already present in the plant. This ability would be attested by the capacity of the plant to grow and maintain physiological activity under Fe deficiency. This pattern of response is compatible with those models proposing the existence of an interrelated system involving a local signal in the root and a systemic signal related to the Fe status in the shoot for the control of Fe-stress root responses Briat, ; Vert et al.

Our results also indicate that Fe status in the shoot is mainly related to the capacity of the plant to integrate foliar Fe in metabolic processes rather than to the total Fe concentration in leaf because the four cucumber cultivars had similar Fe levels in roots and shoots at the onset of Fe starvation treatments. Regarding the nature of the signals involved in this regulatory process, a number of studies suggest that some plant regulators such as ethylene, nitric oxide, and auxin Romera et al. However, the actual role of those plant regulators remains unclear Romera et al.

More studies are required to clarify the role of those hormones in the regulation of the plant responses when expressed under conditions of Fe deficiency. Likewise, our results also show that it would be necessary to consider the expression of Fe stress root responses and the plant's ability to develop under Fe starvation for a better evaluation of Fe use efficiency in plants. Experimental design The different plant seeds were germinated in perlite irrigated with a solution containing 1 m m calcium sulfate. Parameters evaluated in the experiments The effect of Fe deficiency on plant development was evaluated through the analysis of the following parameters.

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