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In connecting work in the area of cognitive and metacognitive strategies, Livingston points out that both are needed for learning success. What cognitive strategies include is testing oneself for understanding of a text to see if learning goals have been achieved. Metacognitive strategies come into play as experiences before or after a cognitive activity when the learner recognizes that he or she has failed to understand something they have read or listened to and then choosing to rectify the situation by thinking about their own thinking and learning processes and what can be changed to achieve learning goals.

Livingston states the following as how these strategies work together p. Metacognitive and cognitive strategies may overlap in that the same strategy, such as questioning, could be regarded as either a cognitive or a metacognitive strategy depending on what the purpose for using that strategy may be. For example, you may use a self-questioning strategy while reading as a means of obtaining knowledge cognitive , or as a way of monitoring what you have read metacognitive.

Because cognitive and metacognitive strategies are closely intertwined and dependent upon each other, any attempt to examine one without acknowledging the other would not provide an adequate picture. The field advanced at that point by defining knowledge as metacognitive when actively used in a strategic manner to ensure that a goal is met—by providing direct instruction in learning strategies so that teachers can help improve the self-confidence and achievement of their students especially the educationally disadvantaged cf.

Weinstein, A metacognitive strategy would then consider a person variable, a task variable, and a strategy variable. Further elaborations of the learning strategies that proved most effective for a variety of learners were provided by Borkowski et al.

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Most of the studies focused on learning strategies while reading, with some emphasis on motivation and metacognitive strategies for enhancing comprehension of what was read Palincsar, ; Palinscar and Brown, ; Brown, Scott Paris, however, refocused attention on differences between reading comprehension skills and the will to read cf. Paris and Lindauer, ; Paris et al. Most researchers in the early years looked for general classes of learning strategies that could enhance learning in training and educational settings.

A stimulus for much of the early military research on learning strategies was Don Norman Norman, , , ; Lindsay and Norman, , He was among the first to find that learning strategies could be generalized across diverse content areas for young children through adults. More importantly, Norman Norman and Rumelhart, ; Norman, identified holistic learning strategies that college students could be taught to improve their academic success.

Some learning strategies researchers were concerned more specifically with memory and reading comprehension e. Bloom , later built on some of these ideas in creating his own taxonomy of learning strategies and approaches for children of different ages and stages of development.

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Others applied cognitive psychology to helping students learn strategies for remembering, learning, and understanding cf. Bransford and Heldmeyer, At the same time, the specific strategies needed for success in domain-specific areas such as reading and mathematics were described by Weinstein , Derry , Paris , Paris and Winograd , and Zimmerman The practical application of this integration of learning strategies interventions was on my research agenda during these years and resulted in a book series for the American Psychological Association APA Books entitled Psychology in the Classroom.

More than 14 books were commissioned by editors Dr. We each worked with an elementary, middle, and high school practicing teacher with the objective to produce practical guidelines and strategies for classroom implementation. The series continues to be relevant today and is sold to teachers across the US and world.

We met initially in and worked collaboratively to develop a series of online modules for teacher certification through , after which time our online modules were programmed for teacher use. This module takes into consideration the holistic nature of individual student learning and the most effective practices for helping them develop into autonomous and responsible learners. In addition to the research reported above, there have been only a few major learning strategies research reviews that update the field from through the present. Findings from these reviews are briefly summarized, twenty-first century research leaders are identified, and research themes are identified.

Highlights from pioneer researcher and innovator, Claire Ellen Weinstein, are presented. The section ends with a view of how the field has evolved to the present. One of the last major reviews of research in the learning strategies area was done by Nambiar The focus of this review was to capture what had been the origins of the learning strategies research area as well as significant findings. This was an important paper for those who were just beginning to explore various content-specific and more general strategies for helping students learn more effectively from early school years into adulthood.

In his review, the origins were traced to the field of cognitive psychology from to , after which the research on learning strategies became more diverse and more revealing in its findings. He acknowledged among the earliest contributors Dansereau , Rigney , Wesche , and Weinstein What Nambiar does not report is that during this same time period, Weinstein and colleagues Weinstein et al.

The LASSI has been revalidated and revised several times since and has been used in international studies with college students, recently by Magno , with college students from different university in the Philippines. It was Weinstein and Mayer who believed that information processing could help us understand the role of learning strategies in the learning process in a four-stage encoding process involving selection, acquisition, construction, and integration.

They suggested that the process of selection and acquisition focuses on the gathering of knowledge while construction and integration focuses on what knowledge is acquired and how it is organized. This was a major step forward for the field, and helped researchers focus on the role of metacognitive, motivational, and affective processes in enhancing student learning. Strategic learning was found by Ertmer and Newby to be a characteristic of expert learning wherein learners can clearly realize their individual advantages and disadvantages regarding all aspects of strategies to enable them to better manage their learning.

However, in online learning environments, it is often more time and effort consuming for students to decompose a task into a sequence of subtasks in order to plan and manage their own online learning. In addition, choosing meaningful information from the Internet and integrating it into learning domains can present another challenge for all online learners. Online environments also challenged students in learning to learn skills such as articulation and reflection, planning skills, study skills, finding and applying relevant examples, and self-evaluation. The technological aspects of Internet-based learning environments were unfamiliar to particularly disadvantaged or developmentally challenged students.

As a result, modifying the construct of strategic learning of Weinstein and Weinstein and McCombs became necessary and provided an impetus for the latest version of the LASSI Weinstein et al. Additional reviews were reported by Oxford , , with the suggestion that there is a system of strategies that support each other in categories of direct and indirect learning strategies. In this system, direct strategies include memory, cognitive, and compensation strategies while indirect strategies include social, affective, and metacognitive strategies.


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In all, there are further divisions in 19 sets of strategies that cover 62 behaviors that help explain how learners learn. Nambiar pointed out that this is problematic because a many of the behaviors are overlapping and make it difficult to identify which strategies and behaviors are most important to learning and b the behaviors cannot be attributed to any particular theory of learning. Nonetheless, Oxford reported that the system provided the foundation for the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning used in major studies around the world.

In more applied research reviews, Seifert described how learning strategies can be used in the classroom. He acknowledged that much research had been conducted on domain-specific problem solving and other learning strategies but focused his discussion on generalizable strategies that were well-researched and had been demonstrated to enhance memory while also generalizing across content domains and a wide age range from grade three through university undergraduates.

These studies altered student behavior using direct instruction, self-instruction, and reciprocal instruction. Maximum learning gains were realized when students spontaneously engaged in appropriate strategy use, leading Seifert to suggested that teachers not only need to teach students various strategies for enhancing learning but also need to explain to students why and when these strategies are most effective. Much of the work done in the s in learning strategy research was in helping to identify good learning strategies and ultimately compile a list of such strategies.

Cohen argued that a close look at the parallels between the work done in cognitive psychology and learning strategies shows that some of the work done with learning strategies in the area of language learning also has some theoretical base in cognitive theory. Cohen concludes despite research in the early s, the vast research conducted on identifying strategies and compiling lists of characteristics of good language learners found a need to examine any similarities or differences in these characteristics in the non-English-speaking world.

Finally, a big movement through the s was research on social and emotional intelligence. As reported recently by one of the early leaders in this field, Goleman laid out steps for enhancing emotional intelligence e. Researching how well programs for teaching these general skills work has shown highly successful results even as much as 7 years later according to Harvard researchers who tracked people longitudinally and found the skills retained their strength as reported by others with whom they now work Weissberg and Greenberg, ; Zins et al.

We see in the next section that indeed newer research continues these successful results. In recent years, several trends are worth noting in both theoretical and empirical or applied research.

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From my vantage point, one of the most important trends is formulating a strong theoretical foundation based on a whole person approach to basic and applied learning strategies research. In my own research, it has been essential to define the perspective of the self in learning to learn more effectively in a lifespan that covers preschool through adult years cf. McCombs, a , , , a , b , c , , , a , b , ; McCombs and Marzano, , ; McCombs and Whisler, Much of my research has focused on the motivational, affective, and relational strategies that students can employ to help generate the will to learn when they feel or believe they have lost their love of learning in schools.

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This trend is also revealed in research selectively reported here since the mids. Throughout the s, constructivism and social constructivism were conceptual frameworks guiding and shaping new instructional approaches that emphasized the social and cultural context of cognition Duffy and Cunningham, For Jonassen , , social interaction was crucial in the learning process and should lead to collaboration.

He advocated this specific approach to learning and instruction in designing computer-based learning environments. Ames , Pintrich , and Pintrich et al. Within the social constructivist learning theory, Driscoll also suggested that learning is enhanced when students are actively involved in the learning and when critical thinking is promoted through applied and reflective activities. Collaborative problem-based learning was recommended to help students develop skills such as teamwork, collaboration, and cooperation along with critical thinking through the analysis, synthesis, evaluation, and reflection while solving authentic problems in interactive and cooperative forms of learning, which encourage students to develop team skills, such as peer interaction and help.

In particular, Anderman described how motivation theories drastically changed after the mids with an emphasis on social-cognitive theories of motivation. Other researchers studying motivation from different theoretical orientations focused on linking student motivation and self-regulated learning strategies at the college level e.

Pintrich and Zusho addressed the persistent problem of college student motivation at all levels of the postsecondary system, including that students do not seem to care about their work, seem more interested in the course content, only care about their grades but not learning, procrastinate, and try to study for an exam at the last minute, or try to write a paper the day before it is due. Pintrich and Zusho provided an overview of current research on college student motivation and self-regulated learning, along with insights and suggestions for learning strategies interventions such as helping students be more organized and exerting more effort when they do not perform very well.

Around the same time, international researchers Zhu et al. Parallel e-learning environments for first year, Flemish and Chinese students were implemented, and student perceptions of the online collaborative learning environment and their motivation and learning strategies were measured before and after the e-learning experience were measured.

The findings showed that the Flemish group perceived the online collaborative learning environment more positively compared to the Chinese group. Zhu et al. The study of how children over time develop social and emotional skills was a topic of recent ongoing 8-year study by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD, This longitudinal study also sought to a identify future outcomes, including educational attainment, labor market, health status, relationships, and civic engagement; b understand how investments made by families, schools, and communities influence the development of skills; and c develop recommendations and measurement tools for policymakers and practitioners to better monitor and enhance social and emotional skills.

Cities studied are members and non-members of OECD, and the populations studied are children in grades 1—7 of the approximate ages of 6— This study will follow the lives of a large number of children starting from grades 1 and 7 until early adulthood by collecting information on social—emotional skills, learning contexts, and future outcomes. Other current research on social and emotional skills is reported in a new book by Elias et al.

Their research products include guided exercises for analyzing existing report cards, samples and suggested report card designs, tips on improving communication with parents, and case studies highlighting common challenges. There are testimonials from teachers and students reflecting all of the important characteristics of an educational system geared to student success in developing the skills they need for the future.

Greenberg has recently described emotion-focused therapy EFT and the adaptive role of emotion in human functioning. Research shows that the EFT approach leads to enduring change in effective emotional well-being. For those suffering from anxiety disorders, this theory and its constructs demonstrate one way in which early attempts to reduce anxiety through learning strategies interventions have evolved e. A recent critical look at how personalized learning has evolved and is likely to change in the future was undertaken by Bushweller Bushweller claims that personalized learning has not made the impact expected in the s and early s.

Schools that have adopted a personalized learning approach still look like traditional schools did 5—10 years ago when digital tools were available but were not extensively used to individualize or tailor instruction to the strengths and weaknesses of individual students. Bushweller states this is due in part to educational and technological challenges of designing rigorous curricula and assessments around individual student interests.

The result is the definition of what constitutes a quality education is narrowed, and the power of outcomes such as purposeful and meaningful learning, personal growth, creativity, self-exploration, citizenship, and collaborative orientation are overlooked. Kaplan argues that research on the role of motivation in student achievement has become political, highlighting the need to design studies: a capturing the complex contextual and dynamic nature of this phenomena and b using rigorous methodologies grounded in validated theoretical assumptions that give the research a higher ideological or ethical foundation.

Others who have moved their focus on holistic learning strategies into the digital age include Don Norman Norman, ; Norman and Stappers, These researchers are now exploring complex human-centered sociotechnical systems, including education, healthcare, transportation, governmental policy, and environmental protection. They concluded that the major challenges stem not from trying to understand or address the issues but arise during implementation, when political, economic, cultural, organizational, and structural problems overwhelm all else.

It is suggested that designers play an active implementation role and develop solutions with small, incremental steps to reduce political, social, and cultural disruptions. Others, myself included, have argued that rather than trying to make and measure incremental change, it is more promising to optimize the design with learner-centered principles and practices cf. For the overall field of learning strategies, it is clear that within a whole learner perspective, learners of all ages and backgrounds seek to find meaning in what they are learning and personally generate their own meaning when needed or when effort is required cf.

McCombs, The role of the self was emerging as a growing area of interest during the s and s as discussed, especially by those researchers interested in self-regulated or self-directed learning e. The current ongoing interest in self-assessments can be seen in a recent paper from the Educational Testing Service by Witherspoon et al. This paper demonstrates the interest in innovative ways to assess the teaching practice of leading classroom discussion LCD in its National Observational Teaching Examination assessment series.

In this assessment, candidates interact with a small class of virtual students represented by avatars in a computer-based, simulated classroom. Five avatars are enacted by a single simulation specialist who has been trained and certified on an elementary English language arts or mathematics task. The construct of LCD is defined and a review of the research and scholarly literature provided that supports the importance of this self-assessment practice for effective teaching. Other studies of similar innovative approaches to studying the whole learner with twenty-first century technology continue to surface daily, making them too numerous to bring to this already lengthy review.

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McCombs, a , a , b ; Mills, These theoretical orientations place the person at the center of the learning paradigm but more importantly emphasize the importance of innate psychological needs competence, control, and agency and working from an inside-out perspective when facilitating learning. Placing the responsibility for learning on the learner while at the same time, understanding that to be motivated by a will to learn, the context must attend to how much learner control is present, whether relationships are caring and supportive, and whether opportunities are present to develop competence in areas that matter to the learner.

These practices are based on foundational principles of learning. International work begun two decades ago with a wave of student voice research surfaced in the s and early s e. At the same time, many US researchers were providing theoretical and applied self-theories and theories of self-regulated learning e. These outcomes included increases in student creativity, teamwork, collaboration, problem solving, and academic achievement.

Other influential researchers from the UK such as Sir Ken Robinson 1 lobby for educational systems that are learner centered and accept the assumptions of innate curiosity, love of learning, and need for autonomy and control in the learning process. These researchers are making popular the concept of a major education paradigm shift, as are some of our US researchers, including David Berliner Berliner, , ; Tobias et al.

Reigeluth, ; Reigeluth et al. In communications and collaborations with these researchers, I have accepted the legitimacy and importance of taking the applied research results from learner-centered educational paradigms to the public, aiming to influence policy and practice. In my immediate circle of professional friends and colleagues, well-recognized academic researcher Harter , , , whose lifelong study of the developing self, has been a major contributor to my own thinking and research on the role of the self in self-regulated earning strategies.

Reigeluth et al. They also address and update what instructional design theories and models can contribute to our understanding of what constitutes a personalized integrated educational system. If developed fully, Reigeluth maintains that this platform can support the implementation of all five learner-centered principles: attainment-based instruction, task-centered instruction, personalized instruction, changed roles, and changed curriculum.

Taking these integrated, personalized learning system views to another level, there are a number of researchers in the private and public sectors arguing for the globalization of education and the use of advanced artificial intelligence, virtual reality, and robotic technologies e. The basic argument is that these systems will be more efficient and effective, reducing teacher workloads and allowing students to take increasing responsibility and control over their own learning any time and any place.

For example, Vander Ark a , b presents a case for robotic teachers who focus on relationships but do not get tired. Despite this case, teachers and human relationships still matter—as they did in the s as part of our studies for the military cf. The evolution of learning strategies research in basic and applied areas is a complex one that has branched into what are now fairly well-defined specialties. A fifth-grade classroom in Louisville, KY, USA is described where students practice twice weekly peaceful activities such as relaxation exercises that focus them for 45 min on the present moment.

Children have been noted to be highly anxious and stressed out, having trouble paying attention, and worried about bullying. The conference featured thought leaders in technology, academia, education, and policy leading discussions on the latest evidence-based global trends and opportunities in education. In listening to these presentations, it becomes clear that the field of learning strategies research is evolving nationally and internationally in novel, dynamic, transformative, and innovative ways.

How research data on individual student and contextual levels are being used to inform the science of learning is a major focus with a variety of principles and warnings about the role of high quality designs for learning systems and personalized educational interventions using technology. Using the body of knowledge, we already have about student learning and the strategies that best promote learning at deep levels was an organizing theme of this conference. A primary area of concern was how to refine our interventions for increasingly diverse students with more than cognitive learning needs —an exciting contribution of this gathering.

The most important finding in the huge page report was that a single student attitude factor showed a stronger relationship to achievement than all the school factors combined. This factor was how strongly students believed they could control their own destinies and those impoverished minority students who did feel they could control their destinies had higher levels of achievement than white students who lacked these convictions.

Later studies confirmed these findings e. These finding have been replicated in my own work with San Antonio College over 5 years, — McCombs, , , a , b , ; McCombs and Price, along with lower dropout rates for students in learner-centered compared to non-learner-centered classrooms. Motivational variables that most predicted retention and academic grades included academic self-efficacy, achievement goal orientation, low effort avoidance strategies, and knowledge seeking curiosity. Another specialization emerging today is how to engage learners in digital learning environments , including data-driven, information management, and dynamic learning systems.

There has been a big push for at least two decades both in the US and globally for using technology and digital learning environments in ways that personalize what students learn. One of the most recent was presented in a special report in Education Week on how personalized learning addresses the next generation of learners cf. Bushweller, The biggest issue per Bushweller is that teachers are not eager to change the way they teach and develop new kinds of curricula and assessments with current demands for teaching to common core standards assessed by state and national standardized tests.

What the research says is discussed by Harold who maintains that despite the millions spent privately and nearly half a billion publicly to support the movement to more personalized K—12 education, evaluations have provided little conclusive evidence of the benefits of such systems.

Issues revolve around how personalized learning is defined, the contexts in which such systems are implemented, and the types of software systems that support teacher efforts to provide learning materials tailored to individual student needs within and across different content areas. A sixth area is biological and neuroscience applications. In this area, Mayer , , , has continued the research of his colleague, Merl Wittrock, and continued to explore how brain research can inform our approaches to learning and instruction. In his recent review, Mayer explores how neuroscience has the potential for improving educational practice if viewed as linking conceptually with cognitive science, educational psychology, and educational practice.

Finally, adaptive or individualized educational systems for meeting the needs of an increasingly diverse student population including those with developmental or socioemotional learning issues. One of the early pioneers of the learning strategies movement, Alexander , was honored recently by the Benchmark Center for Empowered learning for her significant contributions to how curriculum and instruction is informing their professional development seminars. As a cautionary note, Scott points out that although the promise of personalization is there with the right approach to technology interventions, gadgets in the classroom do not improve learning—addressing the needs of individual learners is a complex interaction of students, teachers, and technology tools.

In looking back at the roots of the adaptive learning systems that were part of my graduate school education at Florida State University in the late s and early s, the most influential work was being done by Benjamin Bloom Bloom et al. We were ahead of the times in studying adaptive learning systems, systems and instructional design models, and strategies for enhancing learning in computer-based learning environments. A look where more than 50 years of military research has revealed about the myth of average is provided by Perez who argues that we now know there is no average learner and systems must adapt instruction to learner variability from the start.

Some of the latest findings from neuroscience and brain imaging studies have further challenged the idea of average in relation to how the brain learns. Perez also contends that despite existing evidence, the trend toward personalized education is being resisted by all but innovative educators. Schools continue to design education around an average learner in one-size-fits-all learning approaches. He argues for a universal design system that uses the latest developments in technology to make the implementation of adaptive instructional strategies easier for educators to adopt.

Similarly, Scott warns that big data and learning management systems may help in the implementation of personalized learning but they can also interfere with the human touch needed from teachers, peers, and others that connect with digital natives in our twenty-first century schools and prevent the shallow learning that may occur. My own work over more than 25 years, aimed at examining learning strategies through the lens of learner-centered principles and practices, has led to an advocacy for ecologically sound systems that use degree evaluation methodologies cf.

McCombs, a , b , This review has provided another lens through which to examine the research directions and major findings emerging in educational psychology as the field. What is evident from basic and applied learning strategies research is that the concepts, contexts, and communities of practice have grown, debated, and changed directions. But overall, this research area has become more well integrated into the national and international dialog, research partnerships, and collaborations with culturally diverse researchers, practitioners, and policymakers.

It is clear from this selective historical review of theory, research, and practice with a growing yet simplified list of interacting and overlapping learner variables that the field and concept of learning strategies has grown in importance and visibility. Many ongoing studies using complex mixes of student populations, their teachers, and their families or other mixed age, gender, and grade level groups show that students thrive as whole persons when they perceive they are in learning environments with supportive on- or offline mentors and tools to become self-motivated, self-regulating learners in both traditional and progressive school contexts.

We can confidently assert that learning strategies research will continue to evolve into a more coherent and robust field of study that is being joined by experts from cognitive science as well as related fields such as neuroscience, human development, sociology, health or medicine, economics, organizational psychology, business, and even anthropology. The question is where is the field now and where are we going?

The original definition of cognitive and information processing experts doing research in military training contexts more than 50 years ago still holds today cf. Dobrovolny et al. Within the constructivist theoretical framework selected for defining instructor roles in , the basic assumption in CMI systems captured what we know today: the student is responsible for his or her own learning. Given that this assumption had and continues to have implications for what instructors or teachers of students in all age groups are taught about their primary roles, instructors in this course learned that specifically students are expected to be responsible for attentive and motivated, making learning meaningful by the appropriate use of learning strategies and skills, initiating their own self-directed or self-paced learning, interacting effectively with both their peers and their instructors, and setting appropriate course and life goals McCombs et al.

In our more recent work with online learning environments, my colleagues and I have focused on the extent that students having learning problems in synchronous or asynchronous learning environments or are unable to effectively exercise the above responsibilities McCombs and Vakili, ; Hannum and McCombs, ; McCombs, Thus, within the Learning Facilitator Instructor Role, a major training goal included familiarizing instructors with the kinds of cognitive, attentional, and motivational processes and strategies that are associated with effective, responsible, goal-oriented, and self-competent student learning.

What also continues to hold true is the need for teachers or instructors in training contexts to address both the function of learning management and facilitation of learning as defined early on by our research on instructor role training interventions in computer-based environments evaluated in Air Force, Army, Navy, and Marine Corp training environments Carver et al. Similarly, in public and private K—12 and college educational contexts, those advocating personalized learning argue that technology is a tool but not a substitute for good teachers and good teaching practices that include teaching critical thinking and other proven learning strategies e.

An interesting set of commentaries has recently appeared in the literature that questions the research methods and federally required criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of replicable educational interventions. Some of the most recent Editorial Projects in Education Research Center, ; Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, ; Layton, ; Malouf and Taymans, have questioned whether findings of little or no impact from recent goals set forth in the No Child Left Behind, What Works Clearinghouse, or Race to the Top acts are a function of too much reliance on credible evidence-based methods and experimental approaches that may in fact mask real effects uncovered by more collaborative and qualitative findings e.

For example, in the early days of individualized computer-based training interventions or self-paced instructional approaches, an over-reliance on linear modeling or factor analytic versus self-report assessments or observational research methods was a theme of methodologists such as Glaser, ; Atkinson and Shiffrin, ; Wang, , , ; Resnick and Wang, ; Chu and Schramm, ; Cronbach, ; Snow, , ; Cronbach and Snow, ; Snow et al.

These school reform models led researchers to question the reliance of program evaluations on methodologies that put little value in non-randomized single case or correlational studies demonstrating larger effect sizes than those of large scale matched control studies cf. On the gratifying end, is how learning strategies are now defined. Mayer , , later specifically defined these strategies as behaviors of a learner that are intended to influence how the learner processes information.

Self-regulation Zimmerman, , describes how individuals manage their personal learning process, especially how to plan, monitor, focus on, and evaluate their own learning. These early definitions from the educational literature reflect the roots of learning strategies in cognitive science, with its essential assumptions that human beings process information and that learning involves such information processing. Other researchers e. Thus, a mix of learning strategies is recommended for use in the learning and teaching math, science, history, languages, and other subjects, in classroom or online learning settings and more informal learning environments.

The s work was tied closely to cognitive psychology and the later research distinguished different groups of strategies. The work in the s simply forged ahead with lists of strategies used by successful learners and did not ground the work in theory. Researchers in the s made profitable use of such reliable strategy lists and set out to conduct research investigating the factors that impacted the use of learning strategies.

This applied research focus continues through the present time and has emerged in recent studies in both traditional and digitally mediated contexts with results supporting a whole child, holistic view of what constitutes the ideal learning environment cf. McCombs, , , a , , a , b , ; Reigeluth and Garfinkle, ; Reigeluth et al. The model framework has four dimensions of characteristics of e-learning environments and three core domains perceived-skill, affection, and self-regulation of student e-learning strategies.

To elevate the empirical value of the LASSI for a wide range of young adults, Cano conducted an in the in-depth analysis to validate the LASSI, which involved conceptually grouping LASSI subscales into three categories: affective strategies, goal strategies, and comprehension monitoring strategies. These three main categories were then shown to be involved in what Weinstein called strategic learning that she validated in diverse learning contents and content areas. Thus, modifying the construct of strategic learning of Weinstein became necessary and provided an impetus for the latest version of the LASSI Weinstein et al.

Weinstein is included as Supplementary Material at the end of this article. From this selective but broadly based historical review of learning strategies research over the past more than 50 years it is clear that the field is thriving. Invitational conferences were held that included well-known researchers and graduate students who were identifying various study and other learning strategies in their doctoral programs.

It led to exploring computer-based individualized instructional modeling based on complex empirical algorithms and heuristics predicting learning and training task performance Parkhurst and McCombs, Those who began and continued researching learning strategies are now leaving research legacies to their graduate students, institutions, researchers, and practitioners at large. This historical review revealed that a focus on metacognition is one unifying theme. Metacognitive strategies have continued to prove effective for diverse student populations and language learners, with findings that support both general learning strategies and task-specific strategies.

A second unifying theme is a focus on the whole learner and on interventions that address cognitive, metacognitive, affective, physical, cultural, and social needs. Learner-centered principles and practices are becoming more widely used in both traditional and more innovative digital environments that recognize the value of close mentoring relationships and caring support as well as collaborative, culturally responsive, rigorous learning goals, and shared responsibility and accountability for student learning success. Major theoretical orientations continue to be based in cognitive science but are increasingly being linked to other sciences such as motivational psychology, social and emotional intelligence, neuro-psychology, brain studies, and a variety of social and engineering sciences.

Researchers looking at military training and psychological issues such as the growing number of post-traumatic stress disorders and suicides among enlisted and returning military personnel are also a direction where current learning strategies research holds promise. Many of the effective interventions for military personnel may also be of value in addressing growing stress and emotional disorders among adolescents, including the rising suicide rate in middle and high school population nationally and internationally. The field is likely to grow and expand into the future with ongoing needs to further refine and design learning strategies that meet the needs of learners in an increasing complex and diverse nation and world.

It is gratifying to know that the learning strategies research field has found favor and funding during my professional career and is still growing and expanding into new and exciting twenty-first century areas. It is even more gratifying know that a dear friend and colleague—Dr.

Claire Ellen Weinstein—was one of the main contributors during her lifetime in the learning strategies research and practice arena. BLM is the primary author of this manuscript. She provides a historical review covering 50 years of learning strategies research, filling gaps not covered in other recent reviews. The review also provides a tribute to Dr. Claire Ellen Weinstein who passed in June for her pioneering work on learning strategies that is included as a Supplementary Material to this review. The author declares that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

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Howard, G. A persuasive case has been made on how business leaders can continually reinvent their companies. I find the case studies compelling and the principles vital for business leaders. The value of this book is the practical and illustrative way that the authors address transformation challenges, using examples that are relevant and relatable to the managerial challenges faced, whatever the type of organization.

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