Gene therapy, like a car with mechanical problems, has a history of jerking to life and then quickly stalling. Fortunately, gene therapy has the benefit of a kind of roadside assistance, one that comes in the form of gene editing technology, which is becoming more precise. It can help gene therapy run more smoothly. For example, gene editing can now be used to silence or repair a faulty gene, rather than insert an entire gene into the genome. If a replacement gene is poorly placed, it can cause insertional mutagenesis.
Several forms of high-precision gene editing can give gene therapy a jump, but the most electrifying form is probably CRISPR. Besides dissecting normal and pathogenic pathways, uncovering biomarkers, and identifying drug targets, CRISPR is starting to translate into the clinic. Later this year, the trial will be extended to include patients with sickle-cell anemia.
These companies, which are focused on gene editing therapies for diseases of the eye and liver, share with Sangamo Therapeutics, Cellectis, and Bluebird Bio an interest in developing earlier forms of gene editing technology. Investigators at Exonics Therapeutics recently reported very promising preclinical data using CRISPR gene editing for treating a canine model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, in which genetic correction of the dystrophin gene appeared to restore limb function in affected King Charles spaniels, supporting advancement to the clinic.
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This cycle may ultimately bring the benefits of gene therapy to patients, including patients suffering multigene disorders. The kidney is particularly challenging to study. The early stages of kidney disease are difficult to see, and patients with advanced stages of kidney disease often have secondary complications that affect disease understanding.
Genome Editing. The Next Step in Gene Therapy.
Dialysis is crude compared to a functional organ and typically is not a long-term solution, and there is a lack of transplant organs. The Freedman laboratory helped to develop the 3D kidney organoid technology that fulfills this need. Kidney organoids are made from stem cells; multiple cell types develop in a relatively intricate nephron-like arrangement that looks similar to the types of structures seen in the kidneys.
The geometry can differ depending on growth conditions, but all kidney organoids are essentially the same regardless of the laboratory of origin. Results are reproducible from laboratory to laboratory, lending standardization and credibility. Using single-cell RNA sequencing and other tools, researchers have found that organoids naturally make about 15 of the approximately 30 types of cells within the kidney.
This makes it possible to start interrogating and identifying the pathways that are involved in constructing the kidney in a functional way and to recreate disease in the organoids. If these mutations could be corrected, a big dent would be made in the number of transplants needed. Polycystic kidney disease PKD is one of the most common genetic diseases, affecting 1 in people. PKD has few treatments and no cure, making it a good candidate for a gene therapy approach.
The genes that cause the disease are known, but it is not known how they normally work in the body. The model is shedding light on how PKD occurs at the mechanistic level, leading toward finding interventions to halt disease progression. Ideally, these disease genes should be corrected directly at their endogenous loci. Homology-directed repair HDR has low repair efficiency.
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The dominant repair pathway in cells is usually non-homologous end joining NHEJ. In theory, this repair mechanism should restore the open reading frame ORF that is disrupted by a particular disease mutation in approximately one third of the indels. Although HDR can be utilized for its precise gene repair mechanism, the efficiency is low and requires a positive selection to enrich for gene-corrected cells. Many nations banned such work, fearing it could be misused to alter everything from eye color to I. Now, the moment they feared may have come. He has not published the research in any journal and did not share any evidence or data that definitively proved he had done it.
But his previous work is known to many experts in the field, who said — many with alarm — that it was entirely possible he had. While the United States and many other countries have made it illegal to deliberately alter the genes of human embryos, it is not against the law to do so in China, but the practice is opposed by many researchers there.
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A group of Chinese scientists issued a statement calling Dr. If human embryos can be routinely edited, many scientists, ethicists and policymakers fear a slippery slope to a future in which babies are genetically engineered for traits — like athletic or intellectual prowess — that have nothing to do with preventing devastating medical conditions.
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While those possibilities might seem far in the future, a different concern is urgent and immediate: safety. The methods used for gene editing can inadvertently alter other genes in unpredictable ways. He said that did not happen in this case, but it is a worry that looms over the field. Sign up for the Science Times newsletter. He made his announcement on the eve of the Second International Summit on Human Genome Editing in Hong Kong, saying that he had recruited several couples in which the man had H.
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He said the experiment worked for a couple whose twin girls were born in November. He said there were no adverse effects on other genes. In a video that he posted, Dr. Lim Authors Search for Gregory B. Genome editing in cardiovascular diseases.
Genetic Modification, Genome Editing, and CRISPR – pgEd
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