These examples illustrate that the benefits that are sought after by means of co-design can be very diverse. Based on informal observation in diverse projects, we speculate that the people involved in co-design in service design sometimes fail to articulate precisely and realistically which specific benefits they aim to achieve. If there is a mismatch between the benefits of co-design and the project goals, there is a risk that the co-design activities produce fewer benefits than they could have realized—had the people involved articulated more precisely and realistically which benefits to aim for.
Therefore, we propose that the people involved in organizing co-design in a service design project first identify the specific goals of the project as well as the possible benefits of one or more co-design activities, and then align these goals and these benefits. In this paper, we will provide an overview of benefits of co-design in service design, which is intended to help the people involved with articulating more precisely and realistically which benefits they will aim for.
In the next section, we review some literature on the benefits of co-design and user involvement. In the section after that, we present three cases of co-design in service design projects, in order to further explore possible benefits. After that, we present an overview of different benefits of co-design in service design.
We close the paper by articulating conclusions and recommendations, and briefly discussing some ideas for future research. Alam similarly identified the following benefits of user involvement based on cases of service design : development of differentiated new services with unique benefits and better value for users, reduced development time, education of users about the use, attributes and specifications of a new service , rapid diffusion and better market acceptance, improved public relations, and better long-term relationships between service provider and customers.
Furthermore, Burns et al.
Co-design approaches are critical in transformation design because they allow people to communicate and cooperate across disciplines and between organizations. Roser and Samson also discussed ways to use the Internet to facilitate interactions between a company and its customers, not only for the design and development phases, but also for delivery and usage, i.
Using the Internet in such a manner provides additional benefits, such as being able to access and communicate with a relatively large number of people for relatively low costs. Finally, Hoyer, Chandy, Dorotic, Krafft, and Singh recently reviewed a range of benefits of co-creation, categorizing them as improving efficiency or improving effectiveness. In order to further explore different types of benefits of co-design in service design, we will discuss three projects in which the authors were involved.
The projects had different goals and different co-design approaches were followed, which enables us to discuss different types of benefits. This project, in the health care sector, aimed to develop and evaluate new service concepts, with the goal of helping people to better and more actively participate in their social networks. A second goal was to improve the user value and the validity of the concepts that were developed. In a first phase, a series of 17 guided interviews were conducted in two groups of people that were between 55 and 90 years old, from urban and rural communities, in order to jointly explore their ideas and perceptions of their social networks and the role these play in their daily lives.
In a second phase, a study of their daily lives and routines was conducted, involving eight elderly people from these 17 people , using diary studies over a period of four weeks. In a third phase, three elderly people from these eight people were invited to participate in a co-design workshop to validate the findings of the previous studies, and to identify ways in which they would like to be supported in actively participating in their social networks See Figure 1.
Figure 1. Example of one of the concepts that were developed. The first goal, to gain insider knowledge, was achieved, because we made a number of observations that helped us to change some of our implicit assumptions about the ways in which elderly people participate in their social networks. For example, we had expected them to be more isolated than they were. This led to the identification of four new themes for further research. The second goal was to improve the value and the validity of concepts.
Through co-design, we engaged in an ongoing dialogue with the elderly people that participated, which enabled us to jointly develop, verify and further develop ideas and themes, which helped us to generate valuable and validated concepts—more valuable and validated than concepts that would have been developed without interacting with users.
The process of co-design also yielded some unexpected benefits. First, the research results changed the implicit assumptions of the researchers. So, in addition to gaining new ideas or views, co-design can also help to change existing ideas or views. Other findings confirmed some initial ideas of the researchers, which helped them to feel that they were on the right track with their project.
Furthermore, the validation of concepts by users, which was possible because some elderly people participated in three subsequent phases interviews; diary studies; workshop , made the findings more convincing to people outside the project, who were not directly involved in the co-design process. Having validated the concepts enabled the researchers to more effectively present and communicate their findings and the service concepts to other people, such as project stakeholders.
The project also encountered some difficulties in the setting up and roll-out of activities. The main challenges were related to the targeted users, most of whom were of considerable age. A significant challenge lay in preparing the materials and methods in such a way that they would resonate with the participating elderly.
A test sample showed that the purpose and way of working of the diaries needed some careful explanation. An additional measure was taken to do occasional checks by telephone with the participants, to verify if there was any confusion while doing the diary exercise. Another challenge proved to be to retain a large enough user group over the envisioned series of activities.
The project consisted of three stages of co-design activities, to be done with the same users, as the activities were closely linked to each other and built upon the generated materials. This proved to be a challenge, as many participants had to abandon the project prematurely for a variety of reasons. Part of this was because of the unavailability of the participants. Another factor was that the exercises were increasingly demanding for the participants in terms of time and attention, and participants were let free to opt out at any moment along the project.
The commissioner of this project worked in a new business creation department of a large telecommunication services provider. He was looking for ways to stimulate creativity and innovation in his department and in the larger company, and developed the idea to organize co-design workshops in which children would generate innovative ideas for telecom services. Personal inspirations are mentioned 44 times. Study trips are particularly memorable events in their lives. The people with whom they traveled are also referenced.
Getting to know important architectural developments encouraged my curiosity for the built environment. For example the Van Nelle Fabriek impressed me a lot. I really liked the way it was designed. Especially the colors, columns, materials in combination with the warm weather of Spain. I was really young by that time, but at this moment my desire to study architecture started to grow. I felt the urge to do so myself.
High rise very imposing but not my main interest. Rome, the beauty of ancient city. Amsterdam and Delft. When I walked through this area I could experience both history and life, which can not be discussed separately. It is very interesting its treatment of patios and the several micro climates it creates in each space. To study this spatial arrangement has influenced me in looking to integrate nature in non-conventional schemes. The area is a visual expression of the economy, culture, identity, and architecture.
This influenced me to understand the potential of architecture in a way that it can allow these clear connections with history, cultures, landscape, and climate. In other words, an architecture of belonging. The answers to question 2. It seemed that it took students more time to identify relevant book titles. A few books that had been assigned in preceding courses such as the History of Architecture Lectures appear to have influenced the students. Whether or not they liked the book, it definitely influenced their thinking, including their design thinking. Some must-reads for architects were mentioned at least once, notably those of a more doctrinaire nature, such as writings by Alfred Loos, Siegfried Giedion, and Rem Koolhaas.
A few students also mentioned readings that were more analytical; they also use these mentions to provide insights into their interests in historical and design approaches, in the fields of materials, landscape, or feminism. I did not really like the book, however it did influence my design thinking.
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I look closer and try to notice the small things in buildings. How Architecture can respect a certain period in a culture. It changed my way of thinking about the main point of architecture. Before modern, there is no architects but craftsmen who built buildings. The spirit of craftsman is underneath the joints they show to us. Yuen Ye is a book about traditional Chinese Gardening.
Not like the western education way we get today, it shows people in the past create a garden interior with paintings etc. That the domestic life was largely influenced by the space arrangement of the houses. The architecture sometime can even be the unseen boundaries to fence the women of from the public space of the city. In the second questionnaire, students talked more and in stronger terms about readings that had inspired them. Most references to specific book titles came at the end of the course after we had specifically studied texts.
Students were really engaged and could explain why a book mattered to them, some even pointing out that it might serve them in their later careers. The Kennedy reading I found extra interesting because it studies socio-economical trends in cities and their growth which I think is critical to understand to be able to implement sustainable policies and ideas. Reading the book gave me a much better understanding, and gave me a lot of hope for the future as an architect.
I should have probably done it before by myself but it was now that I needed it for the course when I decided to do it. In answer to question 3, students give insights into different types of pedagogy and their appreciation of them. Students specify pedagogical tools they thought had learnt most from, but no clear favourite way of instruction emerges. Overall, students seem to prefer more engaging and participatory pedagogical approaches. The general conclusion seems to be that a variety of teaching approaches still is the best way to teach.
Because then you decide for yourself what you want to learn and to which extend. It is easier to keep your attention and interest then. Through this course form, we can have a deep reading and research on the topic were interested in. He tells everything very enthusiastic about history and inspires you. His lectures were great. Most times I think lectures are very old fashioned and should be abolished. I would say that a course is the most valuable when it entices its students to discuss and give their opinions on different matters, which this course accomplishes very well.
This reflection helps to provide deeper learning by looking at situations through a history lens. In the past, I thought that history lessons was just about cramming events and data about past, but this course just is more about letting students find the answers about academic issues by themselves instead of telling them standard answers directly. And I believe design practice is always the process of self-learning and on one would give you a standard answer directly and you need to find ways out by yourself.
The connection of history to studio design is a key aspect for many students that becomes even more evident in the responses to question 4. The fourth question asked whether students value history for design and the answers found here are perhaps the most powerful outcome of the research so far. The questionnaires show that the students are keenly and overwhelmingly aware of the importance of history for design.
Throughout, they underscore the importance of historical buildings, and of awareness for as a foundation for design. The existence of history is obvious and so should be present in design and architecture. We can use precedent in architecture to improve our skills. We should learn from the greatness as well as from the mistakes to find the most suitable way to design and to give the best meaning to our own work. So you could state that architecture represents its own time period.
It carries conversion at a certain area. History helps architects how to think about the precedence and the future. I can also learn from history in order not to make a wrong choice. You see stuff and you take it with you, consciously or unconsciously. We build on what is there in our own and new way. In an inspirational way, but also physical. Modern and new. This point of view has to change because they are not learning the lessons that for example vernacular architecture can teach.
You never start over again, you should always learn from your past. So in my point of view, history is the best tool for architecture design. We always focus on the design idea and urban context, pay less attention to the historic stuff. If I got the chance to receive a feedback that related to the history of the site. I would be glad to explore its past by myself. The one who know nothing about history is impossible to do designing very well. I hope to use the depth that is suggested by thoughts of history in my further design education.
Students consider historical precedents as proven principles or patterns, tested sometimes over centuries. Some also request more breadth in history teaching. There is enormous potential for critical historical investigation as a foundation for design practice. We conclude that the physical experience of architectural and urban sites, of monuments and everyday environments queried in question 1 plays an important role in student learning about history. Students are clearly inspired by visits and field trips, connecting these sites to their individual experiences travelling, hometown and studio field trips, etc.
We find that assigned books are clearly important to students the topic of question 2 : whether or not they liked the book, it definitely influenced their thinking, including their design thinking. Written sources gained in importance for student understanding of historical facts and approaches after the course. Regarding the pedagogies in architectural and urban history education question 3 we conclude that students clearly appreciate engaged teachers and more engaging and participatory pedagogical approaches. There also seems to be a relation between the form of the followed course and the preferred way of teaching.
The conclusion seems to be an expected one: that a variety of teaching approaches are the best pedagogy and that students are eager to engage with critical thinking. Regarding question 4, the meaning of history for designing, we see that students evaluate history highly; they see it as important, but the relation between history and design is often rather general and unreflective. While this is not an unexpected conclusion, it is an important one.
These questionnaires underscore the earlier finding that students are convinced of the importance of historical environments, and interested in understanding their specificities. Their response to historical environments is mostly spontaneous and unreflective. Some students have a wide range of experiences and understandings of history, historical text, and historic built environment. Of course, the study has its limitations. For example, the return rate varied between courses. Students were much more responsive when they filled out the forms in class than when asked to email the forms.
Another limit may be in the process of labeling. We tried to stay as close as possible to the findings, but to a certain extent it is always a matter of interpretation. Nonetheless, this pilot study provides a foundation for more focused research on history education at a design faculty. To improve history education in a design school, two aspects seem to be particularly important.
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In this conclusion, we can only sketch some possibilities. Writing texts and discussion enables students to assess and challenge their understanding. Pairing a limited number of assigned readings with a larger number of suggested readings—and presenting this as a treasure chest—allows students to develop at their own speed. Design students have often an affinity with visuals more than with writing. Students can learn to recognize, analyse, and compare patterns by making mental maps on a field trip, abstract schemes of historical buildings, and so on.
Asking them to do mental maps or mindmaps, that is maps that visualize their understanding of texts, to draw a mindmap before writing, or visualizing their experience in mindmaps during fieldtrips and excursions can be an important tool in preparation for critical reflection and analytical writing and as visual material for designing. It would emphasize the connection between historical thinking, spatial learning, and individual experience.
In all of these pedagogical forms, it is important to choose content carefully.
Students often react more strongly to doctrinaire texts; reading them in conjunction with a good discussion can help improve both visual knowledge and critical reflection skills. Both are needed to prepare students for their individual historical research in preparation of their studio design. The most important challenge in teaching architectural history consists of expanding beyond the pure transmission of historical knowledge to teaching students the analytical and methodological elements of historical research.
Students have to understand the development of patterns and ideas in their contexts, why these patterns and ides are valued as they are in time; and they have to be able to decide if and how these patterns and ideas can be valuable in a design situation at hand. To a certain extent history is a timeless toolbox, with an endless amount of patterns, principles, and ideas. Students have to learn to experiment with these patterns, to use, combine, and transform patterns and ideas.
At the same time, history is a context-bounded toolbox.
Students have to learn to understand patterns and ideas in their context and their conditions. Summer University: A wider view, Triennale Apeldoorn. Minor Landscape Architecture- Metropolitan farm. Research Programme Urban Landscape Architecture The Shape of Flows: Motion and Mobility in historical and contemporary park design. Metropolitan landscape characterize tion: A typo-morphological approach. London: University of East London. Delft: Delft University of Technology. Ruimteconferentie PBL Rotterdam.
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Metropolitan parks. Leidsche Rijn. TU Delft. Studios: Ulysses lens, Riverside, Monocultures, coagulating generations memorial, Problematique. At: Stadslandschappen Veld 24, Almere, the Netherlands - Sketch design, Detailed design and Contract documentation for the public spaces of a residential development in the in Almere-Buiten. Ambulance Centre Bairnsdale, Australia Landscape design for a new ambulance centre; in collaboration with Field Architects, Melbourne. Client: Ambulance Victoria Regenboogbuurt, Almere Buiten, the Netherlands - Green structure plan, Public space plan, park design, design of recreation lakes and planting design; At Bureau Alle Hosper - landscape architecture and urbanism Scheveningen Penitentiary, the Netherlands - Historic prison complex in which the buildings and grounds con-tained in the external walls required re-development.
At Bureau Alle Hosper - landscape architecture and urbanism Zonnestraal, Hilversum, The Netherlands - Reconstruction plan for the grounds of a modernist sanatorium complex designed by Jan Duiker. At Bureau Alle Hosper - landscape architecture and urbanism Zaaneiland, Zaandam, The Netherlands - Urban plan, architectural supervision and public space design for a new housing area on a former timber wharf site in the river Zaan. IJ-Oevers, Amsterdam docklands, The Netherlands - Public space development plan for network of spaces made available by redundant harbour activity on the Amsterdam waterfront.
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Kalfsbeek, architect. At Bureau Alle Hosper - landscape architecture and urbanism Amsterdam central station precinct The Netherlands, - Civic space design for station square and historic harbour front. At Bureau Alle Hosper - landscape architecture and urbanism Trompenberg, Hilversum, The Netherlands - Urban plan for intensification existing villa area.
At Bureau Alle Hosper - landscape architecture and urbanism Heerhugowaard Zuid, The Netherlands - Integral development of dwellings, recreation area and forest development and landscape masterplan. In association with Soeters-Van Eldonk Architects. Client: the municipality of Apeldoorn. At Stadslandschappen Lindenheuvel estate, Bloemendaal, The Netherlands Development plan for an his-torical estate of 50 ha in Bloemendaal.
At Stadslandschappen Riverside Park, Melbourne, Australia study for an 8 ha new metropolitan; in collaboration with Paul Carter, lab architecture studio and Karres en Brands landscape architects. Study includes Urban design framework and parkland design. Client:Moreland city council. Client: Urban Pacific corporation.